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Robert O. Law Company 
1917 -,^ 






R 1©27 X. 

Copyright, 1917, by B. J. Griswold 


THE probability that the scattered fragments of the story of 
Fort Wayne otherwise would be lost to the children of to- 
morrow suggested the writing of this book. 

It is a narrative worthy of preservation — a story to inspire that 
true love of home which is the foundation of the purest patriotism 
and citizenship. 

The record begins with the appearance of the first adventurous 
Frenchman among the savages of ancient Kekionga and closes with 
the story of the departure of Fort Wayne's patriotic sons for the 
blood-stained battlefields of France, there to give their lives that 
the world may be made "safe for democracy." Three centuries 
intervene. The search for the actors in the great drama has un- 
covered many new names and heroic deeds ; it is with pride that we 
introduce them now. 

If "the love of country is the highest and purest affection of the 
soul," let us implant that love in the lives of our youth through the 
re-telling of the story of the deeds which have made possible the 
blessings of today. 

The writer of this book came to Fort Wayne in 1903, "a stranger 
in a strange land," knowing naught of the romantic story which 
soon was revealed to him through the study of written and un- 
written fragments and the narratives of the representatives of the 
"first families." Someone, he felt, should gather these disconnected 
facts into a comprehensive whole. Convinced that the task might 
be deferred until too late to save the fading, crumbling records, he 
determined to make the work a personal undertaking — not with 
the impossible result of producing a literary treasure but with the 
hope that the desired end would overshadow the faultiness of the 
means of expression. 

With my earnest thanks to all the friends who have given 
unsparing assistance in the preparation of the book, I dedicate it 
to the service of a more firmly grounded love of home and country. 

Fort Wayne, Indiana, ^^ ^ jg v^ 

August 15, 1917. ' ^4A^^^^--<.^L.^.>--o--tJ^^^^~^^ 


Abbott, William T 442 

Allen, Colonel John 201 

Anderson, Calvin 390 

Aveline, Francis S 243 

Ayres, Dr. Henry P 354 


Bailey, Peter P 351 

Barbour, Myron F 324 

Harnett, James 247 

Bass, Colonel Sion S 457 

Bavless, Sol D 351 

Benoit, Rt. Rev. Julian 356 

Berghoff, Henry C 660 

Bigger, Governor Samuel 393 

Bird, Ochmig 427 

Borden, Judge James W 341 

Bourie, Louis T 438 

Bourie, Mrs. Louis 227 

Brackenridge, Judge Joseph.. 301 

Brandrifl, Alfred D 417 

Brenton, Samuel 394 

Brooks, Dr. William H 358 


Carson, Judge William W 285 

Case, Charles 400 

Cass, General Lewis 367 

Celeron, Bienville de 47 

Chapeteau, Angeline 176 

Champlain. Samuel de 27 

Chapman, John 371 

Colerick, David H 297 

Comparet, Francis .■ 247 

Croghan, Major George 201 


Dawson, John W 341 

Dawson, Judge Reuben J. - . .310 
Denny, Major Ebenezer ..... 192 

Drake, Moses, Jr 458 

DuBois, John B 3.54 

Edgerton, Alfred P 446 

EdKerton. Joseph K 3S6 

Edsall, Samuel 267 

Edsall, William S 267 

Elskwatawa 182 

Engelmann, Mrs. Archangel. .3.56 

Evans, S. Cary 192 

Ewing, Charles W 262 

Ewing, Colonel George W 262 

Ewing, Judge William G. . . .259 

Fairfield, Captain Asa 324 

Fay, Judge James A 442 

Ferry, Lucien P 307 

Ferry, Mrs. Lucien P 225 

Fleming, WUliam 417 

Fry, Jacob 304 


Girty, Simon 77 

Grice, Jesse 560 

Griffith, Captain William 211 

Griggs, Mrs. Jane T 285 

Griswold, Mrs. Angeline 176 


Hamilton, Allen 259 

Hamilton, Andrew Holman ..416 

Hanna, Colonel Hugh 271 

Hanna, Judge Samuel 243 

Hanna, Robert B 193 

Harding, Daniel F 560 

Harmar, General Josiah 9S 

Harrison, William Henry 211 

Heald, Mrs. Rebekah Wells. . .178 

Hedekin, Michael 310 

Higgins, C. R 193 

Hoagland, Pliny 380 

Holman, Joseph 271 

Hosey, William J 560 

Humphrey, Colonel George. . .455 

Hunt, John Elliott 192 

Hu.xford, Dr. Merchant W. ...306 

Jenkinson, Major Joseph 218 

"Johnnie Appleseed" 371 

Johnson, Colonel Richard M. .218 

Johnston, Colonel John 169 


Kamm, John J 487 

Kaough, William 193 

Keil, Frederick W 193 

Kil-so-quah 180 

King, William 449 

Kiser, Peter 353 


LaFontaine, Chief Francis 3.50 

LaSalle, Sieur de 29 

Lasselle, Hyacinth 71 

Lawton, General Henrv W 455 

Little Turtle 162 

Lotz, Henry 367 


Mc.Tunkin, Alexander 425 

McCuUoch, Judge Hugh 316 


Maier, John G 3S6 

Me-te-a 180 

Miller, Edward C 193 

Miner, Bvron D 327 

Morgan, Oliver P 316 

Morss, Samuel E 503 

Morss, Samuel S 394 

Muhler, Charles F 560 

Munson, Charles .\ 503 

Nelson, I. D. G 327 

Noel, Smalwood 274 

Nuttman, James D 452 


Oakley, Chauncey B 560 


Page, William D 193 

Parker, Christian 316 

Peltier, James C 176 

Peltier, Louis C 176 

Peltier, Mrs. James 176 

Peltier, William H. W 176 

Pontiac 61 

"Prophet, The" 182 


Randall, Franklin P 346 

Randall, Pcrrv A 561 

Reed, Colonel Hugh B 452 

Revarre, Anthony, Jr 176 

Richard\-ille, Chief 233 

Rockhill, William 280 

Rockhill, Wright W 193 

Rudisill, Henry 297 


St. Clair, General Arthur 114 

Scherer, Henrv P 560 

Schmitz, Dr. Charles E 335 

Smart, James H 478 

Smith, William S 417 

Stapleford, Edward 304 

Stockbridge, Nathaniel P 367 

Sturgis, Dr. Charles E 386 

Suttenfleld, Mrs. Laura ,225 

Swinney, Colonel Thomas W. .255 

Taber, Cyrus 241 

Tecumseh 18J 

Tigar, Thomas 320 

Tipton, General .John 255 


Van Geisen, Munson 400 

Vermilvea, Jesse 275 

Wallace, Governor David ....405 
Wayne, Major Gen. Anthony 

(Frontispiece), 123 

Wells, Captain William 165 

Wells, Jane T 285 

M'ells, Rebekah 178 

\^'histler, George Washington. 231 

Whistler, Major John 233 

WTiite Loon 176 

Whitlock, Major Ambrose 131 

Williams. .Jesse L 320 

Wood, George W 3.35 

Woodworth, Dr. B. S .390 

Worden, Judge .Tames L 400 

Zollinger. Colonel Charles A.. 405 


Maumee-Wabash Portage • 20 

How the Rivers Were Made 21 

Where the Mastodon Roamed 23 

Where the Mound Builders Lived 23 

Three Main Water Routes 26 

Earliest Maps Showing the Rivers 28 

Where the First French Forts Stood 34 

Where the Last French Fort Stood 43 

Notable Voyage of Celeron 49 

Revolution in the West 69 

Northwest Territory 79 

Where Miami Town Stood 85 

Harmar's Ford 99 

Map of Fort Wa.rae Site, Drawn in 1790 100 

Harmar's Operations 105 

Battle of the Site of Fort Wavne, 1790 109 

St. Clair's Battlefield 116 

Where St. Clair's Army Was Slaughtered. . .117 
Map Showing the Movements of General 

Wa.vne's Army (1793-4) 125 

Wayne's Route -Mong the Maumee 126 

Battlefield of Fallen Timber . . - 129 

Wayne Trace 133 

Where the Two Stockaded Forts were Lo- 
cated 139 

Waj-ne County in 1796 146 

Fort Wayne and Surroundings, Map of Major 

Wliistler 156-157 

First Government Survey of the Region of 

Fort Wayne 160-161 

Greenville Treaty Boundary Line 169 

Where Little Turtle is Buried 177 

Where the Fort Dearborn Massacre Occurred. 182 

Captain Wells's Farm 186 

Map of the Siege of Fort Wa.\Tie, 1812 207 

Harrison's Movements Before and After the 

Siege 209 

Where Major Jenkinson's Men Were Mas- 
sacred 220 

Indian Reservations in Allen Conty 239 

Historic Spots in Spy Run 241 

Original Area of Allen County 252 

Riley's Map of the Military Tract 262 

MAPS— (Continued) 

Original Plat of Fort Waj*ne 267 

County Addition to Fort WaxTie 267 

Feeder Canal and It8 Connection with Wa- 
bash and Erie Canal 325 

Route of Wabash and Erie Canal Throuph 

Fort Wayne 339 

Indiana's Vast Plan of Public Improve- 
ments 342 

Territorial Expansion of Fort Wayne 358 

Location of Ruins of Waash and Erie Canal 

Acqueducts in Fort Wayne 382 

Pioneer Railroads of Northern Indiana and 

Ohio 429 

Camp Allen 458 

Fort Waj-ne's First Baseball Grounds 468 


The First White Man 17 

Relics of Pre-Historic Man 22 

The Mastodon 22 

Remains of Extinct Peccar>' 24 

Where the First French Forts Stood 34 

Sif^nature of Sieur de Vincennes (FrancoiB 

Morsane) 36 

Burning of French Post Miami Sfl 

Where the Last French Post Stood 43 

French Relics Dug Up on the Site of Fort 

Wayne 62 

Steel Tomahawks 54 

Scalping Knives 59 

Sword Found in Lakeside 68 

A Relic of the Indian Wars 75 

Two "Turtle" Relics 81 

liarmar's Ford Today 99 

Grim Remainders of Harmar*8 Battle 101 

Curious Relic of Harmar's IBattle 1(>7 

Signature of Major Denny 112 

Wayne Trace "Marker" 133 

General Wayne's Camp Bed 141 

Ruins of Last Blockhouse 143 

Letter Written by the First Comnuuiduit of 

Fort Wayne 145 

Andirons of the Old Fort 14B 

Two Waj-ne Relics 148 

Wayne Coat of Arms 148 

Buttons from the Uniforms of Soldiers of 

Old Fort Wayne 151 

Wavne's Body in Two Graves (Letter) 152 

Whistler's Drawing of Fort Waj-ne 156-157 

Anthony Wayne Flag 162 

Greenville Treaty Signatures 165 

Signature of Captain Wells 1fi9 

Signature of Colonel Johnston 169 

flovomor Hull's Plea for Major Whistler 175 

lyittlf Turtle's Grave in ISflO 176 

The Coming of Angeline Chapeteau 176 

Fort WajTie in 1815 177 

Historic Old Apple Tree 178 

Is This the Washington Sword? 184 

The Home of Kil-so-quah 186 

Signature of John P. Hedges 186 

General Hull's Fatal Letter 188 

Little Turtle Tablet 190 

Signature of Lieutenant Ostrander 190 

Signature of Captain Heald lIKt 

First Brick Building Erected in Fort Wa.i-ne.l92 
Captain Wells's Letter Which Foretold the 

Savage Outbreak 195 

Harrison's Call for Tolunteers to S«Te Fort 

Waj-ne 199 

Signature of Major Croghan 201 

Captain Rhea Foresaw the Siege of Fort 

Wayne 203 

Allien Harrison Said Goodbye to His Troops 

at Fort Wayne ' 205 

Cannon Balls Fired from Fort Wayne 207 

A Commandant's "Love" Tetter 216 

Where Major Jenkinson's Men Were Massa- 
cred 220 

Chief Richardville Monument 225 

Chief Richardville's Safe 227 

When Whistler Rebuilt Fort Warae 229 

Mrs, Suttenfleld's Table 231 

Signature of Major Whistler 233 

What a Verv Knrlv Historical Work Said 

About Fort Wayne 245 

Last Council House 249 

Signature of Dr. Turner 249 

Signature of Alexis Coquillard 249 

Charter of Waj-ne Lodge Masons 253 

Judge William N. Hood's Commission 257 

Presidents' Signattires to Fort Wayne Land 

Grants 260 

Signature of John McCorkle 2«2 

Fort Wayne's First Rocking Chair 280 

The Story of the Fugitive Slaves 291 

When Henry Rudisill Came to Fort Wayne.. 293 

Rudisill Mill 299 

Allen County's First Court House 301 

"County Seminary" Receipt for Tuition 305 

Fourth of July Invitation of 1834 308 

Letter from a "Father of the Canal" 312 

Canal Construction Contract 314 

Early Copy of Fort Waj-ne'a First News- 
paper 318 

Fort Wayne's First Oiurch Building 324 

A Newspaper Quarrel of the Thirties 329 

Fort WajTie's First Bank Building 330 

A Social Affair of IW. 830 

When the Early Families Entertained 332 

Hugh McCulloch's Record of His First Bank 

Salar>- 334 

Rockhili House 3t4 

.Mayer House 346 

Fort Wayne's First Public School Building.. 346 

Chief I..aFontaine'8 Chair 850 

Courthouse Square in the Forties 3.'i2 

Chief LaFontaine's House 353 

Original Draft of the City Charter 359 

Wabash and Erie Aqueduct at Fort Wavnc..364 

General Winfield Scott's Letter .' 365 

OrfT (Edsall) Mill 36S 

The Hedekin House 368 

"Johnnie Appleseed's" Grave 371 

I>etter Written by "Johnnie Appleseed" 371 

Why Henry Clay Could Not Attend the Canal 

Celebration 372 

Daniel Webster's Tribute to the Wabash and 

Erie Canal 374 

\ Page from the Canal Collector's Record 

Book 378 

Stoves of the Forties 380 

Crumbling Ruins of the Canal 382 

Private Currency of the Forties 385 

.\n Order from Mayor Huxford's Court 389 

Extracts from Letters of Henry Cooper 391 

Grave of Governor Bigger 393 

Plank Road Poster of 1849 399 

Ruins of Locks of Wabash and Erie Canal 402 

Methodist College 404 

Junction of the Rivers in Civil War Times.. 412 
Invitation to the First Railroad Excursion. .422 

Colerick's Hall 425 

Souvenir of Fort Wayne's First Public 

Schools 425 

Rome Old Railroad Tickets 427 

Original Cl.iy School Building 4.'i3 

Jefferson School 434 

Fragment of a Letter of Colonel George 

W. Ewing 435 

Reminder of a Forgotten Bank 436 

BeforetheWar Social Affair 444 

Seal of the City of Fort Waj-ne 449 

"Penn-syh-anta" Station 4.54 

.\veline House 457 

Fourth Court House 461 

Operation of Trains in Civil War Times 464 

Municipal ".Shinplaster" Currency 467 

Relic of the Wood-Burning Locomotive Days. 468 
Judge McCulloch's Commission as Secretary 

of the Trea.sury 475 

First Hoagland School, Remodeled 478 

Old High School 482 

Entrance to "The Rink" 487 

Old Fort Waj-ne. Drawn after the Model of 

Isaac Bush 556 

I>r. Slocum's Conception of Old Fort Wayne. ..5.57 

Port Wayne Centennial H.ymn 559 

Reservoir Park. Scene of the Pageant of 1916. .561 

Fort Wa>-ne Flag .5«1 

Views of Pageant Grounds, 1916 576 

Fifth (Present) Courthouse 576 

Stirring Scenes of 1917 577 



The First White Man of the Maumee. 
A Lakeside Fantasy 17 


The Portage That Made Fort Wayne. 

The Importance of an understanding of the word "portage" — Its 
value to the discoverer — Hovi' the Maumee-Wabash portage 
joined the Great Lakes to the Mississippi and the Gulf of Mex- 
ico — Resume of the story of the development of the "carrying 
place" — The Fort Wayne rivers — The great glacier — Pre-glacial 
man — The mastodon — Extinct animal life — The Mound Builders 
In Allen county 20 

CHAPTER III.— 1614-1682. 

Savage, Adventurer, Explorer and Priest. 

Ancient French records of the Maumee-Wabash development give 
us the story of the early days of exploration and the struggles 
between the French, the English and the Indians — Value of the 
records of the Jesuits — The Miamis and their allies in Indiana, 
Illinois and Wisconsin — Kiskakons and Ottawas on Fort Wayne 
site — Iroquois, from the east, procure firearms and wage a war 
of extermination upon the Miamis and western tribes — Are forced 
back — Twightwees at Kekionga — Characteristics of the Miamis — 
Their allegiance to the French and latterly to the English — 
Coureur de bois — The Jesuits — Samuel de Champlain on the 
Maumee? — The earliest maps — La Salle and the never-ending dis- 
pute 25 

CHAPTER IV— 1683-1732. 
Kekionga During the "Golden Era" of French Rule. 

The peaceful mission of the French in the Maumee-Wabash valleys 
— Opposition to the encroachment of the English traders — The 
demoralization of the fur trade by the Miami-Iroquois war — 
Restoration of peace followed by the establishment of a stronger 
post on the site of Fort Wayne — Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de 
Vincennes, and his great plan to "monopolize" the Miamis — 
Cadillac invades the Maumee-Wabash valleys — Tattooed savages 
at the site of Fort Wayne — Buffalo and bear — Francois Margane 
establishes Ouiatanon and commands Post Miami (Fort Wayne) 
— Vincennes founded — Margane burned at the stake 32 

CHAPTER v.— 1733-1749. 

The Last French Posts on the Site of Fort Wayne. 

Longueuil's troops at the head of the Maumee — The Chief Nicolas 
(Sanosket) uprising— Capture of Post Miami (Fort Wayne) — 
Its partial destruction by fire while Douville, the commandant, 
is absent — Dubuisson rebuilds the fort — The remarkable voyage 
of Captain Bienville de Celeron — The duplicity of LaDemoiselle, 
chief of the Piankeshaws — Bonnecamps describes the conditions 
at Post Miami (Fort Wayne) — Chief Cold Foot undeceives Captain 
Celeron — Raymond builds a new fort on the St. Joseph River 42 


CHAPTER VI.— 1750-1760. 

Surrender of the French Post Miami (Fort AVayne) to the English. 

Celeron assumes command at Detroit — Increasing alarm at Post 
Miami (Fort Wayne) — Raimond's cry of alarm — "Xo one wants 
to stay here and iiave liis throat cut!" — The smallpox scourge — 
Death of Chiefs Cold Foot and LeGris— Captain Neyon de Villiers 
sent to comamnd Post Miami — The audacity of John Pathin — 
His arrest — Complaint of the English — Retort of the French — 
Two men of the Post Miami garrison captured and scalped — 
Langlade leads in the assault on PickawiUany — Death of LaDem- 
oiselle — Cannibalistic red men — Surrender of Detroit ends the 
French rule in the valleys — Lieutenant Butler receives the sur- 
render of Post Miami (Fort Wayne) — Ensign Robert Holmes in 
command 51 

CHAPTER vn.— 1761-1765. 
Massacre of the British at Post Miami (Fort Wayne) — Morris and 


The beginning of the Conspiracy of Pontiac — Holmes warned of the 
plot — He discovers the war belt at Keklonga — Holmes betrayed 
to his death by the Indian maiden — -Shot from ambush — Captain 
Morris's version — Survivors tell of the plot as planned and exe- 
cuted by Jacques Godefroy and Mincy Chene — Welch and Law- 
rence, the traders, and their account of the murder — Ouiatanon 
falls — Morris at Pontiac's camp — He reaches the site of Fort 
Wayne — Captured and thrown into the fort — Tied to the stake 
to be tortured — Saved by Chief Pecanne — Escapes to the fort — 
Colonel Bradstreet's expedition — Savages bring in the white cap- 
tives — Colonel George Croghan reaches the site of Fort Wayne 57 

CHAPTER VHI.— 17C6-1779. 

Miami Town (Fort Wayne) and the Revolution. 

The savages renew their allegiance to the English — Sir William John- 
son fears the Indians may aid the colonists^Would reclaim the 
site of Fort Wayne — Hamilton in authority at Detroit — Sends out 
scalping parties to raid the American settlements — McKee, Elliott 
and the Girtys — George Rogers Clark's brilliant capture of Kas- 
kaskia. Cahokia and Vincennes — Celeron flees from Ouiatanon — 
Hamilton's army moves up the Maumee to the site of Fort Wayne 
— Conference with savage tribes — Valuable goods stored at the 
Miami village — Proceeds to Vincennes 67 

CHAPTER IX.— 1780-1789. 

The Massacre of La Balme — Washington Foresees Fort Wayne. 

French traders at Miami Town (Fort Wayne) advance the cause of 
England in their war against the American colonists — The Las- 
selles, Beaubien and LaFontaine — Hyacinth Lasselle, the first 
white child born on Fort Wayne soil — The village thrown into 
consternation upon the approach of LaBalme — His identity and 
mission — Inhabitants flee to places of safety — LaBalme confis- 
cates the property of anti-American traders — The camp on the 
Aboite — Little Turtle leads in the night attack — Slaughter of La- 
Balme's men — Washington would establish a fort on the site of 
Fort Wayne 74 

CmVPTER X.— 1789-1790. 

Life in Miami Town (Fort Wayne), the Anti-American Center of 

the" West. 

Extracts from the journal of Henry Hay, of Detroit, a British partisan, 
who sojourned in Miami Town during the winter of 1789-1790 — 
The social life of the village — Savages bring in many captive 


Americans— Others are tortured and scalped— Wild scalp dances 
of the savages in Lakeside — Little Turtle and LeGris — Religious 
worship among the whites of the village — People summoned by 
the ringing of cowbells — Richardville as a youth — His mother — 
Early merchandising described as a "rascally scrambling trade" — 
John Kinzie, the Girtys, James Abbott, La Fontaine and Lor- 
raine — Hay would not risk his "carcass" among the "renegades" 
(Americans) — Prisoners at Chillicothe village — The town flooded... 85 

CHAPTER XL— 1790. 
The Battle of the Site of Fort Wayne— " Harmar 's Defeat." 
General Josiah Harmar as a soldier — His mission to France — Is sent 
to expel George Rogers Clark from Vincennes — Benedict Arnold 
and Dr. Connoly disturb the west — Major Hamtramck sends An- 
toine Gamelin to the site of Fort Wayne to pacify the savages — 
Failure of his mission — Cannibalistic feast at the head of the 
Maumee — St Clair sends Harmar against the Miami villages (Fort 
Wayne) — Deplorable condition of the army — Reaches the Miami 
villages and destroys them with fire — Hardin's detachment led 
into ambush — A terrible slaughter at Heller's Corners — The army 
at Chillicothe on the Maumee — The retreat to Cincinnati halted 
to allow Hardin to return — Plan of the battle on the site of Fort 
Wayne — The fatal error — Slaughter of Wyllys's regulars at Har- 
mar's ford — Fierce engagement on the St. Joseph — The retreat — 
Washington's comment 98 

CHAPTER XII.— 1791. 

St. Clair's Defeat Imperils the West — Washington's Apprehensions. 

Harmar's failure to establish a fort at the head of the Maumee — 
Consequences of the campaign — Washington summons St. Clair and 
outlines his plan — Generals Scott and Wilkinson and Colonel Har- 
din invade the Wabash region — Ouiatanon destroyed — St. Clair's 
army weakened by desertions — Poor equipment — Harmar predicts 
St. Clair's defeat — Forts Hamilton and Jefferson established — 
Army goes into camp on the fateful night of November 3, 1791^ 
"The bloodiest battlefield of American pioneer history" — Washing- 
ton in a rage — Savages rejoice and prepare for the coming of 
the next leader of the Americans 114 

CHAPTER XIII.— 1792-1794. 
"Mad Anthony" Wayne, Savior of the West— "Fallen Timber." 
Disheartening conditions in the west — Washington's problems — Gen- 
eral Anthony Wayne chosen to lead the third expedition against 
the Indians — Washington's opinion of Wayne — Death of Colonel 
Hardin — Peace messengers tortured to death — Wayne trains his 
army and proceeds to Fort Washington (Cincinnati) — Joined by 
Harrison, Whistler, Lewis and Clark — The army at Greenville — 
British build two forts on American soil — Captain William Wells 
joins Wayne — The army reaches the Maumee — How Wayne de- 
ceived the savages — Fort Defiance erected — Blue Jacket leads the 
savages — The death of William May— Wayne's story of the battle 
of Fallen Timber — Sharp correspondence between Wayne and 
Major Campbell, commandant of the British Post Miami— 
The Americans destroy British property and vast acreages of corn 
— The result of Wayne's victory 121 

CHAPTER XIV.— 1794. 
The Building and Dedication of Fort Wayne. 
Wayne's Legion departs from the vicinity of the British fort— Inci- 
dents of the march to Fort Defiance — Illness of the troops — The 
final lap to the goal of their hopes — The army reaches the site 
of Fort Wayne — How the prospect Impressed the soldiers — Wayne 
selects a location for the fort — Work on the buildings and the 
palisades is commenced — The "strike" of the volunteers — Wayne 


urges haste to avoid the coming cold — Courtmartial of offenders 
—Corporal Reading sentenced to death — The spy in the tree-top — 
Unruly soldiers steal beef — Wayne well pleased with the fort — 
An account of the dedication — Colonel Hamtramck names the 
post "Fort Wayne" — Hamtramck is given command of the post — 
Destitute condition of the troops — Wayne's "shoe" order — Departs 
for Greenville — His letter to General Knox 138 

CHAPTER XV.— 1794-1805. 
The Fort in the Wilderness. 
Colonel Hamtramck and the incorrigible troops at Fort Wayne — 
The chiefs sue for peace — A winter of suffering^Wayne prepares 
for the treaty council — Little Turtle pleads for the retention of 
the site of Fort Wayne and the Maumee-Wabash portage — 
Wayne's diplomatic refusal — The treaty signed — Wayne's depart- 
ure — Visits the president — Sent to Detroit — His death — Starving 
Indians at Fort Wayne — Hamtramck goes to Detroit — Major Thom- 
as Pasteur succeeds to the command of Fort Wayne — Conditions 
during his administration of affairs — Colonel Hunt commands Fort 
Wayne — Birth of John Elliott Hunt — Marriage of Miss Ruthie 
Hunt and Dr. Abraham Edwards — Colonel Hunt transferred to 
Detroit — Captain John Whipple in command of Fort Wayne — 
Major Pike — Governor Harrison resents the activities of Captain 
William Wells — Would remove Wells from the Indian service — 
Colonel John Johnston, Indian agent — Wells and Little Turtle 
visit eastern cities — Quakers come to teach the Indians the art 
of agriculture — Fort Dearborn established by Major John Whis- 
tler 150 

CHAPTER XVI.— 1806-1812. 
The Quiet Before the Savage Storm. 
Tecumseh and "The Prophet" unite the savages in a conspiracy to 
destroy the settlers — Captain Wells reports conditions at Fort 
Wayne — Raptiste Maloch and Angeline Chapeteau — Captain Na- 
than Heald commands Fort Wayne — His romantic courtship of Re- 
becca Wells — Lieutenant Ostrander's letter — Congress gives Wells 
the present Spy Run and Bloomlngdale districts — Harrison's 
1809 treaty at Fort Wayne— Lieutenant William Whistler— Col- 
onel Johnston's troubles — Captain James Rhea in command of 
Fort Wayne — His weakness of character — The celebration of the 
4th of July, 1811— The "big elm"— The battle of Tippecanoe — Sav- 
ages deceive Colonel Johnston — He is succeeded by Major Stlck- 
ney — War against England is declared — Rhea foresees Indian 
war — The death of Little Turtle — The Fort Dearborn massacre — 
Stories of the survivors 174 

CHAPTER Xr^ai.— 1812. 
The Siege of Fort Wayne. 

The massacre of the Fort Dearborn garrison and the surrender of 
Detroit to the British leave Fort Wayne in a position of peril- 
General Winchester to the west — Harrison's commission — How 
Logan, the Shawnee, saved the women and children of Fort 
Wayne — Me-te-a reveals the savage plot to Antoine Bondie, who 
tells the story to Major Stickney — Rhea scouts the idea of savage 
trickery — The murder of Stephen Johnston — Bondie foils the plans 
of Chief Winamac — "I am a man!" — Rhea, the drunken command- 
ant — The siege opens with severity — William Oliver's exploit — 
Harrison's report to the war department — The relief army moves 
forward — Flight of the savages — The arrival of Harrison's army 
at Fort Wayne — The arrest of Rhea — He resigns in disgrace — 
Destruction of the Indian villages — The arrival of General Win- 
chester—Harrison relinquishes the command and departs for 
Ohio 198 


CHAPTER XVIII.— 1812-1813. 

British Army Under Muir, Sent Against Fort Wayne, is Turned 


Captain George Croghan at Fort Wayne — Revolt of Captain Ward's 
men — Winchester's rosy view of the future — Death of Ensign Leg- 
gett — Winchester's army put^ to rout the expedition imder Major 
Mulr, designed to destroy Fort Wayne— Suffering of the Ken- 
tucky troops — General Tupper's disobedience — Harrison's inspir- 
ing address — The battle of the River Raisin — Death of Colonel 
Allen — The siege of Fort Meigs — Harrison finds Fort Wayne in 
peril — Colonel Richard Menter Johnson sent to protect it — John- 
son's men massacred by savages within sight of the fort- 
Closing incidents of the war of 1S12 in the west— Death of Tecum- 
seh 214 

CHAPTER XIX.— 1813-1815. 

Jenkinson and Whistler, Commandants — Rebuilding Fort Wayne. 

Major Jenkinson in command at Fort Wayne — A savage attack on 
his convoy — Major Whistler succeeds Major Jenkinson — The Sut- 
tenflelds and the Bouries— The residents of the fort — How the 
Fourth of July was celebrated in 1814— "Rniistler declares the fort 
was "an ill-constructed thing at the first" — Purposes to rebuild 
the stockade — When John Kinzie's scalp was valuable — Hostile 
chiefs plan attack on the forts— Whistler fears for "the poor devils" 
in the Indian camps — "No whiskey, no soap" — Whistler rebuilds 
the fort — John W. Dawson's observations concerning the build- 
ing and reconstruction of Wayne's and Hunt's forts — Description 
of the fort buildings and surroundings 223 

CHAPTER XX.— 1816-1820. 

The Evacuation of Fort AYayne— Wild Gatherings of Savages. 

Richardville becomes the most wealthy Indian in the west — Major 
Vose succeeds Major Whistler in command of Fort Wayne — Relig- 
ious services in the fort— Doctor Trevitt and Lieutenant Clark— 
Vose builds the council house— The beginning of decisive canal 
activity— James Barnett and Samuel Hanna— The fort is aban- 
doned by the troops— Lonely situation of the pioneers— Captain 
Riley's prophecy concerning Fort Wayne — Rev. Isaac McCoy 
braves the perils of western travel and establishes the first Prot- 
estant mission and the first school— The voyage from Terre 
Haute — Rev. Mr. Finney's account of the annuity distribution to 
the Indians— Unprincipled traders— Rumsellers described as "rob- 
bers, thieves and murderers" — Scenes of debauchery — Major 
Long's unkind description of the "worthless population" of Fort 
Wayne ., 237 

CHAPTER XXI.— 1821-1823. 

Platting the To-wn of Fort Wayne— Allen County Organized. 

Doctor Turner, John Hays and Benjamin B. Kercheval, Indian sub- 
agents — The first postoffice — Kercheval and Hanna, postmasters 
— The American F^ir Company — Alexis Coquillard, Francis Com- 
paret, James Aveline, the Ewings, the Hoods, William Rockhill, 
General John Tipton, the Swinneys, Paul Taber and others locate 
in the village — "Father" Ross— The first secret order, Wayne 
Lodge of Masons, organized within the fort— Why General Harri- 
son blocked the way against the establishment of a town in 1S05 — 
The government decides to sell the lands about the fort— The 
land office — Captain Vance and Register Holman— Allen Hamil- 
ton—John T. Barr and John McCorkle — Robert Young surveys the 
original plat of Fort Wayne— Swing's tract— Wliy the original 
streets run askew — Allen county is organized 251 



. CHAPTER XXII.— 1824. 
Pioneer County Government — The First Lot Buj-ers. 
Settlers pour into tlie village of Fort Wayne — Arrival of the commis- 
sioners to establish the government of Allen county — Ewing's 
Washington Hall and Suttenfield's tavern — The first officials of Al- 
len county — Grand jury activities — The first attorney's license, 
trespass suit, divorce case, naturalization grant, tavern license 
and marriage license — Barr and McCorkle's plat of the town is 
accepted — Valuable gifts to the county — The original lot-buyers — 
The county library — Fate of the institution^Wells's pre-emption is 
opened — The first brick building — A near-war between the Miamis 
and the Ottawas assists in the foundation of two fortunes 265 

CHAPTER XXIII.— 182.>1828. 
Beginnings of the Wabash and Erie Canal. 
How the authorities obeyed the laws — The first murder case — The log 
Jail on the courthouse square — The debtors" prison a faulty bas- 
tile — The County Seminary — The canal "fever" — Judge Hanna re- 
veals a plan to David Burr — The canal survey is authorized — 
Engineers succumb to attacks of fever — .Judge Hanna In the legis- 
lature — Congress passes the canal bill — A close call — The "feeder" 
canal — An early lawyer's story — The first gristmill — Pioneer enter- 
prises — A di'^astrous flood^The Ewings establish extensive fur 
trade — Fort Wayne loses the government land office 277 

CIIAPTED XXIV.— 1829-18:31. 

The Village Incorporated — "Underground Railroad" — The First 


The village decides to incorporate — The original town trustees — Laws 
governing the river ferries — Fort Wayne a "station" on the "under- 
ground railroad" — The slaves pass through the village — Earliest 
permanent Catholic and Protestant churches — The Big Leg mur- 
der—Keel boats on the Maumee — Trade over the St. Mary's — The 
government authorizes the state to sell the military tract at Fort 
Wayne— The doom of the old fort — Taber's addition platted— 
The first courthouse — Cheap rent at the "transfer comer" — ^The 
steamboat from Defiance — A cruel winter 288 

CHAPTER XXV.— 18.32-18.34. 

Canal Construction Begins — The First Newspaper — The First Fire 


Congress and the canal — The Indiana legislature appoints a board of 
canal commissioners — Jesse L. Williams, chief engineer — Fort 
Wayne thrills with new life — Beginning of construction work is 
celebrated by the people on February 22, 1832 — The awarding of 
the construction contracts — Opening of the canal land office — 
Construction of the "feeder" — The first newspaper, the Sentinel, 
established by Tigar & Noel— Hugh McCulloch— His first impres- 
sions of Fort Wayne — "The Phenomenon" — Pioneer mail service. . .303 

CHAPTER XXVI.— 1835-1837. 
Canal Celebration of 183')— The "Irish War"— The First Bank. 
The canal is opened between Fort Wayne and "Flint Springs" (Hun- 
tington) — A gay Fourth of July celebration — Oratory at the "feed- 
er" dam at the St. Joseph^The feud of the factions of Irish work- 
men on the canal — David Burr summons militia and averts a 
bloody clash between the "Corkonians" and the "Fardowns" — A 
hastily organized military company — The voyage by night to the 
scene of trouble — The belligerents disperse — Establishment of the 
first bank — "Four kegs of specie" — Charles McCulloch's story of 
the bank — A woman's description of a pirogue journey over the 
Maumee — Hard times in the valley — The first church structures — 
Early taverns — The first cookstove — How the pioneer rats came to 
town 322 


CHAPTER XXVII.— 1838-1839. 
Boat Yards and Other Pioneer Enterprises — Early Hotels. 
The state of Indiana "goes wild" over the internal improvement pro- 
gram — The canal begins to earn money — Early factories and boat 
yards — Names of some of the earlier boats which plied the canal 
— An estimate of Alexander McJunkin, schoolmastetr — "Rockhill's 
Polly," a step in advance of the times — History of the hotel — The 
Palo Alto (Mayer) house — Other pioneer hotels — Churches 337 

CHAPTER. XXVIIL— 1840-1842. 

Port Wayne City Incorporated — The First Officials and Their "Work. 

The town votes to become a city — Franklin P. Randall prepares the 
charter — George W. Wood, the first choice of the voters to serve 
as mayor — The new city officials confronted by many vexatious 
problems — Rapid growth of the town — Canal troubles — Indiana's 
fatal misstep — The earliest bands of music — Building of the sec- 
ond courthouse — The organization of the Fort Wayne Guards — 
Establishment of the Fort Wayne Times — Joseph Morgan chosen 
to succeed Mayor Wood — The failure of them silk culture enter- 
prise 348 

The Great Canal Celebration — General Cass's Address. 
The canal is opened between Toledo and Lafayette — The memorable 
Fourth of July, 1843 — Commodore Perry's cannon booms a wel- 
come to the visitors — The Toledo Guards — The parade — The exer- 
cises at the Swinney farm (Swinney park) — General Cass's mem- 
orable address — Peter Kaiser and the barbecue — The toasts — Gen- 
eral Cass receives a "ducking" — Promoters of the celebration — 
The packets and the freight boats — Early boat owners — Passen- 
ger and freight rates — Henry Lotz. mayor — The first daily mail — 
Highway building — The first daguerreotypes — "Johnnie Apple- 
seed." 362 

CHAPTER XXX.— 1844-1845. 
The Miamis, "Hunted Like Wild Animals," Taken to the West. 
Flooded conditions in the spring of 1844 — The "Post" and the "Or- 
wick" — The first land drainage — The removal of the remnants of 
Miami nation to the western reservations — "The trail of death" — 
Savages taken through Fort Wayne on canal boats — Deplorable 
scenes — Whiskey destroys the lives of many — The favored chiefs 
— Richardville "play safe" — John M. Wallace, mayor — William 
Stewart, postmaster — High rates of postage — The first Catholic 
school 376 

CHAPTER XXXI.— 1846-1847. 
Troops to Mexico— Methodist College — Concordia. 
Allen county sends three companies of volunteers to the Mexican war 
— Troops take their entire passage by water — Founding of the 
Methodist college — Its development and disappearance — Lutheran 
Male Academy — Concordia College — The Hedekin house, a' well- 
known hotel of canal days — Merchant W. Huxford. mayor — The 
third courthouse is erected on the public square — Beginning of the 
end of the Wabash and Erie canal — "White dog." "blue dog" and 
"blue pup" — A story of disappointment and despair — The last of 
the waterway 388 

CHAPTER XXXII.— 1848-1850. 
The First Telegraph Service — The Scourge of Cholera. 
Fort Wayne secures telegraphic connection with the outside world — • 
Chester Griswold, the first telegraph operator — Wire troubles — 
A week of "no service" — The cholera scourge brings death to hun- 
dreds — Heroes of the epidemic — The cause — The "black swamp" — 


California "gold fever" is contagious — Fort Wayne victims — Some 
of the "Forty-niners" — William Stewart, mayor — Arrival of the 
steam propeller, "Niagara" — Samuel Stophlet, postmaster — The 
earliest dentist 397 

CHAPTER XXXIII.— 1851-1852. 

The Building of the First Railroad — A Plea for Immigration. 

Jesse L. Williams suggests a great railroad project — The beginning 
of the Pittsburgh. Fort Wayne & Chicago railroad — Allen county 
votes financial aid — Construction work begins — The first locomo- 
tive — Discouraging failures — Tribute to Judge Hanna — A line west 
from Fort Wayne — Subscriptions paid in land and labor — The first 
railroad excursion to Fort Wayne — Banquet and speechmaking — 
Railroading before the war — The launching of the "H. H. Stout" 
A plea for Immigration — The vote to exclude the negroes — Dr. 
Philip G. Jones, mayor — "Egging" the anti-slave editor — Court of 
common pleas — The earliest "bloomers" cause a near-riot 408 

CHAPTER XXXIV.— 185.3-185-1. 

While the "Free" Schools Fought for Existence. 

The discouraging beginning of the public schools — The first board 
of education and its problems — The opening of the first schools — 
Citizens vote against proposition — George A. Irwin — Schools 
close for want of financial support — E. S. Green and James 
H. Smart, superintendents — The first graduates — Charles Whit- 
more, mayor — The Hamilton bank — Colerlck's hall — Wayne town- 
ship library— Beginning of artificial gas service — Illuminating the 
streets — When Fort Wayne went "dry" — The first daily newspap- 
ers—First county fair — Origin of the name "Summit City" — A 
"roast" of the city market— John G. Maier, postmaster — Mad An- 
thony Guards 419 

CHAPTER XXXV.— 1855-1856. 

The Execution of Madden and Keefer — Workingmen ".s Lit)rary. 

Two murderers put to death in the jail Inclosure — A tale of horror — 
The building of the Wabash railroad— The earliest photographs— 
The Workingmen's Institute and Library — Organization of the fire 
department— Major Curtis and his bank — Valuable storage — 
Horace Greeley's apology — Early slavery discussion 432 

CHAPTER XXXVI.— 1857-1859. 
"Regulators" and Criminals — Railroad Shops — Lindenwood 

Desperadoes terrorize northern Indiana — "Regulators" capture and 
hang Gregory McDougall "with order and decorum" — The haunt 
of the criminals— Kekeonga Guards, the Perry Regulators, the 
New Haven Vlgilants. the Adams Township Rangers and the St. 
Joe Detectives — Samuel S. Morss, mayor — Charles Case. congress- 
man—Bishop Luers and the Fort Wayne diocese — "Planking" 
downtown streets— Beginning of "Pennsylvania" railroad shops — 
Tollgate receipts — Lindenwood cemetery — Franklin P. Randall, 
"war" mayor— The first city directory — The city seal 440 

CHAPTER XXXVII.— 1860-1861. 
Ovation to Douglass— Knights of the Golden Circle — Enlistments 

for the Civil War. 

Vast crowds greet Stephen A. Douglas, opponent of Abraham Lin- 
coln — The parade — Nature's amphitheater— Douglas pleads for 
"half slave, half free" policy — Opposition to the war — Knights of 
the Golden Circle — Patriotic demonstrations — "Indiana for the 
Union!"— The news from Fort Sumter— Allen county's pledge— 


The first enlistments — Flag raising at the Wabash railroad shops 
— Hugh McCuUoch's address — Camp Allen — Henry W. Lawton — 
An exciting city election — Building of the fourth courthouse — 
Troubles of the builders 451 

CHAPTER XXXVIII.— 1862-1863. 
Police — Baseball — The First Park — "Shinplaster" Currency. 
The homecoming of the dead — Enlistments for the war — Patriotic 
women and children — Political riots — The first police force — The 
beginnings of baseball — The development of the game — Joseph K. 
Edgerton, congressman — Old Fort Park purchased — The First Na- 
tional bank — "Shinplaster" currency issued by the city — Hugh 
McCulloch named by President Lincoln to serve as the first comp- 
troller of the currency of the United States — Secretary of the 
Treasury — The success of his service — The Fort Wayne Gazette — • 
The Aveline house 463 

CHAPTER XXXIX.— 1864-1866. 
Strikes aud Early Labor Unions — The First Street Paving — The 

State Fair. 

The strike of the employes of the Pittsburgh. Fort Wayne & Chicago 
railroad — Troops sent to protect property — The earliest labor 
unions — The railroad men and the printers — Fincher. the organ- 
izer — Bitter opposition to Lincoln's policies — Helping the needy 
families of the soldiers — North Side (Lawton) park purchased by 
the city — Fort Wayne entertains the Indiana State Fair — The 
Pomological Society — The first street paving — James L. Worden, 
mayor — The original Kekionga baseball team — The town "goes 
mad" over the coming national game — The Kekiongas spread the 
fame of Fort Wayne — In the first National League — Peter P. Bai- 
ley, postmaster 470 

CHAPTER XL.— 1867-1870. 
A Den of Thieves — The Beginning of Hospitals — Building of Pour 


A reign of lawlessness — Burning of the rendezvous of the criminals — 
Henry Sharp, mayor — Beginning of three hospitals, Hope, St. 
Joseph and Lutheran — The criminal court — The first observance 
of Memorial day — Building of four lines of railroads — The disas- 
trous flood of 1867 — The Fort Wayne Journal — Olympic theatre, 
Hamilton's and Ewing's Hall — "The Ghost at the Vault" — Wallace 
A. Brice and his history of Fort Wayne — Westinghouse and his 
airbrake — The Rink (Academy of Music) — J. J. Kamm, postmaster 
— Washington Haskell and his original bicycle 480 

CHAPTER XLI.— 1871-1874. 
The First Horse-Drawn Street Cars — Equal Suffrage — Free Mail 


The first street car ride — Development of the original system — Organ- 
ization of the first society for the advocacy of woman suffrage — 
Free mail delivery — Charles A. Zollinger, mayor — The fair grounds 
at the present Swinney park — Race meets — The Fort Wayne Light 
Guards — The town well a costly "hole in the ground" — Bishop 
Dwenger — The Lauferty and Cheney banks — The Fort Wayne 
Daily News 490 

CHAPTER XLII.— 1875-1878. 
Railroad Strike — Rival IMedical Schools — La'wlessness. 
Industrial controversies precipitate a general strike of railroad em- 
ployes — Mayor Zollinger reads the "riot act" — Officials In clash 
with strikers — Troops sent to quell the outbreak — Settlement of 


difficulty— Rival medical schools and their differences — The grand 
jury's report — Grave robberies arouse alarm and indignation — 
First graduates of medical schools — Superior court is established — 
The great meteor— James H. Smart, superintendent of schools — 
Olympic (Bijou) theatre 498 

CHAPTER XLIII.— 1879-1884. 
Water "Works — Telephone — Electric Lighting — Political Dis- 

The proposition to use the "feeder" canal as a means of city water 
supply precipitates a warm fight — Moses Lane's plan — J. D. 
Cook's plan Is adopted — The first pumping station— The first 
telephone system pfoves to be a financial failure — The Western 
Union venture — Absorbed by the "Bell company — Development of 
the "Bell" and "Home" systems— Building of the Nickel Plate 
railroad— The first electric lights— Beginning of the Fort Wayne 
Electric Works — The execution of Samuel McDonald— Crowds pre- 
vent James G. Blaine and William McKinley from speaking— Rival 
torch-light processions — The Masonic Temple — Knights of Labor — 
The first typewriter — A world championship baseball game 506 

CHAPTER XLIV.— 1885-1890. 
Natural Gas— The State School— South Wayne Tangle. 
When Fort Wayne was a "natural gas" town— Wanton waste — First 
company formed in 1885 fails to find gas within the city limits 
— Citizens invest heavily in Salamonie company, which lays nine- 
ty-eight miles of pipe to convey gas from Blackford county to 
Fort Wayne— Charles F. Muhler, mayor — Beginnings of the plant 
of S. F. Bowser & Company— James B. White, congressman— The 
Robertson episode In the legislature — Founding of the Indiana 
School for Feeble Minded Youth— The South Wayne tangle— The 
first Labor day celebration — Daniel L. Harding, mayor — The first 
football game — The beginning of golf — Marvin Kuhns, desperado. . .516 

CHAPTER XLV.— 1891-1894. 

"Trolley" Cars— Strike of Street Railway Men— City Building- 
Public Library. 

Electrically-driven street cars supersede the horse-drawn cars — De- 
velopment of the system— Slattery storage battery— Wayne 
Knitting Mills— The city building— Allen County Orphan Home — 
Strike of the street railway employes — Prominent deputy sher- 
iffs—The public library— The new city charter — Chauncey B. 
Oakley, Mayor — Dedication of soldiers' monument — The Woman's 
Club League — The Wayne Club 524 

CHAPTER XLVI.— 1895-1899. 

Centennial Celebration of the Building of Wayne's Fort— The Sixth 
Courthouse — The First Automobile. 

Fort Wayne celebrates the one hundredth anniversary of the establish- 
ment of George Wayne's fort— The central committee — Perry 
A. Randall, general chairman — The parades and drills — The sham 
battle— Building of the sixth courthouse— Temporary quarters for 
county offices — The laying of the cornerstone — The first automo- 
bile — William D. Page, postmaster— Troops for the Spanish-Amer- 
ican war— Memorial to General Henry W. Lawton— The Citizens' 
Trust Company — The first rural mail delivery 532 

CHAPTER XLVII— 1900-1908. 

luterurhan Railroads — Commercial Advancement. 

The building of five electric lines gives Fort Wayne a place of prom- 
inence as an interurban center of the middle west — Henry C. 



Berghoff mayor — Police court — Newton W. Gilbert congressman — 
William J. Hosey mayor — German-American National Bank — Lin- 
coln National Life Insurance Company — Clarence C. Gilhams con- 
gressman — Municipal Electric Lighting and Power Plant — Anthony 
Hotel — Loss of twelve lives in the burning of the Aveline Hotel — 
Scottish Rite Cathedral — Cyrus Cline congressman — Robert B. 
Hanna postmaster — Activities of nine years of progress 539 

CHAPTER XLVIII— 1909-1915. 

Civic Awakening— " Indiana's Second City" — Track Elevation — 

The Flood of 1913. 

Legislature authorizes Fort Wayne to proceed with civic improve- 
ments — Revision of park laws — The work of Charles Zueblin, 
Charles Mulford Robinson, George E. Kessler, Metcalf and Eddy 
and others — Growth of the park system — City Forestry Depart- 
ment — Fort Wayne awarded second place among Indiana cities in 
point of population — Jesse Grice mayor — The Boy Scouts — Weath- 
er Bureau — Art Smith, aviator — Elevation of railway tracks — The 
disastrous flood of March, 1913— The Rotary Club — The Palace 
theatre — The new county farm — Lincoln Highway celebration — 
Commercial, religious and civic advancement 546 

CHAPTER XLIX— 1916-1917. 

Indiana's Centennial— Coliseum — Y. M. C. A. — Troops to the 


Fort Wayne celebrates the one-hundredth anniversary of the admission 
of Indiana to statehood — The committees — The Industrial Exposi- 
tion — The parades — Wm. H. Taft guest of honor — Harmar's Ford 
"marker" — The great Historical Pageant, "The Glorious Gateway 
of the West" — Donald Robertson and Wallace Rice — The six great 
scenes of the pageant — The Centennial Hymn — The Fort Wayne 
flag — Two companies of troops sent to the Mexican border — The 
Anthony Wayne monument — The Municipal Coliseum — Young 
Men's Christian Association building — History of the organization 
— Fort Wayne Anti-Tuberculosis League — "Fort Recovery," tu- 
berculosis camp — Perry Randall fresh-air school — Erie-Michigan 
barge canal — Monument to Perry A. Randall — The "Johnnie Apple- 
seed" tablet — The Vocational Public Schools — Infantile paralysis 
epidemic — The Presidential election — Strike of street railway em- 
ployes — The Boy Scouts — Civic health parade — News-Rotary 
swimming pool — Nearly one hundred miles of paving — St. Joe river 
dam and park 555 

CHAPTER L— 1917. 
Fort Wayne's Answer to the Call to War Avith Germany. 

Patriotic response to the President's call to service — Fort Wayne mili- 
tary district leads the nation in number of men who enlist for the 
war — The Lexington Day demonstration — Resolutions of loyalty — 
— Enlistments for the Regular Army — The departure of Battery D 
— Battery B. the second unit — Company E, First Infantry — Com- 
pany B, signal Corps — Recruits for the navy — The Navy League 
branch — The Motor Reserve Corps — The Officers' Reserve Corps 
— Council of Patriotic Service — Allen County CouncH of Defense — 
Splendid response to Red Cross Appeal — Central Red Cross supply 
depot — Fort Wayne Red Cross chapter — The Red Cross hospital 
unit — Selective conscription registration — The "Liberty" parade — 
— Registration of "Alien Enemies" — The "Liberty" bond sale — 
V. M. C. A. fund over-subscribed — Catholic War Fund — The "War" 
gardens — The adoption of "Eastern" time — War activities — Con- 
clusion 571 

The Story of the Townships of Allen County 587 

Index 707 



The First White Man of the Maiimee. 


WHEN, three centuries ago, the naked, painted savage, 
paddling his bark canoe with the flow of the St. Mary's 
turned his course into the counter-current of the St. 
Joseph, and there greeted his 
feather-bedecked brother ap- 
proaching from the northward, 
he displayed in triumph the 
friiits of the hunt and chal- 
lenged the other to show evi- 
dence of superior skill with the 

The challenge was never 

With simultaneous move- 
ment, each nimble-witted son 
of the forest grasped his 
weapon and turned in alarm to 
behold a sight new and terrify- 
ing. To the southward, round- 
ing a bend in the Maumee, 
scarce an arrow-shot distant, 
appeared a strange canoe. The 
Kiskakons' — for they were of 
that ancient clan — were not 
concerned in the movements of 
the two red men at the paddles 
of the mysterious craft. It was 
the third man whose appear- 
ance brought the quick heart- 

The Illustration of the "coureur de 
bols," or wood-ranger. Is after a draw- 
ing by Frederick Remington, which ap- 
pears In Vol. II of President Woodrow 
Wilson's "A History of the American 
People." It Is reproduced by permission 
of the publishers. Harper & Brothers. 
The first white man to paddle his ca- 
noe along the south shore of Lake Erie 
and thence up the unexplored Maumee 
was doubtless of this reckless, advent- 
urous type. 

beat and threw over them a 
spell of silence. Slowly the canoe lessened the distance which 
separated it from the attentive Kiskakons. Suddenly the 
watchers were brought to a sense of danger ; but the savages in the 



approaching canoe dispelled momentary fears by standing, with 
outstretched arms, while they proclaimed in resounding calls that 
the mission of the visitors was one of peace and friendship. The 
people of the Kiskakon village, startled by the commotion, ap- 
proached cautiously and marvelled at the sight of the stranger. 
He was clothed in garments of unknown material; he carried in 
his hand a thing of steel and wood — his substitute for bow and 
arrow — but, above all, he was of a strange and unknown race. His 
face seemed white in comparison with those of his inspectors, and 
his light brown hair and blue eyes proclaimed him to be a visitor 
from afar. 

At last — after the lapse of untold centuries — The First White 
Man had arrived! 

To the wild people of the forest he appeared as a messenger 
from the gods. He might have been; but he wasn't. He was, 
in truth, the advance spirit of destruction — the forerunner of the 
hordes of the whites who would one day, with magic power, tear 
the boundless wilderness from the grasp of the Red Man and 
scatter the remnants of his people to the obscure corners of the 

As he stepped ashore and bestowed upon the wondering savages 
his gifts of sparkling beads and bits of shining metals, The First 
White Man saw before him not the beautiful place of homes which 
we call Lakeside, but only the smoke rising from the fires of the 
village of the Kiskakons, hidden by the trees and the high banks 
of the river. He heard not the "honk-honk" of the whizzing auto- 
mobile or the "clang-clang" of the pay-as-you-enter trolley car, 
but only the intermingling of unknown tongues and the call of 
the wild fowl. 

His mission? 

To seek a refuge from civilization — to find a home among 
the savages— to remain a while; perchance to wed an Indian belle 
— to seek a new place of abode whenever he chose to think that 
the power of the law "away back there" in New France might 
seek to grasp him and return him for punishment for his misdeeds 
— to live the care-free life of the wilderness — to become a savage 
in all but color. He was of the type of the men who occupy an 
important place in the story of the frontier — the coureur de bois, 
or wood-ranger. 

His name? 

What matters it? He was but one of many of his kind. But 
he was the first — the very first — and his coming marks the begin- 
ning of the narrative of the thousands of men and women whose 
lives make up the story of Fort Wayne. But, to gain the truth. 


we must know something of the land to which The First White 
Man came, for, until we do, we can neither judge of his environ- 
ments nor account for his deeds. 


(1) The Klskakons, the "Short-Tailed Bear" clan of the Ottawas, doubt- 
iBBS had a village on the site of the present Lakeside (Fort Wayne) antedating 
the Miami occupation. Dr. Reuben G. Thwalte believes that the word 
Kekionga, by which the settlement was known at a later period. Is a revision 
of the word Kiskakon, or Klchkagon, which means "to cut." referring, he 
believes, to the abbreviated tali ot the bear for which the clan was named. 
(See "Jesuit Relations," vol. xxxlil. page 273; Fort Wayne Public Library). 
Jacob P, Dunn, the Indian historian, says: "Kls-ka-kon means 'clipped hair,' 
and was given to these Indians because they shaved the sides of the head 
and trimmed the remaining locks like the mane of a Roman horse." — "True 
Indian Stories." page 268, Fort Wayne PubUc Library. "Kiskakon slgrnlfles 
'cut tails." " — Pierre Margry. 


The Portage That Made Fort Wayne. 

The importance of an understanding of tlie meaning of the word, "portage" 
— Its value to the discoverer — How the Maumee-Wabash portage joined 
the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico — Resume of the story of the 
development of the "carrying place" — The Fort Wayne rivers — The 
great glacier — Pie-glacial man — The mastodon — Extinct animal life — The 
Mound Builders in Allen county. 

THE STORY of the beginnings of the city of Fort "Wayne is 
the record of the most famous portage in America. 

Though the word portage has found no place in our pres- 
ent-day speech, it throbs with 
lively interest on the very in- 
stant we grasp its meaning ; for 
the mere mention of it brings 
to our imagination the phantom 
pageant of the explorer and 
the adventurer, the black- 
robed Jesuit Father and the 
blood thirsty savage, the 



The student of the history of Fort 
Wayne must thoroughly understand the 
point embodied in the accompanying 
diagrammatic map which shows the al- 
most continuous water route between 
the mouth of the St. Lawrence and the 
mouth of tlie Mississippi. The only in- 
terruption in this route Is a stretch of 
land about eight miles in width, ex- 
tending westward from the present city 
of Fort Wayne and separating the 
waters of the St. Mary's river from 
those of the Little river and the Wa- 
bash. In the centuries past, when the 
rivers and lakes were the only routes of 
general travel and trade, the site of Fort Wayne was, naturally, the great 
central point, for, across this piece of ground, or portage, were conveyed the 
canoes and the articles of trade belonging to the Indian, the French and the 





French and English soldier, and the trader and pioneer, who fade 
once again into the past as memory fails and we awaken to the 
reality of things as they are. 

Let us all, then, know the meaning of the word, that we may 
read the story with a common interest — the story of the land over 
which the stars and stripes have supplanted forever the colors of 
France and England and where the hum of the wheels of industry 
and the voices of happy children have taken the place of the clash 
of arms and the war-whoop of the painted savage. 

A portage, or "carrying place," is a pathway between two 
rivers coursing in generally opposite directions. 

In the days when the inland lakes and the rivers formed the 
highways of travel between dis- 
tant points, it was a most for- 
tunate discovery to find a 
carry place where the voyager 
could draw his canoe ashore, 
lift it to his shoulders and take 
it to a near-by stream, there to 
launch it and continue his way. 
The Indian tribe which con- 
trolled such a carrying place 
held a strong claim over its 
enemies in war and trade. The 
savages understood this and 
contended for it just as the 
whites who came upon the 
scene fought and struggled for 
a century to control the port- 
age which marks the site of 
Fort Wayne. 

It is easy to picture the earliest white traveler as he accidentally 
enters the mouth of the Maumee,' after coursing from the east- 
ward along the southern shore of Lake Erie. Continuing on up 
the stream, his observation of the shore lines tells him he has 
entered a river, but this does not turn him from his determination 
to explore the region. Day after day, he pushes forward, until, 
finally, he reaches a point where two rivers — which we now know 
to be the St. Mary's and St. Joseph— join to form the river which 
has brought him on his way. And here he finds an Indian strong- 
hold, the ancient village of the Kiskakons, on the site of Fort Wayne. 
The savages point out to him the pathway which leads from the 
St. Mary's across the woodland and prairie to a smaller stream, 
called in later years Rivere Petite or Little river. He carries his 


The outline map Indicates the gener- 
al area of the great glacial lake which, 
as It subsided, left at its borders the 
deposits of earth and stone (moraines) 
which determined the courses of the 
rivers and made the site of Fort Wayne 
in succeeding centuries the battle 
ground of nations who struggled to 
possess It because of Its commanding 



canoe across the six or seven miles of the portage, launches it, 
and finds that he is borne out into the "Wabash, thence into the 

Ohio, and finally upon the 
broad waters of the Mississippi. 
It is natural to picture such a 
traveler — French, of course, — 
returning to the centers of civil- 
ization in New France (Canada) 
to tell of his discovery and to 
spread the news of the great 
abundance of fur-bearing ani- 
mals in the Maumee-Wabash 
valleys. This first adventurer, 
his identity undetermined, dis- 
covered the shortest route of 
travel between the mouth of the 
St. Lawrence and the mouth of 
the Mississippi. Some give the 
honor to Robert Cavalier, Sieur 
de LaSalle. 

The present history aims 
to indicate to a satisfactory de- 
gree the growth of interest in 
this particular portage, but it 
would seem to be helpful to 
suggest the main points of the 
coming chapters as they deal 
with this most important path- 
way of pioneer commerce. 
Here, during the ages beyond the memory of the whites, existed 
the strongest Indian settlement of the middle west. 

Here the earliest French 
explorers and traders estab- 
lished fortified trading posts 
which they controlled until the 
coming of the English. 

Here the savages over- 
threw the English and entered 
upon the years of frontier war- 
fare which continued from the 
days of Pontiac until the build- 
ing of "Wayne's American fort. 
Here flourished an im- 
mense fur trade, the conten- 


The above selections from the widely- 
famed private museum of Indian and 
historic relics of L. W. Hills, of Fort 
Wayne, are specimens of the handiwork 
of races antedating the Indians. Nos. 1 
and 2 (a "bird" and a "tube") were 
found in a gravel pit near Maysville. 
Indiana, by John Zlmmer. No. 3. a 
"bird," formerly owned by John Bic- 
hart, was found In the same locality. 
No. 4, of similar form, was unearthed 
on the Emerick farm. All are made of 


Remains of the mastodon have been 
found in several portions of Allen 



tion for the control of which precipitated the French and Indian 

Here, in vision, Washington saw an important point for the 
United States to establish its strongest western post, for the accom- 
plishment of which purpose he sent Harmar, St. Clair and Wayne. 

Here, with the restoration of peace, arose the city of Fort 
Wayne, inspired to greatness by the building of the Wabash and 
Erie canal, which paralleled the portage and supplanted it, only 
to give way in later years to the steam railroad and the electric 
interurban line. 

And now let us speak for a moment of the rivers — these first 
highways of travel, without which there could have been no portage. 

The courses of these historic streams were determined in the 
glacial age of the world 's physical history.^ When the great mass of 
ice, moving southwesterly from the region of Hudson's bay, finally 
became converted into a vast lake which slowly passed away and 


Remains found In the vicinity of Fort 
Wayne indicate that the region was a 
favorite habitat of prehistoric animals. 
Henry RudisUl found in Spy Run (1) 
the tooth of an extinct animal, the 
American elephant. In 1867 the skele- 
tons of three mastodons were found in 
the soft earth In Perry township (2); 
these w^ere placed in the Chicago Aca- 
demy of Sciences and were destroyed in 
the great fire of 1871. The tusk of an- 
other specimen, found In Lake township 
(3) measured eleven feet In length and 
nine Inches in diameter. Remains of 
another mastodon were found In Cedar 
Creek township (4). The most recent 
discovery, In 1912, was that of the 
skeleton of a mastodon on the S. R. 
Alden farm, a portion of the Rlchard- 
vllle reservation (5), immediately 
southwest of Fort Wayne. 


en '^f -v' 

tW-N J^ 




fe-A^ : 

^atwr m'T/'A 

^^^^^Ai>^*^s jef^e»sfi^ : jmrsa^ 


MiTY [„... 

■^^. 1 


1. Four mounds in Perry township, 
two on a line north and south about 
forty feet apart; two others about the 
same distance apart, extending east and 
west. Excavators found human bones, 
arrowheads, copper ornaments and 

2. Four miles south of the above, on 
the Coldwater road. Is an oblong mound 
in which were found a perforated sec- 
tion of slate, and a stratum of baked 

3. At Cedarvllle are located three 
mounds 100 feet apart, running nearly 
parallel to the St. Joseph river. 

4. A circular mound containing frag- 
ments of pottery, stone implements and 

5. A seml-clrcular mound with ends 
at the river bank: arc, 20 feet. Large 
trees falling In decay, exposed pottery, 
flint and other articles. 

6. At the mouth of Cedar creek Is 
the most southerly of the mounds In Al- 
len county. 



left a deposit of its earthy elements, the rivers, as we see them 
today, were left to tell of the ancient visit of the glacier. 

There are reasons to be- 
lieve that the region was in- 
habited by human beings pre- 
vious to the coming of the 
glacier — at least, men lived in 
portions of the present Ohio 
before the sea of ice spread its 
destructive elements over the 
region to the eastward.' Cer- 
tain it is that the mighty mas- 
todon* roamed the region about 
the site of Fort Wayne, and 
here, too, were other forms of 
animal life, now extinct. That 
ancient, mysterious race of men 
whom we call the Mound Build- 
ers, chose to live in this vicin- 
ity, and the relics of their 
dwellings are a mute testimony 
of their mysterious presence."^ 

But it is not with the 
Mound Builder and the masto- 
don that our story deals. The 

1 , • ii. J hinus, reproduced from the article, "The 

real actors m the drama, ap- pleistocene Period and Its Vertebrata. ■ 

nparinp at thp first witVi tliP ^^ Oliver P. Hay, In the 1911 report of 

pearing, ai ine nrst, Wltn me f^e Indian Department of Geology and 

same surroundings of scenery }?c Lrbra?^^"""^"^' ^°'^^ wayne Pub- 
which formed the settings for 

the unknown comedies and tragedies of the past, shift upon the 
stage of action new backgrounds of hope, aspiration, defeat, tri- 
umph, and progress. And the close of this book is but the begin- 
ning, for the greater actors, we doubt not, are to come in a day 
which is not ours. 


In 1912, the remains of an extinct ani- 
mal known as the platygonus compres- 
sus, of the peccary family, were un- 
earthed by workmen in a gravel pit 
near Swinney park. The specimen 
came Into the possession of George A. 
Jacobs, 1302 Washington boulevard 
west, and was submitted by the writer 
to the National Museum for identifica- 
tion. The skull Is shown herewith. The 
full skeleton Is that of an almost Iden- 
tical specimen, the platygonus leptor- 


(1) The Miami names of the Fort 
Wayne rivers are: St. Joseph, Ko- 
chls-ah-se-pe, or Bean river; St. 
Mary's, Mah-may-l-wah-se-pe-way, or 
Strugeon creek, because of the large 
number of sturgeon that formerly 
abounded there In the spawning sea- 
son: the name Maumee Is a form of 
Miami. See Dunn's "True Indian 
Stories," Fort Wayne Public Library. 

(2) See "Maumee River Basin," Dr. 
Charles E. Slocum, vol. I, page S: Fort 
Wayne Public Library; also Annual 
Report of the Indiana Department of 
Geology and Natural Resources, 1905, 

(3) See Ohio Archaeological and 
Historical Society's Publications, vol. 
i. page 257; Fort Wayne Public Li- 

(4) See article on the mastodon In 
Helm's History of Allen County, by 
the late Col. R. S. Robertson; Fort 
Wayne Public Library. 

(.5) See article on Prehistoric Re- 
mains, Helm's History of Allen Coun- 
ty, by the late Col. R. S. Robertson; 
Fort Wayne Public Library. 

CHAPTER III— 1614-1682. 
Savage, Adventurer, Explorer and Priest. 

Ancient French records of the MaumeeWabash development gives us the 
story of the early days of exploration and struggles between the French, 
English and Indians — Value of the records of the Jesuits — The Miamis 
and their allies in Indiana. Illinois and Wisconsin — Kiskakons and 
Ottawas on Fort Wayne site — Iroquois, from the east, procure firearms 
and wage war of extermination upon the Miamis and western tribes — 
Are forced back — Twightwees at Kekionga — Characteristics of the 
Miamis — Allegiance to the French and latterly to the English — The 
coureur de hois — The Jesuits — Samuel de Champlaln on the Maumee? — 
The earliest maps— LaSalle and the never-ending dispute. 

FOR MANY YEARS, a veil of seemingly impenetrable mystery 
hid from view all certain knowledge of the movements of the 
earliest whites in the Maumee-Wabash valleys, due to a large 
extent to the fact that during the entire period of the French occupa- 
tion, all documents relating to governmental affairs were forwarded 
first to Quebec and Montreal, in the province of Canada, and from 
thence to the mother country. Here they were deposited by a gener- 
ation passed away, and not, without pressure, to be unearthed by the 
Frenchman of today who cares not to revive the memory of a faded 
vision of western empire. 

It is only through the great personal sacrifice of patriotic men 
and women of America that the truth has come to us of the present 
day. In the expenditure of fortunes, the scattered papers in the 
archives of France, England and Canada, as well as in the colonial 
records of America, have been made available, and their work of 
arrangement, annotation and translation, has given us the treasures 
from which we build our story. 

The first accounts of conditions in the middle western portions 
of America are given to the world through the records of the stal- 
wart Jesuit Fathers, who, though they thwarted some of the greatest 
attempts to explore and settle the western lands discovered by 
LaSalle and his contemporaries, worked with grim determination 
to make of the savages a great Christian nation which should purify 
the world.* From the records of their movements, we gain our best 
knowledge of the Indians in Indiana at the time of the appearance 
of the first whites. 

Gabriel Dreuillettes, stationed at the mission of St. Michael 
on the west shore of Lake Michigan, reported as early as 1658 that 
a colony of 24,000 Miamis occupied a portion of the southwest 




corner of the present state of Michigan and northwestern Indiana, 
The invasion of the region by the Iroquois about 1670, with firearms 
provided by the Dutch of New Amsterdam, was the beginning of 
a long period of years of warfare between the Iroquois and the 
various branches of the Miami nation. The region of Green Bay, 
in Wisconsin formed the center of later settlements of the latter 
tribes. It appears that at this time— 1682 — the site of Fort Wayne 
was occupied by the Kiskakons and the Ottawas, branches of the 
Miamis, for it was in this year that Jean de Lamberville, writing 
' to Count de Frontenac, governor of Canada, expressed the fear that 
an Iroquois army of 12,000 would completely annihilate "the Miamis 
and their neighbors the Siskakon [Kiskakon] and Ottawa tribes 
on the headwaters of the Maumee."^ By the year 1700, the Miamis 


Before the days of the canal and the railroad, the rivers were the great 
highways of travel between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi. The map 
shows the three routes most largely used. 



had obtained firearms from the French, and there is a tradition that 
they met and vanquished their foes near the site of the present 
Terre Haute. 

In 1765, long after the French had settled in the Maumee- 
Wabash valleys, the confederacy of the families of the iliami tribe 
was composed of two hundred and fifty Twightwees (Twightwigha 
or Twixtwees, as written by the English), situated at Kekionga; a 
settlement of three hundred Ouiatanons on the Wabash, near the 
present Lafayette, Indiana ; and 
three hundred Piankeshaws, on 
the Vermillion river. 

All students of the Indians 
pay tribute to the high char- 
acter of the Miamis, especially 
during those periods in which 
they were free from the con- 
tamination of the habits of their 
more enlightened white broth- 
ers. Father Claude Allouez 
refers to them as gentle, affa- 
ble and sedate, with a language 
in harmony with their dignity. 

During the time of the dis- 
puted possession of the Jlau- 
mee-Wabash valleys by the 
French, the Jliamis were 
friends of the French and foes 
of the English ; but when the 
American colonists threw off 
the yoke of the government of 
the mother country, they trans- 
ferred their support to the English who convinced them that the 
United States sought to rob them of their lands and their freedom 
and to bring upon them degradation and extermination. They 
fought against a fear of ultimate ruin, and the fierceness of their 
opposition reveals the intensity of their effort to discourage and 
terrify the American invader and cause him to abandon his desire 
to inhabit the west.' 

The "action" of the story begins with the relation of the deeds 
of the first men to arrive npon the scene — men whose names are 
a matter of record. We doubt not that the care-free coureur de 
bois* was the earliest to come, bringing an influence which was 
far from uplifting, and making hard the purifying servnce of the 
Jesuit Father who soon followed him. 



Champlain was the governor of New 
France (Canada) and founder of Que- 
bec. His name is the first of the lino 
of daring explorers to be connected 
with the Maumee region. He Is be- 
lieved to have seen the Maumee in 1614 
or 1615. When Great Britain compelled 
his surrender in 1629, he was carried 
a captive to England: he returned to 
Canada and died there in 1635. The 
portrait Is after an old print. 


What name, then, shall we attach to the first known man who 
saw the Maumee? 

One eminent historian is bold enough to say that Samuel de 
Champlain, who had already discovered a water route between the 
St. Lawrence river and Georgian Bay, by way of the Nipissing river, 
and whose knowledge of the coasts of these regions is given to 
the world in the earliest maps of the Great Lakes, "probably" 


..»t ^^ °' ^^^ above maps are traced from the pages of Vol. IV of Winsor's 
Narrative and Critical History of America," published by the Houghton 
MifCIin Co., Boston, by whose permission they are here presented. The reader 
who desires further information on the subject is referred to the above work, 
obtainable from the Fort Wayne Public Library. 

Map E. — Samuel de Champlain's map (1632), of which this Is a small por- 
tion of the central part, shows: 1 — Maumee river; 2 — St. Mary's river; 3 — St 
Joseph river. It probably is the earliest recorded map of the Fort Wayne 

Map F. — The Covens and Mortier map (probably 1654) shows: 1 — Maumee 
river; 2 — Lalie Huron; 3 — Lake Erie; 4 — Lake Ontario; 5 — St. Lawrence river- 
6 — Cape Cod; 7 — Long Island. 

Map G. — The Nicolas Sanson map (1656) shows: 1 — Maumee river- 2 — SItg 
of Fort Wayne; 3 — Lake Michigan; 4 — Lake Huron; 5 — St. Lawrence river- 6 — 
Long Island; 7 — Cape Cod; 8 — Chesapeake bay. 

Map H. — Louis Joliefs map (1674) shows: 1 — Site of Fort Wayne- 2 — Mau- 
mee river; 3 — St. Joseph river; 4 — St. Mary's river; 6 — Ohio (or Wabash) river- 
6 — Lake Ontario; 7 — Lake Michigan; 8 — Mlsssissippl river; 9 — Missouri river- 
10 — Lake Huron; 11 — Georgian bay; 12 — St. Lawrence river; 13 — Green bay: 
14 — Wisconsin river; IB — Illinois river. 



saw the placid waters of the Maumee as early as 1614 or 1615.' 
Champlain was the founder of Quebec and the first governor of 
New France (Canada). Certain it is that Champlain's map of 1632 
indicates the Maumee, the St. Mary's and the St. Joseph rivers, 
and certain also is it that "he 
passed by places he has de- 
scribed in his book which are 
no other than Detroit and Lake 

Encouraged by the accom- 
plishments of Champlain and 
the Jesuits who did valiantserv- 
ice in reporting the condition of 
the newly-discovered countries 
to the westward, the home gov- 
ernment of France supported 
other expeditions the success 
of which is shown by the maps 
of the. Great Lakes region bear- 
ing dates of the seventeenth 
century and forming fascinat- 
ing objects of study today. 
Among those of greatest inter- 
est to us, for they include the 
Port Wayne site, with its rivers, are the maps of Nicolas Sanson 
(1656), Pere du Crexius (1680) and Louis Joliet (1672-1674). 


The ancient dispute concerning the movements of Robert Cav- 
alier, Sieur de LaSalle, must receive its share of attention at this 
turn of the story, because the future searcher for the truth may 
find that LaSalle really trod upon the soil on which the city of 
Fort Wayne arose. There are likely reasons for the belief that 
the explorer's journal, which was lost in the wreck of his sailing 
vessel, the Grififon, on Lake Michigan, contained positive proof 
that LaSalle not only traversed the Maumee-Wabash valleys and 
their portage, but that it was a common route of travel of the 
explorer and his companions. In a communication of 1680, LaSalle 
reported to the Canadian governor that "there is at the head of 
Lake Erie ten leagues below the strait [Detroit river?] a river 
[Maumee?] by which we could shorten the route to the Illinois 
very much.'" Two years later, he wrote, at a time when the oppo- 
sition of the Jesuits had reached a distressing point, that his 
enemies doubtless were aiding in prolonging the war of the Iroquois 

That this foremost of aU French ex- 
plorers of North America traversed the 
site of Fort Wayne In his Journeys be- 
tween Lake Erie and the Mississippi 
Is the belief of many students of the 
early French period of the Maumee- 
Wabash vaUeys. 


against the Miamis "in hope that the war would ruin me by putting 
an end to the trade of Fort Frontenac [Quebec] or that it would 
enable them to have a constant pretext for complaint against me ; 
for," he explains— and his explanation is eagerly quoted by those 
who would prove that LaSalle refers to his former use of the 
Maumee- Wabash portage— "I should not then be able to go to 
the Illinois country except by way of the Lakes Huron and Illinois 
[Michigan] because the other routes which I have discovered by 
the end of Lake Erie and the southern shore of that lake would 
become too dangerous on account of the frequent encounters with 
the Iroquois who are always about those parts. 

In further explanation of his choice short-cut route, LaSalle 
says in another communication: "The river which you have seen 
marked on my map of the district to the south of that lake is, in fact, 
the way to get to the river Ohio, or Beautiful river. » • • This 
way is the shortest of all." And then he enters upon a description 
of the route which appears to show how the traveler passes over 
the portage from Lake Erie to Lake Chautauqua; thence into a 
tributary of the Alleghany river, from which stream the voyager 
makes his way into the Ohio and finally into the Mississippi.* 

But, it will be observed, LaSalle wrote of the other "routes" 
which he had discovered, and merely spoke of this one as "the 
shortest of all."* And so, the question remains open and we shall 
ever cherish the hope that the feet of the great explorer pressed 
the soil of Fort Wayne in those days of toil and struggle against 
the discouraging elements of the wilderness as well as against the in- 
trigues of human enemies.' 

, 10 


ni t?pp Francis Parkman's "The and from the communities if they do 

Jelults in Non" America ■• not marry within fifteen days after 

Jesuits in ssoTin Ameiiua.. arrival of the sh ps from France 

(2) History of Indiana. Logan {^^itJ;"^omen Imported for the pur- 
Esarey. page 12. pose]." 

(3) Many works on the western (5) pr Charles E. Slocum, "Mau- 
Indians are to be found in the Fort ,^^5 River Basin," vol. i. page 463. 
Wayne Public Library. Dunn's ' In- (g) fjg^ York Colonial Documents. 
JIana," Slocum's "Maumee River Ba- (7) pjerre Margry, "Decouvertes des 
sin" and articles on the subject in Francals dans I'Amerique Septrlon- 
the publications of the historical so- ale." vol. 11. 

cieties of Indiana and Ohio, however, (g) That this route was well 

provide the most reliable informa- known and used in later years Is 

tlon concerning the tribes connected shown by the fact that Captain 

with the history of Fort Wayne. Celeron, in 1749, took his army over 

(4) The coureur de bols, or wood- that portion of it extending from 
ranger was, as a rule, lawless in Lake Brie to the mouth of the Great 
everv view of civilized life. He won Miami river. (See Chapter V). 

his way with the savages, who (9) E. L. Taylor, of Columbus. Ohio, 

granted him every license. He writing Jn vol. xvi of the Ohio 

was defiant and beyond the control Ohio Archaelogical and Historical So- 

of state or church. The efforts of ciety Publications expreses the 

the French government to control opinion that LaSalle, after travers- 

these first adventurers to Invade the ing the Chautauqua Lake and Ohio 

west is suggested in the memoir of river route, surely returned by an- 

M Talon to King Louis XIV, in 1670, other way. "It was necessarily by 

In which he said: "They are excluded way of the Great Miami and the 

by law from the honors of the church Maumee, or by way of the Scioto 



and Sandusky rivers," says he. "No 
other routes were at that time open 
to him. Whichever of these routes 
he may have taken, he was the first 
white man to have passed over It, 
The probabilities are that he went 
by way of the Great Miami and the 
Maumee [traversing the site of Fort 
Wayne] to Lake Erie, but It is not 
certain, and not much can be claimed 
for it," 

(10) Throughout his years of ex- 
ploration. LaSalle had met the bitter 
opposition of the Jesuits who, accord- 
ing to his narrative, contrived In 
every way to thwart his plans. "As 
to what you tell me. that even my 
friends say that I am not popular," 
he wrote, in 1682 to the representa- 
tive of the crown, "I do not know 
who they are, for I am not aware 

of any friends of mine In this coun- 
try." Upon one occasion, Nicolas 
Perrot served him a deadly poison, 
and later confessed the deed, "I have 
pardoned him, nevertheless, in order 
to avert giving publicity to an affair 
the mere suspicion of which might 
stain their [the Jesuits'] reputation," 
he wrote. "The Jesuits sent to France 
one of their lay brothers called JoUet, 
with a map made from hearsay, and 
this lay brother attributed to him- 
self the honor of that discovery," 
writes Abbe Renaudot, friend of La- 
Salle. No one but M. de La- 
Salle was capable of having made 
the discovery." The same writer 
charges Father Louis Hennepin with 
plagiarism In claiming as his own 
LaSalle'a description of the lands of 
his discovery. 

CHAPTER IV— 1683-1732. 
Kekionga During the "Golden Era" of French Rule. 

The peaceable mission of the French in the Maumee-Wabash valleys — 
Opposition to the encroachment ot the English traders — The demoral- 
ization of the fur trade by the Miami-Iroquois war — Restoration of peace 
followed by the establishment of a stronger post on the site of Fort 
Wayne (1697) — Jean Baptiste Bissot and his great plan to "monopolize" 
the Miamis — Cadillac Invades the Maumee-Wabash valleys — Tattooed 
savages at the site of Fort Wayne — Buffalo and bear — Margane estab- 
lishes Ouiatanon and commands Post Miami (Fort Wayne) — Founds 
Vincennes — Margane burned at the stake. 

SCHOOLCRAFT tells us that the Indians of the northwest often 
referred to "the days of the French supremacy as a kind of 
golden era, when all things in their affairs were better than 
they now are." 

The early Frenchman came to the Maumee-Wbaash valleys on 
a misson of peace. His nature fitted him well to the unconventional 
life of the wilderness. He chose a wife from among the dusky 
belles of the forest and became an Indian in thought and deed. 
He busied himself in trapping the fur-bearing animals which 
abounded in countless numbers and he paid a good price to his 
dark-skinned companions, for their co-operative labor. 

Never, after the Frenchman was driven from the Maumee- 
Wabash valleys, did the red man find another such true companion. 
When the Englishman came, he scorned close social relationship 
with the savage, and finally, with the gaining of his confidence, 
implanted in his mind the belief that the sole object of the westward 
movement of the new American pioneer was to rob him of his 
lands. Thus was the benevolent policy of Washington made to 
appear that of a robber and a thief, with the resultant bloodshed 
and turmoil which brought discouragement to the whites and ulti- 
mate loss of everything dear to the heart of the child of the forest. 
Furthermore, the passing of the "golden era" of the French occu- 
pation marks the coming of the Indian's deadliest enemy — whiskey. 

We have followed the Frenchman from the period of his landing 
on American soil, groping his watery way up the St. Lawrence, 
beholding with wonder the cataract of Niagara as he carried his 
birch bark canoe to launch it upon the waters of Lake Erie, and 
finally we find him paddling up the Maumee to his destination at 
the forks of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's. It is now our interesting 



task to consider his movements, with the site of Fort Wayne as a 
center of his activities, and to share with him his hopes and his 

Little did our first Frenchman know that the English colonist 
on the Atlantic coast would one day also push his way to the west- 
ward and come upon him with the boldness of one who holds an 
ownership and who looks upon all others as intruders and tres- 
passers. But a well-developed fear of this very condition had 
spread to the mother country long before the close of the seven- 
teenth century. Lefebore de LaBarre, governor of Canada, writing 
to Nicholas Colbert in November, 1682, declared he was not at all 
interested in LaSalle's discovery of the mouth of the Mississippi, 
but that he was "for turning to account what we possess, prevent- 
ing the English from destroying our trade, but without a quarrel, 
and siibduing the Iroquois. That," he added, "is quite a sufficient 
task for three years." In truth, it was the impossible task of a 
lifetime. For already had come the beginning of the end of the 
rule of France in all North America. 

In increasing numbers, the English pushed their way to the 
west, seeking always the friendship of the Indians through their 
ability to offer greater rewards than the French could afford' in 
return for the valuable peltries which constituted the sole trade of 
the region. The keenest minds among the French were now busy 
with plans to keep back the Englishman and to preserve the friend- 
ship of the savage. 

"If you will pay some attention to the country occupied by 
the English [the eastern colonies], and that which they intentd 
to occupy." observed LeMoyne d 'Iberville, "to the forces they 
possess in these colonies, where there are neither priests nor nuns 
and all propagate their species, and to the forces they will have 
in thirty or forty years [by the years 1730 or 1740], you can have 
no doubt that they will seize upon the country which lies between 
them and the Mississippi, one of the finest countries in the world. "' 


The true basis of the controversy was the effort to control the 
fur trade. "If the English once get possession of the River Colbert 
[Mississippi], for which they are striving with all their might, but 
which they cannot succeed in doing if we anticipate them," de- 
clared Abbe Jean Cavalier, brother of LaSalle, "they would be- 
come masters, also, of the Illinois, the Outaouacs [Ottawas] and 
all the tribes with whom the French people in New France [Canada] 
carry on trade. Our colony would then be destroyed." 

D'Iberville sought the privilege of establishing a post on the 


lower Wabash and three others on the western rivers, besides 
forming an army of 12,000 savages to attack the English settle- 
ments in Maryland, Virginia and Carolina. The government 
frowned upon the latter suggestion, but acquiesced in his plan to 
form a settlement on the Wabash.' One day in 1709, the site of the 
city of Fort Wayne was the scene of the movement of D 'Iberville 's 
colony, passing from Detroit to the lower Wabash in the newly- 
created province of Louisiana.* Following these adventurous 
pioneers came other groups of colonists, one of the most important 
of which was under the guidance of M. de Tressenet.' 

This plan failed in its gr^t object. De la Motte Cadillac," 
founder of Detroit (Post Ponchartrain) complained to Count Pon- 
chartrain that "the forces of the French are too much scattered; 
they live too far apart'" for mutual protection. Cadillac had 
established his post at Detroit as a purely commercial venture — 
"to maintain the trade in beaver skins "^ for shipment to Montreal 
and thence to France." With like intent, Francois Morgane (Mar- 



A map drawn by Father Jean Bonne- 
camps while on the site of Fort Wayne 
in 1749 (torty-flve years before the 
coming of General Wayne) shows that 
the French fort of that period (Post 
Miami) stood on a site which may now 
be described as a point on the right 
bank of the St. Mary's river, a short 
distance north of the Nickel Plate rail- 
road tracks (see map). The command- 
ants in succession appear to have been 
Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de Vin- 

cennes (1697), Francois Morgane, Sieur de Vincennes (1725), Ensign Douville 
(1734), Ensign Dubuisson (1747), M. de Raimond (1748). Ralmond, in 1750, 
abandoned the place and erected the last French fort on a site at the junction 
of the present St. Joe boulevard and Delaware avenue, on the St. Joseph riv- 
er, a point also within the present city of Fort Wayne. 


gane or Morgan), who later succeeded to the seigniory and title of 
Sieur de Vincennes, established a number of trading posts along 
the banks of the Maumee and Wabash rivers and gave attention 
to the strengthening and repair of those which already had been 

Meanwhile, the English were giving earnest thought to the best 
method of driving out the French and securing the good-will of 
the savages. "The English and the Indians are in good corre- 
spondence," wrote Colonel Ingoldsby to the British Trade Commis- 
sioners in 1697, "but the French outdo us much in carressing them." 
How well the picture describes the contrasting traits of the con- 
tending forces of the whites ! — sentiment pitted against cold-blooded 
commercialism, in which the former was gradually broken down 
and the latter swung into triumph. 

J. Chetwynd, P. Doeminique, M. Bladen and E. Ashe, composing 
an English commission to review the situation in America in 1721 
for their king, gave this information in their report : 

"From the lake [Erie] to the Mississippi they [the French] 
have three different routes. The shortest is up the river Miamis or 
Ouamis [Maumee] on the southwest of Lake Erie, on which river 
they sail about 150 leagues without interruption, when they find 
themselves stopt by another landing of about three leagues which 
they call a carrying place, because they are generally obliged to 
carry their canoes over land in these places to the next river, 
and that [river] where they next embark is a very shallow one 
called La Riviere de portage [Little river] ; hence they row about 
40 leagues to the river Oubache [Wabash] and from thence about 
120 leagues to the river Ohio, into which the Wabash falls, as the 
river Ohio does about 80 leagues lower into the Mississippi, which 
continues its course for about 350 leagues directly to the bay of 

During the progress of the Iroquois war against the Indians 
of the west, the sympathy of the British with the Iroquois, had 
brought to the Miamis and their allies the strong military leader- 
ship of LaSalle, who, during 1682 and 1683 "was all through In- 
diana and Illinois urging the tribes to unite and join him at 
Fort St. Louis [site of Peoria, Illinois]."" The bloody struggle 
continued, however, until the close of the year 1697 ; indeed, the 
lasting peace between the warring nations came not until eight 
years after the tragic death of LaSalle." But now the Indian 
war was at an end. The French, who had withdrawn to the 
region about Detroit or to the westward and northward to the 
lakes, returned to their business in the Maumee-Wabash valleys 
and sought the protection of the authorities at Quebec. It is at 



this time that we first come upon the names of men intimately 
connected with the development of the story of the spot on which 
Fort Wayne now rests. 


Heading that list is the name of Jean Baptiste Bissot, Sieur de 

Authorities differ as to the time of the building of the first 
French fortifications on the site of Fort Wayne, known for a 
long period as Post (or Fort) 
Miami. Neither is it known 
whether or not Bissot was the 
builder. One historian is posi- 
tive that "their Post Miami, at 
the head of the Maumee" was 
"built about 1680 to 1686," 
and that it was "rebuilt and 
strengthened in 1697 by Cap- 
tain de Vincennes [Bissot]."" 
The writer discovers Margry 
telling us that "in the spring 
[1696], d'Ailleboust d'Argen- 
teuil had orders to take com- 
mand of the soldiers who were 
to go up [from Detroit] to Mis- 
sillimackinac [Mackinac], and 
the Sieur Bissot de Vincennes 
[accompanied by Legardeur de 
Courtmanche] was directed to 
go to the Miamis," but it is 
clear from the context that the 
Miamis, at this time, were 


« 2/ U^a^ /y2>y 


Two letters written to the French 
government by Francois Morgane, Sieur 
de Vincennes. commandant of Post Mi- 
ami (Fort Wayne) from 1725 to 1731. 
are reproduced in fac simile in the In- 
diana Historical Society Publications, 
Vol. III. in connection with Jacob P. 
Dunn's article on "The Mission to the 
Oubache (Wabash)." The above sig- 
nature is reproduced from one of them. 
Translation — "Your very humble and 
very obedient servant, Vinsiene. Of the 
Fort of the Wabash. This 21 March, 
1733." The post was not named for its 
founder until three years after his 
tragic death; formerly it was known 
as "Au Oubache," "Post des Piagui- 
chats." "Little Ouiatanon," and, latterly, 

gathered about the southeast- 
ern shore of Lake Michigan and that Vincennes made his may 
to their villages by way of the straits of Mackinaw. 

But we do know that with the removal of the Miamis to the 
site of Fort Wayne, the beautiful place of their beloved Kekionga, 
at the union of the three rivers, came to the Maumee this first 
known hero of our story. This was probably in 1697. Bissot 's 
activities were hastened by an aggressive move of the English. 
Governor Benjamin Fletcher, of New York, who aroused the fears of 
Frontenac, governor of Canada, by sending a large party of traders 
to the west with rich gifts for the savages, whereupon the French 
governor found himself "under the necessity of sending a much 


larger niunber of Frenchmen, regulars and militia, than he at first 
supposed, to expel the enemy [English] from that post [Miami], 
if they had seized it, or to prevent them from entering." Sieurs 
de Manteth and Courtmanche, in charge of the expedition were 
ordered "to think more of fighting than of trading."" They 
found the post still in the hands of their own people, and the 
garrison under the command of Bissot, who, we find, was re- 
appointed to the control of the station in 1706. 

That the report of the conduct of Bissot was such as to offend 
the home government is revealed in a letter from the French 
throne written by M. de Ponehartrain at Versailles in June, 1706, 
and addressed to M. de Vaudreuil, then governor of Canada. "You 
ought not to have sent Sieur de Vinsiene to the Miamis nor Sieur 
de Louvigny to the Missilimaquina [Mackinac]," he declared, 
"as they are all accused of carrying on a contraband trade, 
• * • and His Majesty desires that you cause Sieur de Vinsiene 
to be severely punished." 

Bissot, like many another leading spirit of all times, doubtless 
had fallen the victim of the spite of his enemies who knew that he 
had been "expressly forbidden to trade in beaver,"'* (which skins 
were always always reserved for the enrichment of the home govern- 
ment) and who had reported a real or alleged failure to observe his 
instructions. He was a favorite, however, with the Canadian gov- 
ernor, who had written the king two years earlier that "Sieur de 
Vinsiene, my. lord, has been former commandant of the Miamis, by 
whom he was much beloved. This," he explained, "led me to select 
him in preference to any other to prove to that nation how wrong 
they were to attack the Iroquois — our allies and theirs — without 
any cause; and we, M. de Beaueharnois and I, after consultation, 
permitted the said Sieur de Vinsiene to carry some goods and to take 
with him six men and two canoes."" 

From this time forward, Bissot, with the exception of a brief 
period during which his activities called him to other scenes," held 
the command of the post until 1719. During this time, the per- 
sistent efforts of the British to gain a foothold in the rich valleys of 
the Maumee and the Wabash determined him upon a course of 
action which, in the magnitude of its scope and the uniqueness of 
its possibilities, stands out strongly among the events of the time. 
Bissot's plan involved the migration of all the Miamis from the 
region of the Maumee and the Wabash to a new tribal center, a 
choice spot on the St. Joseph river of Lake Michigan, at the site 
of the present city of South Bend, Indiana; there to guard them 
by force of arms from the influence of the British traders who 
were appearing in ever-increasing numbers. How well the scheme 



might have served its great purpose is problematical, for the death 
of Bissot, on the eve of its consummation forever discouraged the 

Sieur Dubuisson, sent by the governor of Canada to complete 
the work as designed by Bissot, failed to carry it to a finish. "I learn 
from the last letters that have arrived from the Miamis," wrote 
the disappointed Vaudreuil to the Council of Marine in 1719, "that 
Sieur de Vinsiene, having died in their village [Kekionga], these 
Indians have resolved not to remove to the river St. Joseph; this 
is very dangerous, on account of the facility they have of com- 
municating with the English, who are incessantly distributing war 
belts in secret.'"^ Upon the death of Bissot, the British redoubled 

During the period of the Chief Nicolas conspiracy, in 1747, while the com- 
mandant, Ensign Douville, was absent at Detroit, the savages attacked the post 
situated on the St. Mary's river In the present city of Port Wayne and partially 
destroyed It with fire. The post was rebuilt, and later, in 1750 a new fort waq 
established on the left bank of the St. Joseph river. The drawing is after an 
old woodcut. 


their efforts to win the favor of the Miamis; at this time a large 
number of firearms and quantities of ammunition were given to 
the savages in exchange for furs.-° 

It is interesting now to consider the British view of the situa- 
tion which is well set forth in a letter of Colonel Caleb Heathcote, 
addressed to Governor Robert Hunter, of Virginia, who declared 
that "it is impossible that we and the French can both inhabit this 
continent in peace, but that one nation must at last give way to 
the other. So," he observes, " 'tis very necessary that without 
sleeping away our time, all precautions imaginable should be taken 
to prevent its falling to our lots to move."^' The student of Ameri- 
can history who may have been difficult to understand the causes 
of the French and Indian war, will gather from a study of condi- 
tions in the west at this period the true reason for the conflict which 
ultimately broke in all its fury and determined the final exclusion 
of France from the North American continent. 


A picture of conditions about the confluence of the St. Mary's 
and the St. Joseph at this time comes down to us from the letter 
of a French officer, writing in 1718. "The Miamis are sixty leagues 
from Lake Erie and number four hundred, all good-formed men 
and well tattooed," he writes. "They are hard-working, and raise 
a species of maize unlike that of our Indians at Detroit. It is 
white, of the same size as tlie other, the skin much finer, and the 
meal much whiter. This nation is clad in deerskin, and when a 
woman goes with another man, her husband cuts off her nose and 
refuses to see her any more. They have plays and dances; where- 
fore they have more occupation. The women are well clothed, but 
the men use scarcely any covering, and are tattooed all over the 
body." The writer adds in description of the region to the south- 
west, along the Wabash, that "from the summit of this elevation 
nothing is visible to the eye but prairies full of buffalo."-' Another 
writer of the same year adds strength to the correctness of the latter 
remarkable statement in the claim that along the Maumee river, 
at the mouth of the Auglaize, near the present city of Defiance, 
Ohio, "buffaloes are always to be found; they eat the clay and 
wallow in it."=° Five years earlier, Father Gabriel Marest, a 
French missionary, wrote of the region to the southward that "the 
quantity of buffalo and bear found on the Oubache [Wabash] is 
incredible,"" and LaSalle in 1682, describing the region of the 
Ohio, says: "The multitude of buffalo is beyond belief. I have 
seen twelve hundred of them killed in eight days by a single band 
of Indians." 


Six years after the death of Bissot, his more famous nephew, 
Francois Margane, was assigned to the command of the French 
stronghold on the site of Fort Wayne. Previous to this, in 1719 
or 1720, Margane had established the important post of Ouiatanon 
on the Wabash near the present Lafayette, Indiana, — a position 
which was maintained as a center of French and Indian power for 
a period of more than seventy j^ears, indeed, until it was wiped out 
of existence in 1791 by General James Wilkinson, between the 
periods of the St. Clair and Wayne campaigns. Today, its exact 
location is a subject of lively dispute.-^ 

But the period of Margane 's command of the post at the head 
of the Maumee was not to be of long duration. His services were 
neeeded elsewhere. From the southern province of Louisiana came 
the demand for the advantage of his wise counsel and leadership 
in establishing a post on the lower Wabash, a point nearer to the 
Ohio river, where the movements of the British could more easily 
be controlled. The appeal for his co-operation, contained in the 
letter of M. de Boisbriant to the governor of Canada, is most inter- 
esting. "He can do more with the Miamis than anyone else," 
said he, and then followed the offer of "an annuity of three hundred 
livres [$55.50] which will be paid to him with his salary as a half- 
lieutenant."" It was not until 1731, however, that the Canadian 
government consented to the transfer of Jlargane to the Louisiana 
portion of the Wabash. In this year, Margane established the post 
known by the various names of St. Vincent, Oposte, The Post "Au 
Oubache," "Post des Piquichats," and "Little Ouiatanon." and 
which, three years after the death of its founder, came to be 
called Vineennes. The present Indiana city developed on this site." 

The tragic death of Margane, who, with another French leader, 
D'Artaguiette, fell into the hands of savage foes and was burned 
at the stake five years after the founding of the post, was but an 
incident of the times when heroism counted for so little in a land 
where contending forces of whites alternately held and lost the 
friendship of the murderous savages into whose hands they had 
placed the powers of destruction. 


(1) "The duty the French Company Wabash river and also to that por- 
ts obliged to pay to the king • • • tlon of the present Ohio river from 
enables the traders of New York to the mouth of the Wabash to the 
sell their goods in the Indian coun- mouth of the Ohio, at the Mississippi, 
try at half the price the people of That portion of the Ohio above Its 
Canada can, and reap twice the profits confluence with the Wabash was 
they do." (London Documents, New sometimes called the Ohio and oftener 
York Colonial Documents, vol. v, page known as the Beautiful river. 

730.) (•*) French America was divided 

,„, -ry- „ ni„,„,„ 'nto two great general provinces at 

(2) Pierre Margry. ^j,,g ^^^^_ Canada and Louisiana, the 

(3) It should be understood that at separating line extending from east 
this time, the name Oubache (Wa- to west across the present state of 
bash) was given to the present Indiana near the site of Terre Haute. 



(5) "Memoir de la Marine et des 
Colonies," Bockwlths Notes on the 
Northwest, page 97. 

(6) Cadillac, In 1707, sallied forth 
from Detroit at the head of a body 
of troops, passed up the Maumee and 
across the portage to the Wabash, 
for the purpose of displaying the 
strength of the French arms as a 
means to discourage the communica- 
tions between the English and the 
Indians on the White river. 

(7) E. M. Sheldon. "Early History 
of Michigan," page 85. 

(8) Pierre Margry. 

(9) The extent of the fur trade can 
best be grasped through the state- 
ment that Cadillac offered 10.000 Uvres 
for the exclusive right for Its con- 
trol at Detroit. In 1702, 20,000 skins 
were shipped from the Wabash and 
Maumee region, and In 1705, 15,- 
000 hides and skins were shipped 
southward from the same sections. 
Between 1701 and 1704, 30,000 beavers 
were killed about Detroit. 

(10) "Maumee River Basin," vol. 1, 
page 87. 

(11) Dunn's "Indiana." 

(12) LaSalle was murdered by 
treacherous companions In 1697 while 
forcing his way northward from the 
present state of Texas where, while 
endeavoring to found a colony on 
the gulf coast, one of his ships was 
wrecked, and enemies In his own 
camp defeated his crowning effort In 
behalf of his government. 

(13) The widespread cloud of mys- 
tery which for many years enshroud- 
ed the Identity of Jean Baptiste Bissot, 
Sleur de VIncennes. and his Illustrious 
nephew, Francois Margane (Morgane 
or Morgan) has been lifted through 
the efforts of Edmond Mallet and 
others, who have given much time to 
the study of the genealogy of the 
families bearing the title of VIn- 
cennes. (See Mallet's article. "Sleur 
de Vincenne.s." in Indiana Historical 
Society Publications, vol. HI, page 58.) 
Francois Margane de la Valtrle, Sleur 
de VIncennes, was the full name and 
title of the second VIncennes, com- 
mandant at the site of Fort Wayne, 
whose name Is preserved In that of 
the ancient Indiana city. VIncennes 
was a seigniory in the present Belle- 
chasse county. Quebec, granted to the 
Bissot family In 1672. It passed from 
Jean Baptiste Bissot to Margane upon 

the death of the former, in 1719, pro- 
ably in the present Lakeside. 

(14) Dr. Charles E. Slocum, "Mau- 
mee River Basin," vol. 1, page 86. 

(15) New York Colonial Documents, 
vol. Ix, page 569. 

(16) New York Colonial Documents, 
Paris Documents, vol. Ix, page 676. 

(17) New York Colonial Documents, 
vol. I.K, page 759. 

(18) In the summer of 1712, VIn- 
cennes made a boat voyage to Quebec, 
with a message from Sleur Dubuis- 
son, then in command at Detroit, to 
(Jovernor Vaudreuil. "The over- 
whelming work I have day and night 
In the public and private councils I 
hold with the savages," said Dubuls- 
son, "prevents me from giving you 
full details." In explanation, he said 
the English were bribing the Indians 
to attack and destroy the fort at De- 
troit, the garrison of which consisted 
of but thirty men. There were only 
eight men at Post Miami (Fort 
Wayne) In this year, and these had 
accompanied Vincenncs to Detroit to 
assist In defending the post. 

(19) New York Colonial Documents, 
vol. Ix, page 894. 

(20) "Maumee River Basin," vol. I, 
page 466. 

(21) New York Colonial Documents, 
vol. V, page 30. 

(22) Paris Documents. New York 
Colonial Documents. 

(23) New York Colonial Documents, 
vol. ix, page 891. 

(24) Judge Law's "Colonial History 
of VIncennes," page 11; Fort Wayne 
Public Library. 

(25) See article on "Ouiatanon," by 
Oscar J. Craig, Indiana Historical So- 
ciety Publications, vol. II, page 319. 

(26) "Jesuit Relations," vol. Ixx, 
page 316; Fort Wayne Public Library. 

(27) An erroneous Impression, aris- 
ing from the date of the founding of 
another post on the Ohio river has 
placed the time of the establishment 
of the post of VIncennes In 1702. 
Jacob P. Dunn, through the citation 
of the authority of manuscript let- 
ters of Margane. unearthed In Paris, 
shows clearly that the founding of 
the post at Vincennes took place in 
1731. See Dunn's "Indiana." preface 
to enlarged edition. Fort Wayne Pub- 
lic Library. See also Dunn's "The 
Mission to the Oubache," Indiana His- 
torical Publications, vol. 111. 

CHAPTER V— 1733-1749. 
The Last French Posts on the Site of Fort Wayne. 

Longueuil's troops at the head of the Maumee— The Chief Nicolas 
(Sanosket) uprising— Capture of Post Miami (Fort Wayne)— Its partial 
destruction by fire while Douville, the commandant, is absent — Dubuls- 
son rebuilds the fort— The remarkable voyage of Captain Bienville de 
Celeron — The duplicity of LaDemoiselle, chief of the Piankeshaws — 
Bonnecamps describes the conditions at Post Miami (Fort Wayne) — 
Chief Cold Foot undeceives Captain Celeron— Captain Raimond builds a 
new fort on the St. Joseph river- Cold Foot village— Growth of the 
fur trade — Description of life on the portage route — The introduction 
of whiskey— Joseph Drouet de Richardville— The first English post In 
the west — Raimond foresees disaster. 

THE SITE OF FORT WAYNE was the scene of growing bitter 
strife between the two powerful European nations which 
told of the waning power of France in the West. Slowly 
but certainly the English gained the alliance of the powerful leaders 
of the more easterly Indian tribes, and even the friendship of the 
Miamis for their French brothers became a doubtful matter. 

As early as 1733, Sieur de Arnaud was sent from Detroit to 
quell an outbreak among the Ouiatanons (Weas) on the Wabash. 
In vain did M. de Longueuil himself lead a strong force of French- 
men across the site of Fort Wayne against a body of unfriendly 
savages and English gathered on the White river. The display of 
military power no longer held the savage in cheek. 

And then came the uprising of the Hurons (Wyandottes) under 
Chief Sanosket (Sandosket)^ known also as Nicolas, the first fierce 
savage outbreak against the French in the west. It resulted in 
the burning of several of the posts and the general demoralization of 
the French military forces in the Maumee-Wabash valleys. 

The earlier movements of Nicolas, under the direction of the 
English, were openly displayed in the massacre of five Frenchmen 
who were returning to Detroit from their trading posts on the 
White river, in the present Indiana. 

As soon as the emissaries of Nicolas reached the site of Fort 
Wayne, they deceived the Miamis into the belief that the post at 
Detroit, with its garrison, had fallen into the hands of the con- 
spirators and that there remained no reason why the lives of the 
men at Post Miami (Fort Wayne) should be spared. The Miamis 
believed the report but were reluctant to massacre the Frenchmen 
at their post. They did, however, surround the fort, set it on fire, 





and take captive the eight men who happened to be within the 
stockade at the time.- Two of the men escaped and made their 
way to Detroit where the news of the affair caused alarm and 
put under way a general preparation to check the spreading dis- 
affection of the savages. 

The stockade and buildings on the site of Fort Wayne were but 
partially destroyed. At the time of the attack, Ensign Douville 
was absent from the post over which he held temporary com- 
mand. He had been sent from Detroit to the Miamis for the special 
purpose of inviting them to attend a conference at Montreal," and 
two of their chiefs. Cold Foot and Pore Epic (Hedgehog) had accom- 

'4 <■ ^-'> Mjfff! 


MURDER OF 1763. 
The landscape Is a view looking up the St. Joseph river in Fort Wayne 
from a point near the junction of St. Joe boulevard and Deiaware avenue. On 
the high ground at the right. M. de Raimond erected the last of the French 
forts in 1750. Raimond at that time abandoned the site on the St. Mary's river, 
near the present Nickel Plate railroad tracks. It was from the new fort 
that Raimond wrote in alarm to the French governor of Canada that "nobody 
wants to stay here and have his throat cut: if the English stay in this country 
we are lost — we must attack and drive them out." In 1760, the fort fell to the 
British. Ensign Robert Holmes, three years later, was murdered by the In- 
dians and the men of the garrison were taken prisoners. 


panied him as far as Detroit, at which place the news of the outbreak 
overtook him. He proceeded to Montreal alone, while the two 
friendly chiefs returned to their people. 

Sieur Dubuisson, leaving his post at Detroit, then hastened to 
the post on the site of Fort Wayne in response to penitent protes- 
tations from the Miamis that they had been deceived into a partici- 
pation in the outbreak, and pleading for mercy because they had 
spared the lives of the men. The petition of the savages had 
been addressed directly to Lougueuil, urging him to "send back 
some Frenchmen to them, and not to deprive them of their indis- 
pensable supplies, promising him that order would be restored in 
a short time. That officer yielded to their solicitation, with a view 
to deprive the enemy [the British] of the liberty of seizing a post 
of considerable importance."* 

Dubuisson was instructed, however, to form but a small estab- 
lishment for the winter. He was supplied with thirty Frenchmen 
to garrison the post, as well as a like number to pass onward to the 
post at Oouiatanon, on the Wabash. The latter Avere instructed to 
rejoin Dubuisson in the spring and return with him and his force 
to Detroit. 

It appears that the few Miamis who remained in the region 
kept their promise of loyalty, but an overt act of characteristic 
savage cruelty occured at Post Miami soon after the arrival of 
Dubuisson and his men. One of the latter, captured by a lurking 
Iroquois, was scalped and the bloody trophy was carried in triumph 
to the camp of Nicolas. 

The larger portion of the Miamis showed their strong disaffec- 
tion by refusing to return to their village of Kiskakon (Kekionga), 
but chose rather to gather at the strongholds of the enemies of the 
French. Only one chief — Cold Foot — and he without influence, 
remained faithful to the French garrison.'' 


The situation was such as to call forth the most drastic action 
on the part of the French if they would retain a hold on their 
possessions in the west. Acting upon orders, Dubuisson returned 
to Detroit, leaving Post Miami in charge of Captain M. de Raimond. 
This was in the spring of 1748. At this time, France determined 
upon a powerful stroke to announce to the world its possession of the 
entire west, with the Alleghany and Ohio rivers as the eastern and 
southern boundaries. On the 15th of June, 1749, acting under the 
command of the home government, Captain Pierre Joseph Bien- 
ville de Celeron," with a command of two hundred French soldiers 
and thirty Indians,' set out upon a voyage which was designed to 


end for all time any dispute concerning the true ownership of the 
lands between the eastern colonies and the Mississippi. 

Passing from Lake Erie over the portage into Lake Chautauqua, 
the expedition entered the Alleghany river, and then coursed down 
the Ohio to the mouth of the Great Miami river (near the present 
Cincinnati), where Celeron buried the last of six leaden plates 
which bore the proclamation that France had taken formal posses- 
sion of the land. Paddling their canoes up the Great Miami, the 
expedition, on the 29th of August, approached the village of a 
famous Miami chief of the Piankeshaw band, known as LeDemoiselle 
(Young Woman) because of his fondness for dress and ornaments. 
To this village of LaDemoiselle had fled many of the fugitive Miamis 
who had deserted Post Miami (Fort Wayne) at the time of the 
Nicolas outbreak. To regain their confidence, Captain Celeron de- 
cided upon a council with LaDemoiselle and Chief Baril, represent- 
ing another band located on the White river, who was in the village 
at the time. Before proceeding to the town, Celeron dispatched 
messengers to the post of Captain Raimond, on the site of Fort 
Wayne, and requested, at once, the presence of an interpreter named 
Rois, and also as many horses as possible to assist the expedition 
in bringing their luggage across the portage from the Great Miami 
river to Post Miami. While wating here, the Miamis .sent four of 
their chiefs to escort the expedition to LaDemoiselle 's village. 
Arriving there, Celeron pitched his camp, set the guard and awaited 
the coming of the interpreter. "During this interval," he says in 
his record, "I sounded them to learn if they were disposed to return 
to Kiskakon [site of Fort Wayne], for that is the name of their 
ancient village. They had two hired English in their village whom 
I sent away before speaking to these people. On the 11th, tired 
of waiting for the interpreter and of seeing my provisions mean- 
while being used up, I determined to give my talk by means of 
an Iroquois who spoke Miamis well.'" 

With lavish distribution of gifts, Celeron made an earnest plea 
for the return of the Miamis to their village at the head of the 
Maumee. "In that country," said he, "you will enjoy the pleasures 
of life, it being the place where repose the bones of your fathers 
and those of M. de Vincennes fBissot] whom you loved so much 
and who always governed you in such a way that affairs always 
went well. If you have forgotten the counsels he gave you, these 
ashes will recall them to your memory. Have pity on the dead 
who call you back to your village ! I make an easy road to Kiskakon, 
where I will re-light your fires." 

The next day, LaDemoiselle responded by saying that the sav- 
ages would not return until the following spring. Celeron was 


bitterly disappointed, as he had hoped to make them a part of his 

On the 20th, the canoes were burned and the expedition departed 
overland for the post on the site of Fort Wayne, "each one carrying 
his provisions and baggage," writes Celeron, "except the officers, 
for whom I had procured horses and bearers." This strange expe- 
dition, as it approached the site of Fort Wayne was formed into 
four companies, each with an officer at the right and left. 

"On the 25th," says Celeron in his journal, "I arrived at M. 
de Raimond's who commands at Kiskakon, staying there only as 
long as it was necessary to buy provisions and canoes to convey me 
to Detroit." A more appreciable reference comes from the journal of 
the Reverend Father Jean de Bonnecamps.' Describing first the 
march along the banks of the St. Jlary's, wherein they "found large 
crabs in abundance," the priest's story continues with the account 
of the arrival here. He wrote : 

"The fort of the Miamis was in a very bad condition when we 
reached it. ilost of the palisades were decayed and fallen into 
ruin. There were eight houses, or, to speak more correctlj', eight 
miserable huts which only the desire of making money could render 
endurable. The French there number twenty-two ; all of them, 
including the commandant, had the fever. ]\Ionsieur Raimond did 
not approve the situation of the fort and maintained that it should 
be placed on the bank of the St. Joseph a scant league from the 
present site. He wished to show me the spot, but the hindrances 
of our departure prevented me from going hither. All I could do 
for him was to trace the plan for his new fort. The latitude of the 
old one is 41 degrees, 29 minutes."" 

This decaying fort stood on the right bank of the St. Mary's 
river in the bend of the stream a short distance north of the present 
Nickel Plate railroad bridges. 

It is not difficult to picture the commandant, ill with fever, 
seeking the advice and assistance of these visitors from a civilized 
section of the world, who declined to discommode themselves to aid 
him further than to give him a rough draught to guide him in the 
building of a new fort. But, perhaps, the depression of spirit ex- 
tended also to the heart of Celeron. "On the 26th." said he. "I 
called to me Cold Foot, chief of the Miamis at Kiskakon. and other 
principal Indians, to whom I repeated, in the presence of M. de 
Raimond and the officers of our detachment what I had said at the 
village of LaDemoiselle and the answers I got from them. After 
listening with much attention, he [Cold Foot] arose and said 
to me: 'I hope I am deceived, but I am sufficiently attached to the 
French to say that LaDemoiselle will be false. My grief is to be 




the only one who loves you, and to see all the nations of the earth 

let loose against the French." 

Cold Foot's prophecy was true. LaDemoiselle grew stronger 

in his opposition to the French and finally drew upon himself a 

tragedy which marked the beginning of the French and Indian war. 

Unable to secure a suffi- 
cient number of canoes to 
transport his company by water 
down the Maumee, Celeron 
sent some of his men overland 
to Detroit, at which place the 
expedition arrived eight days 


Whatever Captain R a i - 
mond may have thought of the 
refusal of the visitors to inter- 
est themselves in the location 
of his new fort, it is certain 
that he lost little time in be- 
ginning its erection. By the 
spring of 1750, this new home 
of his men, high above the 
surrounding territory, was 
ready for occupancy. While 
the former location was on low 
ground, the new fort occupied 
a commanding position on the 
east bank of the St. Joseph 
river (at the present St. Joe 
boulevard and Delaware avenue, formerly Baker avenue), where to- 
day the automobilist, as he hurries past the historic spot looks out 
upon a landscape to the westward very similar to that which glad- 
dened the vision of these hardy Frenchmen, now made unromantic, 
of course, by the evidences of civilization. 

The coming years were destined to weave about this fort of 
Captain Raimond many thrilling tales of romance, horror and blood- 
shed. Here were to be enacted the scenes of the love story of the 
Englishman, Holmes, and its tragic climax of massacre; the tale 
of Morris who faced death at the stake ; of Croghan and the rem- 
nants of the French and British during the days Avhen the young 
republic was training a Wayne and a Harrison in the school of 

With the abandonment of the old fort on the St. Mary's, the 

When the daring French leader, Cap- 
tain Bienville de Celeron, reached the 
site of Fort Wayne in Sepfember, 1749, 
with his soldiers and Indian allies, to 
take possession of the country In the 
name of the king: of France, he found 
the French fort "in a very bad condi- 
tion." Father Bonnecamps. who ac- 
companied the expedition, gives an In- 
teresting account of the entire voyage. 
The portrait is reproduced from the 
Garner & Lodge History of the United 
States, by permission of the publishers, 
John D. Morris & Co.. Philadelphia. The 
original painting is In the Chateau de 
Ramezay, Montreal. 


discarded buildings of the post became the center of an Indian 
settlement known as Cold Foot village, over which Chief Cold Foot 
presided until his death, which came at a time when his friendship 
was most keenly needed by the French commandant. 

The reference of Father Bonnecamps to the "miserable huts" 
of Post Miami "which only the desire of making money could 
render endurable," is a reminder of the growing importance to 
the fur trade, the protection of which held these men to guard the 
Maumee- Wabash valleys against the British. The portage was a 
busy highway of travel in those days. A word picture of its activi- 
ties is given by Francis Parkman, the historian of the French, who 

"From Vincennes one might paddle his canoe northward up 
the Wabash, until he reached the little wooden fort of Ouiatanon. 
Thence a path through the woods led to the banks of the Maumee. 
Two or three Canadians, or half-breeds, of whom there were num- 
bers about the fort, would carry the canoe on their shoulders, or, 
for a bottle of whiskey, a few Miamis might be bribed to undertake 
the task."'=' 

Parkman's suggestion of the presence of whiskey among the 
savages at this time brings into the story an element which adds 
terror to the succeeding chapters of our narrative in which the 
savage plays a part. For it was at this point that the severe re- 
strictions of the French against the introduction of intoxicants 
among the Indians were broken down, and from this time forward 
the taint of deadly "fire water" blackens the pages of the story 
of the frontier. 

The period of Raimond's administration brought to the region 
a number of celebrated men, among them Joseph Drouet de Rich- 
ardville who was destined to leave an illustrious name through 
the medium of his son, Jean Baptiste de Richard ville (Pe-che-wa), 
civil chief of the Miamis during the closing days of the strength of 
the tribe. He was the son of a wealthy French-Canadian trader 
of Kaskaskia and later of Vincennes. The advantages of the trade 
situation at the head of the Maumee drew him hither and he is 
often called the first permanent white settler of the site of Fort 

Within a brief period after his arrival, Joseph Drouet de Rich- 
vV ardville married Tah-cum-wah, a daughter of Aque-noch-qua, the 
f Vt^ vX reigning Miami chief. Tah-cum-wah^^ was a Sister'or Little Turtle, 
J^ 1)1^ 1 "the greatest Indian of all times." 

/S ^ Jean Baptiste de Richardville, son of Joseph Drouet de Richard- 

^ ville and Tah-cum-wah, was born in 1761, as he often stated, "near 

the old apple tree" in the present Lakeside (city of Fort Wayne). 





"The associations clustering around this old apple tree, during his 
childhood days, gave the chief, ever afterward, a profound regard, 
approaching almost to reverence; hence he was instrumental in its 

And in the meantime, despite the proclamations of Celeron and 
his like, the l)uilding of" new French posts, the strengthening of 
their larger settlements and their boasted claims of possession of 
the frontier, the garrison of Captain Raimond in their new fort 
on the St. Joseph, awoke one day to the startling truth that the 
British had established a settlement but a few short miles to the 
east — at Pickawillany'^ on the Great Miami — from whence trouble- 
some emissaries were soon to harass the posts to desperation. 

It was the beginning of new and lasting trouble. Raimond 
knew it, and he was the first to predict the destruction of the hopes 
of his countrymen in the west. 

locAr/o^ of= 

The map shows the route of Captain Pierre Joseph Bienville de Celeron Im 
1749. The expedition, intended to claim the land for France, in the name of the 
king, was composed of two hundred French soldiers and thirty Indians. 




(1) The chief village of Sanosket 
was on the site of the present San- 
dusky, Ohio, which derives Its name 
from this source. This was the first 
of the three important conspiracies 
of the Indians against the whites in 
the west. It is well to remember 
that the Nicolas conspiracy contem- 
plated the annihilation of the French, 
while the Pontiac outbreak was 
planned to destroy the English, and 
the conspiracy of Tecumseh and "The 
Prophet" was designed to drive the 
Americans from the west. 

(2) New Tork Colonial Documents, 
Paris Documents, vol. Ix, page 891. 

(3) Douville did not return to the 
west. In March, 1756, he led in an 
attack on an English fort and there 
lost his life. (See Montcalm's report. 
New Tork Colonial Documents, vol. x, 
page 416.) 

(4) New York Colonial Documents, 
Paris Documents, vol. x. Charles 
Regnault, Sieur Dubuisson, was In 
command at Detroit In 1710, between 
the administrations of Cadillac and 
LaForest. During his time, Detroit 
was attacked by Fox Indians. From 
1723 to 1727, he was in command of 
the post on the site of Fort Wayne. 
He was twice married; the former 
wife was Gabrielle Michelle Binet, and 
the latter, Louise Bizard. (Michigan 
Pioneer and Historical Collection). 

(5) Pennsylvania Archives, vol. 11, 
page 9. 

(6) The name of this officer Is also 
written Blainville de Celeron and 
Celeron de Bienville. 

(7) London Documents, xxlx; New 
York Colonial Documents, vol. vi, 
page 633. ' 

(8) Captain Celeron's Journal, In 
Margry, vol. vi. 

(9) Father Bonnecamps was a pro- 
fessor of hydrography In the Jesuit 
college at Quebec. His Journal, in 
the original French and In translated 
form may be found in the "Jesuit Re- 
lations," Fort Wayne Public Library. 

(10) These early French forts, or 
posts, appear to have consisted of an 
enclosure made of palisades set closely 
together, sheltering a number of log 
houses clustered within. Bonnecamps 
refers to eight of these houses in the 
post on the St. Mary's. At the time 
Captain Morris was thrown into the 
fort on the St. Joseph, he was 
warned against entering any of the 
"French cabins" within. The Ameri- 
can forts of the neighborhood were 
provided with corner block-houses 
from which the garrison could meet 
the fire of an enemy. 

(11) A number of relics of this old 
fort of the French have been found. 

(12) Parkman's "Conspiracy of Pon- 
tiac," vol. i, page 162. 

(13) After the death of Joseph 
Drouet de Richardville, the widow 
married John Beaubien who thereby! 
became a brothejrj^in-laiSJ — ©f- .Littls 
Turtle and the fafhe?Mn-law of Jean 
Baptiste de Richardville. 

(14) Helm's History of Allen Coun- 
ty, page 20. 

(15) This town was sometimes 
called Tawixtwl and Twightwees 
(British name for the Miamls) Town. 
Here tlie British constructed a strong 
stockaded post which was the scene 
of the massacre of 1752. It was 
located on the Miami river, in the 
present Shelby county, Ohio, at the 
mouth of Loramie creek. The object 
of its establishment was to draw the 
Indians from their loyalty to the 
French at the site of Fort Wayne and 


CHAPTER VI— 1750-1760. 

Surrender of the French Post Miami (Fort Wayne) to 

the English. 

Celeron assumes command at Detroit — Increasing alann at Post Miami 
(Fort Wayne) — Raimond's cry of alarm — "No one wants to stay here 
and have his throat cut!" — The smallpox scourge — Death ot Chiefs 
Coldfoot and LeGrls— Captain Neyon de Villiers sent to command Post 
Miami — The audacity of John Pathin — His arrest — Complaint ot the 
English — Retort of the French — Two men of the Post Miami garrison 
captured and scalped — Langlade leads in the assault on PickawUlany — 
Death of LaDemoiselle — Cannibalistic red men— Captain Aubray and his 
troops— British succor the Indians— Unsuccessful effort to bring French 
farmers into the Maumee-Wabash valleys— The fall of Quebec and the 
surrender of Detroit, ends the French rule in the valleys — Lieutenant 
Butler receives the surrender of Post Miami (Fort Wayne) — Ensign 
Robert Holmes in command — Lieutenant Jenkins at Ouiatanon — The 
overthrow of FVench power in the west. 

WE HAVE OBSERVED with interest the visit of Captain 
Celeron and his train of Frenchmen and Indians to the 
site of Fort Wayne and the activities of the men of the 
little garrison who, between the more severe attacks of the fever, 
were able to complete their new fort on the St. Joseph. Celeron, 
upon his arrival at Detroit, was made the commandant of that 
central stronghold. 

At his lonely post on the St. Joseph, looking across into the 
present Spy Run, where were grouped a few log huts occupied by 
the traders. Captain Raimond breathed an atmosphere laden with 
an omen of disaster. Scarce half a mile to the southward, where 
the Maumee turns in its course toward the east, lay the village of 
Kekionga. Its Miami and Shawnee inhabitants — the few who re- 
mained after the many had fled to the villages of the foes of France 
— had failed of late to display the warmth of friendship which 
the French had so long enjoyed. The reason was not hidden from 
the commandant. He knew that the British, from their fortified 
settlement at Piekawillany, were constantly sending out emissaries 
to worry the weak garrisons and win to their cause the few savages 
who clung to their ancient village. To these, the English offered 
in return for their peltries twice the amount the French traders 
could afford to give. The taunts of the savages were gaUing in the 

One day, in desperation. Captain Raimond dispatched a mes- 
senger to Detroit with a letter in which he said : 




"My people are leaving me for Detroit. Nobody wants to stay 
here and have his throat cut. All of the tribes who go to the English 
at Pickawillany come back loaded with gifts. I am too weak to 
meet the danger. Instead of twenty men, I need five hundred 
• • * We have made peace with the English ; yet they try con- 
tinually to make war on us by means of the Indians. They intend 
to be masters of all this upper country. The tribes here are leaguing 
together to kill all the French, that they may have nobody on 
their lands but their English brothers. This I am told by Cold Foot, 
a great Miami chief, whom I think an honest man, if there be such 
thing among the Indians. * • * If the English stay in this 
country, we are lost. We must attack them and drive them out.'" 

To add to the distress of mind of the commandant of Post Mi- 
ami, an epidemic of smallpox spread over the Maumee- Wabash 
region during the winter of 1751-2 and carried away as its victims 
two of his true Indian friends. Chief Cold Foot and Chief LeGris,* 
as well as many of the Miamis who formed the Cold Foot village. 

These three reUcs of the seventeenth 
century days of the occupation of the 
site of Fort Wayne by the French — a 
medallion bearing the date 1693, a cop- 
per kettle and a copper box are of In- 
calculable historical value. The medal- 
lion and the kettle are the property of 
Kenton P. Baker, 1008 Delaware ave- 
nue. In 1870, while he was superintend- 
ing some work of excavation at the 
Junction of the present Delaware ave- 
nue and St. Joe boulevard, Henry J. 
Baker, sr. (grandfather of Kenton P. 
Baker), uncovered the kettle shown 
here. It was found to contain some In- 
dian arrowheads and the large brass 
medallion of which the picture shows 
the two sides. The indentations of the 
kettle were made by the adz In the 
hands of the workman who unearthed 
the relic. 

The place of finding the reminders of 
the French occupation. Is the site of 
the last French fort, erected in 1750. 
It would seem that the medallion and 
the kettle have reposed within the lim- 
its of the present city of Fort Wayne 
for a period of nearly two centuries. 
The medallion was for a time the prop- 
erty of Mrs. C. E. Stapleford, now a 
resident of Colorado Springs, Col. Mrs. 
Stapleford ascertained, through correspondence with the mayor of Bordeaux, 
France, that Guil (William) de Nesmond. whose portrait appears on the 
medallion which was issued in commemoration of his death in 1963, was a 
member of a noble family in France. It is interesting to note that an exact dup< 
Ucate of this medallion, found in the same locality, is the property of Byron 
F. Thompson, residing north of Fort Wayne. 

The small copper box, with a hinged, embossed cover, undoubtedly a relic of 
the French occupation. Is owned by L. W. Hills. It was unearthed by boys 
while at play in the vicinity of the site of the French fort. 


But Raimond appears to have completed the period of his use- 
fulness at Post Miami, for he was summoned to Detroit, to give 
way to a new commandant, Chevalier Neyon (Noyan or Nyon) de 

Soon after his arrival, Villiers was aroused by the alarm that 
an Englishman had, in truth, been so bold as to force his way into 
the fort where a number of savages were gathered, that he might 
induce them to turn against the French and capture the post. In 
the nick of time, Villiers secured the intruder, who fought des- 
perately to escape. The capture of this man — John Pathin — to- 
gether with the taking of three others by the French near Detroit 
— was about the first effort at retaliation which the French had un- 
dertaken. The news of the affair reached Governor George Clinton, 
of New York, who demanded to know the cause of the warlike act. 

"The capture of these four Englishmen [Luke Arrowin, 
Thomas Borke, Joseph Fortiner and John Pathin] ought not to 
surprise you," responded the Marquis de la Jonquiere, at Jlontreal. 
" 'Tis certain, sir, that they did not risk coming, so to say, under 
his M. G. Majesty's cannon, except with sinister views. • • • 
As for John Pathin, he entered the fort of the Miamis to persuade 
the Indians who remained there to unite with those who had fled 
to the Beautiful [Ohio] river. He has been taken in the French 
fort. Nothing more is necessary. The little property that was taken 
belonging to these persons has been claimed by the Indians as 
plunder. * • • John Pathin could enjoy the same freedom [as 
the others, who had been released] but he is so mutinous, and 
uttered so many threats, that I have been obliged to imprison him 
at Quebec."* 

In the midst of the disturbance, two of LaDemoiselle's savages 
crept close enough to the French fort to capture two of the men of 
Villier's garrison. Their scalps were carried in triumph to the 
camps of the foes of the French." 

"While conditions at the head of the Maumee and throughout 
the Wabash valley grew more alarming for the French, there was 
increased activity at the English settlement at Pickawillany. Chris- 
topher Gist, sent on an exploring expedition to the west in the in- 
terest of the Ohio Land Company (of which George "Washington 
was a member) visited the place in February, 1751. His journal 
tells of the activity of the village and of the re-construction of the 
post — the first established by the English in the west, and which 
was designed to prove a menace to the Kekionga and Detroit strong- 
holds of the French. 

But the scenes were soon to shift. Celeron, commandant of 
Detroit, had been directed by Governor Jonquiere, of Canada, to 



proceed to Piekawillany and accomplish its destruction. Whether 
Celeron shirked the undertaking or was too deliberate in his prepa- 
rations, it does not appear, but it is true that another arose to the 
occasion and accomplished the 
work which had been outlined 
for him. 

This leader was Charles 
Langlade. The Indians at 
Kekionga, no less than the gar- 
rison at the post, were taken 
by surprise one day in June, 
1752, when a small army of 
French and two hundred Chip- 
pewas and Ottawas, came rap- 
idly up the ilaumee and turned 
westward into the St. ]\Iary's 
on their way to the portage 
point nearest the Pickawillany 
post. It was the army come 
to drive out the English. 
Langlade had gathered his fol- 
lowers from the Green Bay 
region and piloted them to De- 
troit, where their assistance 
was offered to the commandant. 
Celeron accepted their service, 
supplemented the force by the 
addition of a few French regu- 
lars and Canadians, under M. 
St. Orr (or St. Orr), and directed the expedition against Picka- 

No word had reached the British post to warn it of the ap- 
proach of the attacking party. "Langlade." says one writer, after 
describing the landing of the canoes on the bank of the St. Mary's, 
"led his painted savages through the forest to attack La Demoiselle 
and his English friends.''* The assault was spirited and decisive. 
"Among the Indians who had been captured was the principal chief 
of the Piankeshaws, called 'Old Britain' [La Demoiselle], on ac- 
count of his friendship for the British ; he was killed, cut in pieces, 
boiled and eaten in full view of the fort, after which the French 
and their allies moved away.'" 

The effect of the fall of Pickawillany was to awe the ^liamis 
to the extent that they again turned to the French, although Cap- 
tain "VTilliam Trent, of the English, assembled them at the destroyed 


During the reign of terror on the 
frontier, the British furnished the sav- 
ages not only with their firearms and 
ammunition, with which to fight the 
foes of Great Britain, but also with 
scalping knives and tomahawks of steel 
to displace the Indian knife and toma- 
hawk of stone. The three specimens 
shown, representing distinct forms of 
steel tomahawk, were found on the site 
of the city of Fort Wayne. A — Made to 
be riveted to a ■wooden handle. B — - 
Squaw ax. C — A pipe tomahawk: the 
wooden handle served as a stem of the 
pipe, and the head of the instrument as 
the bowl. A and C are from the col- 
lection of the late Colonel R. S. Robert- 
son; B is from the collection of L. W. 


1 I OU 

village but a few weeks later and made a lavish distribution 
of gifts. The decision of the Pennsylvania legislature to give "the 
sum of two hundred pounds as a present of condolence to the 
Twightwee [Miami] nation," failed to restore their loyalty. 

Further east, affairs between the British and French were 
assuming a serious aspect. Major George Washington, after his 
ineffectual journey to carry a message from Governor Dinwiddle 
to the French posts, ordering their evacuation, met with moderate 
success in an encounter at Great ileadows, and this event is often 
referred to as the opening affair of the French and Indian war, 
regardless of the assault at Pickawillany. 

And so were precipitated the hostilities which closed in the 
complete overthrow of France in the New World. 

Dudng this period of turmoil, the lands at the head of the 
Maumee were the scene of the action of French troops passing 
chiefly to the eastward from the Louisiana region. Many of these 
came up the Wabash, crossed the portage and proceeded down the 
Maumee. Notable was the expedition of Captain Aubray, in 1759, 
who, with three hundred French regulars and militia and six hun- 
dred Indians, carried great quantities of flour for the assistance of 
Forts Venango and Niagara. The army passed from the Maumee 
along the south shore of Lake Erie. Captain Aubray was among 
the French captured by the British at the fall of Fort Niagara in 
the summer of 1759.' 

The early successes of the French suggested to Captain Celeron 
at Detroit the advisability of peopling the Maumee-Wabash valleys 
with French farmers, and to this end the government agreed to give 
to each family thus consenting to locate and engage in tilling the 
soil, the following equipment: A gun, a hoe, an axe, a plowshare, 
a scythe and a sickle, two augurs, a sow, six hens, a cock, six 
pounds of powder, twelve pounds of lead and other favors. Only 
twelve families consented to move.° Certainly it was no time to 
choose a home on the frontier. Frequent encounters occurred be- 
tween the sympathizers of both parties to the great quarrel, that 
did not cease even Avith the capitulation of Quebec in September, 
1760, which formally closed tl'.e French and Indian war. 


The quiet surrender of Detroit in the 29th of November, to 
Major Robert Rogers, automatically threw the entire Maumee- 
Wabash region into the hands of the British. The garrison of 
the lonely post on the site of Fort Wayne awaited with interest 
the appearance of the British leader authorized to take the fort. 
He was not long in coming. A detachment of twenty rangers 



from the famous "Royal Americans," under command of Lieuten- 
ant Butler" rode up to the fort in December, 1760, and received 
its formal transfer. 

"I ordered that if possible a party should subsist at the fort 
[Miami] this winter [1760-1]," says Rogers in his report, "and 
give the earliest notice at Detroit of the enemy's motives in the coun- 
try of the Illinois." 

Ensign Robert Holmes" appears to have accompanied Butler's 
rangers to Post Miami, there to serve at intervals until his tragic 
death three years later. 

A second detachment, under Lieutenant Edward Jenkins, 
passed onward to Ouiatanon and received the surrender of that 
post. Nothing was now left to the French in the entire west, except 
the posts of Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Fort Chartres, on the 


(1) Francis Parkman, "Montcalm 
and Wolf." vol. 1, page 82. 

(2) He is not to be confused with 
the Chief LeGrls, proprietor of the 
Miami village in Spy Run preceding 
the Harmar expedition and who 
signed the treaty of Greenville. 

(3) Viiliers was the youngest of 
seven brothers, six of whom, It Is 
said, lost their lives in the -wars in 
Canada. He held the post on the 
site of Fort Wayne during 1751 and 
1752, when he "was transferred to 
Fort Chartres, on the Illinois bank 
of the Mississippi, ninety miles above 
the mouth of the Ohio. In August, 
1756, Viiliers commanded an escort of 
provisions sent from Fort Chartres to 
Fort Duquesne; arriving in Pennsyl- 
vania with twenty-three Frenchmen 
and thirty Indians, he attacked and 
destroyed Fort GrandviUe. Returning 
to Fort Chartres, he was named to 
succeed Captain Macarty as its com- 
mandant, a position he held until 
June 15, 1764, when he received the 
cross of St. Louis as a reward for 
his fidelity and services. M. Gayarre 
confounds him with his brother, Cou- 
lon Viiliers, called the great Viiliers, 
to whom Washington surrendered in 

(4) New York Colonial Documents, 
vol. vi, page 733. 

(5) E>unn's "Indiana." 

(6) Parkman's "Montcalm and 
Wolf," vol. i, page 85. , 

(7) Colonial Documents, vol. vi, 
page 730. It Is believed by some his- 
torians that the main body of the 
French stopped at Post Miami (Fort 
W^ayne) and that an attack on Pick- 
awillany was made by the savages 
without their leadership, this conjec- 
ture being based upon the account 
of one writer that only two French- 
men were observed on the scene. 

(8) Daris Documents, xvi; New York 
Colonial Documents, vol. x, page 989. 

(9) Dr. Charles E. Slocum, "Maumee 
River Basin," vol. I, page 102; see also 
Parkman's "Montcalm and Wolf," 
page 77. 

(10) That Butler remained for some 
time at the post is suggested by a 
letter written by Captain Donald 

Campbell, the first commandant at De- 
troit, to Colonel Bouquet; "Lieuten- 
ant Butler and his rangers are living 
among the Ottawas at the Miami 
post. At the post where he is sta- 
tioned, he lis but nine miles from the 
Wabash." Campbell complains of the 
large amounts of supplies used at the 
posts on the St. Joseph and the 
Wabash. "Major Rogers has about 
stripped us in supplying the adjoining 
posts." he writes. "I designed to send 
a large quantity of ammunition to 
the Posts of Miarais. St. Joseph and 
Ouiatanon for the subsistence of the 
garrisons, as the transportation is so 
difficult. This I cannot do as I wish, 
for want [of] ammunition. I wait 
for an officer from Niagara, to send 
off [to] the garrison of Ouiatanon. 
If the major does not send one, I 
shall be obliged to have a sergeant 
at Miamis, which is not the general 
intentions surely that these posts 
should be commanded by a sergeant." 
(11) In searching for information 
concerning Robert Holmes, whose 
tragic death forms the climax of one 
of the most romantic tales of the 
English occupation of the west, the 
writer finds that his title Is given 
during the same periods of time as 
Ensign and Lieutenant. He had been 
actively engaged against Quebec, 
serving as a scout in charge of fifty 
men in the region of Lake Cham- 
plain. His efforts were designed to 
harass the French and mislead them 
as to the enemy's intentions. On the 
way to the west with Major Rogers 
to receive the surrender of Detroit, 
Holmes's boat formed the rear guard 
for the flotilla of fifteen whaleboats 
which conveyed the men to their des- 
tination. Arrived at Detroit, Major 
Rogers placed Colonel Beletre and 
the other English prisoners in charge 
of Holmes and thirty rangers. It is 
evident that during a portion of the 
year 1761 Holmes was absent from 
his post, for we find a written record 
of Major William Walter to the effect 
that he has "Ensign Holmes, with two 
Sergeants, ten Corporals and sixty 
men assltsing in the building two 
vessels for Lake Erl." 

CHAPTER Vn— 1761-1765. 

Massacre of the British at Post Miami (Fort Wayne) 
— Morris and Croghan. 

The beginning of the Conspiracy of Pontiac — Holmes warned of the plot — 
He discovers the war belt at Kekionga — Holmes betrayed to his death 
by the Indian maiden — Shot from ambush — Captain Morris' version — 
Survivors tell of the plot as planned and executed by Jacques Godefroy 
and Miney Chene — Welch and Lawrence, the traders, and their account 
of the murder — Ouiatanon falls — Morris at Pontiac's camp — He reaches 
the site of Fort Wayne — Captured and thrown into the fort — Tied to 
the stake to be tortured — Saved by Chief Pecanne — Escapes to the fort 
— Colonel Bradstreet's expedition — Savages bring in the white captives — 
Colonel George Croghan reaches the site of Fort Wayne — Savages raise 
the English flag — Croghan describes the villages — Pontiac gives up the 
fight and leaves for the west — His tragic death. 

DURING the two years following the fall of the French posts, 
comparative quiet prevailed throughout the west. But 
while the British were comfortably surveying their posses- 
sions, mischief was forming in the cunning brain of a master mind 
of the savages — Pontiac, chief of the Ottawas. 

Inspired by his lessons of the defeat of General Braddock, in 
which he played a prominent part ; by the encouragement of French 
leaders who still sought the downfall of the British, and by the 
complaints of the savages of many of the tribes which participated 
in the French and Indian war, this "Napoleon of the western 
Indians" planned the most remarkable conspiracy of massacre and 
overthrow of the whites ever conceived by a savage. That the plan 
failed was due only to the impetuosity of some of his associates. 

Following the war, the Indians, footsore and weary of strife, 
had been content to live off the bounties of the victors. But soon 
these bounties ceased, because there was now no rival to claim the 
affection of the Indians and, indeed, the British war tax had added 
greatly to the value of those articles which formerly were given 
with much freedom. 

In the fall of 1761, Pontiac sent his messengers to every village 
of the savages along the Ohio and its tributaries, throughout the 
upper Great Lakes region, and as far south as the lower Mississippi. 
With a tomahawk stained red, and with a war belt of wampum, a 
messenger visited each camp and settlement, where, after throwing 
down the tomahawk he delivered the message of the great chief. 

The quietest of secrecy surrounded the movements of the sav- 



ages to prevent the discovery of the plot. But one day in March, 
1763, a friendly Indian sought Ensign Robert Holmes, at the post 
on the St. Joseph, and informed him that a messenger with a war 
belt had visited the village of Kekionga and, after making his 
speech, had left the belt in the hands of the Indians of that settle- 
ment. Alarmed by the report, the commandant made bold to visit 
the village and demand the delivery into his hands of the war-belt, 
together with the interpretation of the speech of the messenger who 
had come and gone. The savages "did as Indians have often done, 
confessed their fault with much contrition, laid the blame on a 
neighboring tribe, and professed eternal friendship for their 
brethren, the English.'" 

Holmes reported the discovery to his superior. Major Henry 
Gladwyn, in command at Detroit, with the request that the word 
be forwarded to Sir Jeffrey Amherst. Not satisfied with the mere 
confession of the savages, however. Holmes continued his search 
until he found the fatal war-belt. Without hesitation, he wrapped 
it carefully with a letter which he dispatched by a trusty messenger 
to Major Gladwyn. Holmes was exultant. He felt that the trouble 
was now ended. On the 30th of March he wrote to Gladwn as 
follows : 

"Since my last letter to You, wherein I Acquainted You of 
the Bloody Belt being in this Village I have Made all the search 
I could about it, and have found it out to be True; Whereupon I 
Assembled all the Chiefs of this Nation & after a long and trouble- 
some Spell with them, I Obtained the Belt, with a Speech, as you 
will Receive Enclosed ; This Affair is very timely Stopt, and I hope 
the News of a Peace will put a stop to any further Troubles with 
these Indians who are the Principal Ones of Setting Mischief on 
Foot. I send you the Belt with this packet, which I hope You will 
forward to the General."^ 

The "speech" to which Holmes referred in his letter was that 
spoken by the Indians as they delivered the war belt into his hands. 
He recalled the words as best he could and repeated them, as follows 
in the letter which he forwarded to Gladwyn : 

"This Belt was Received from the Shawnese Nation, they 
Received it from the Delawares, and they from the Senecas Who 
are Very Much Enraged against the English. As for the Indian 
That Was the Beginner of this we Cannot tell him, but he was One 
of Their Chiefs, and one That is Always doing Mischief, and the 
Indian that Brought it to this Place was a Chief who was Down at 
the Grand Council held in Pennsylvania Last Summer. We Desire 
you to Send this Domti to Your General and George Croghan, and 
Let them Find Out the man that was Making the Mischief. For 
our Parts we will be Still and take no More Notice of Their Mis- 
chief Neither will we be Concern'd in it, if we had Ever so Much 




Mind to Kill the English, there is always some Discovery Made 
before we can Accomplish our Design. This is all we Have to Say 
only you must give Our Warriors some Paints, Some Powder & Ball 
and some Knives, as they are all Going to War against our Enemies 
the Cherokees."^ 

The commandant, secure in the feeling that trouble was "very 
timely Stopt," little knew that the plans for the greatest conspiracy 
of murder in the history of America were being carefully completed 
in Pontiac's camp but a short distance down the Maumee. 

A romantic traditional story relates that in May a beautiful 
Ojibway maiden,* in love with the Detroit commandant, Major 
Gladwyn, revealed to him the widespread plot of Pontiac to seize 
the entire west, and that the capture of Detroit post was planned 
for the following day. Thus warned, Gladwyn was enabled to hold 
the fort through a siege of several months, during which time Fort 
Sandusky, Fort St. Joseph, Fort Michilimackinac, Fort Ouiatanon 
and Post Miami passed into the hands of the savages. 

At the little fort on the St. Joseph river on the site of Fort 
Wayne, the garrison learned with fear of the further activities of 
the Indians. Nevertheless, Ensign Holmes, the commandant, was 
destined to be the first to lose his life. "And here," observes Park- 
man, "I cannot but remark on the forlorn situation of these officers, 
isolated in the wilderness, hundreds of miles, in some instances, 
from any congenial associates, separated from every human being 
except the rude soldiers under their command and the white or 
red savages who ranged the surrounding woods. 

The blades of two scalping knives here shown In full size, are In the collec- 
tion of the late Col. R. S. Robertson, now in the possession of his son, R. S, 
Robertson, Jr., of Paducah. Ky., by whom they were loaned. They were foundl 
on the site of Fort Wayne. 


' ' On the 27th day of May, a young Indian girl,'^ who lived with 
the commandant, came to tell him that a sqiiaw lay dangerously ill 
in a wigwam near the fort, and urged him to come to her relief. 
Having confidence in the girl, Holmes forgot his caution and fol- 
lowed her out of the fort. Pitched on the edge of a meadow [in 
the present Lakeside], hidden from view by an intervening spur of 
woodland, stood a great number of Indian wigwams. When Holmes 
came in sight of them his treacherous conductress pointed out that 
in which the sick woman lay. He walked on withovit suspicion, but, 
as he drew near, two guns flashed from behind the hut and stretched 
him lifeless on the grass. The shots were heard at the fort and the 
sergeant rashly went out to learn the cause. He was immediately 
taken prisoner, amid exulting yells and whoopings. The soldiers in 
the fort climbed upon the palisades to look out, when Godefroy, a 
Canadian, and two other white men, made their appearance and 
summoned them to surrender, promising that if they did so their 
lives would be spared."" 

Such is the story as Parkman tells it, and we are given further 
"details" by Captain Robert Morris, who came to the village in the 
next year and who received the account from "the sole survivor" 
of the garrison. According to the tale of this man, whom Morris 
found chopping wood by the river bank, as the major's boat came 
floating by, the savages "killed all but five or six whom they re- 
served as victims to be sacrificed when they would lose a man in 
their wars with the English. They had all been killed except 
this one man," continues Morris, "whom an old squaw had adopted 
as her son."' 

Possibly this "sole survivor" thought he was telling the truth, 
but it develops that he was not the only one whose life was spared. 
Others who lived to relate the story, and who told it under oath, 
were James Barnes, William Bolton, John McCoy and James Beems. 
who, as they found their way to Detroit during the succeeding 
weeks, gave their testimony before Gladwj^n's court of inquiry." 
The substance of their combined narratives, together with that of 
John Welch and Robert Lawrence, traders, showed that the French- 
men in the plot took the lead in the affair, and that the conduct 
of the savages stands out in commendable contrast with that of their 
white associates. 

On the afternoon preceding the murder, Jacques Godefroy, 
Miney Chene and three companions named Beaubien, Chavin and 
Labadie, accompanied by a number of Indians, waited on the bank 
of the Maumee several miles below the fort, to make the first 
demonstration of their outlawry. Floating down the stream came 
two pirogues laden with peltries and propelled by John Welch 




and Robert Lawrence, who were taking their property to Detroit. 
Hiding themselves in the brush, the Frenchmen instructed the 
Indians to induce the traders to come ashore. Here, Welch and 
Lawrence were seized, and their goods divided among the French- 
men. Beaubien, Chavin and Labadie took their ill-gotten goods to 
Detroit, while Godefroy and Chene retained Welch and Lawrence 

as prisoners, and the party pro- 
ceeded to Kekionga where 
they arrived after nightfall. 

Holmes already had received 
warning from a friendly 
Frenchman that trouble was 
brewing. He immediately 
closed the gates of the fort and 
set his men at work making 

The testimony of Robert 
Lawrence, one of the captive 
traders, develops the story 
from this point. Lawrence 
and Welch were first taken to 
a spot remote from the village 
and tied securely to stakes 
driven in the ground. The 
place of their captivity was 
probably in the eastern part 
of the present Lakeside. Two 
guards remained with them, 
while the others went into the village. 

"After they were some time gone," says Lawrence, "Mr. Welch 
asked where they were gone. They told him, to murder Holmes — 
in his room, if they could. In the night, two Indians returned to 
where we were tied and [we] were led in that condition to the cabins. 
In the morning, May 27, they had contrived to get Mr. Holmes 
out of the fort, waylaid, and killed him, and brought his scalp to 
the cabins." 

This plain statement of the plan of a cold-blooded murder — 
of the all-night attempt to force the commandant to risk his life, 
and of its final consummation only when the false appeal came to 
the finer qualities of kindness and mercy — reveals the depths of the 
depravity of the conspirators. 

Eight men were left in the garrison when the shots which killed 
Holmes startled them, and a sergeant rushed out to ascertain the 
occasion of the shooting. He was immediately seized, but before the 

Under the direction of the great Ot- 
tawa leader the little garrison at Post 
Miami, site of Fort Wayne, fell Into the 
hands of the savages In 1763, and the 
murder of the Commandant, Holmes, 
was successfully accomplished. The 
portrait Is after an old print, as pub- 
lished In President Woodrow Wilson's 
"A History of the American People," re- 
produced by permission of the publish- 
ers. Harper & Brothers. 


Indians or their friends could gain entrance to the fort, the men 
closed the gate and secured it. Godefroy and the savages, with 
the captive Welch, then appeared before the fort and demanded that 
the men come forth and earn the preservation of their lives, or 
else suffer death in the burning of the stockade and the buildings. 
Godefroy, who could not speak English, gave the word of command 
through Welch. Finally, the gate was opened and the men ap- 
peared. They immediately were taken prisoners. Private Barnes, 
as he stood before Godefroy, was commanded through the medium 
of Welch, to remove from his shoes two silver buckles which, he 
said, would be taken by the Indians if he (Godefroy) failed to 
appropriate them to his own use.^ Godefroy then announced that 
a party would be formed at once to proceed to the little post of 
Ouiatanon, on the Wabash, near the present Lafayette, Indiana, 
and capture the garrison under Lieutenant Edward Jenkins. The 
murderers took with them two prisoners from Post Miami as evi- 
dence that the fort on the St. Joseph had fallen into their hands. 

The party reached Ouiatanon on the evening of May 30. ' ' They 
were to have fell on us and killed us last night," wrote Jenkins in 
his report to Gladwyn on the 1st of June, "but Mr. Maisongville^" 
and Lorain gave them wampum not to kill us, & when they told 
the Interpreter that we were all to be killed, & he, knowing the 
condition of the fort, beg'd of them to make us prisoners."" 

Lorain, evidently, carried the message to Gladwyn, for Jenkins 
adds that "he can tell you all." 

Jacques Godefroy then made his way to Sandusky where he 
fell into the hands of Colonel John Bradstreet who had been sent 
to the west to pacify Pontiac's savages. The guilty wretch ex- 
pected to be put to death, but it happened that just at this time 
another emissary of the British, Captain Robert Morris, was setting 
out from Detroit to visit the Indians at the scene of the murder 
of Holmes, and Godefroy was given a chance to "make good" by 
serving as his guide and protector. Believing that Morris had 
saved his life, Godefroy became, in reality, the preserver of the 
life of Morris. 


Morris was a captain in the Seventeenth regiment of British 
infantry, and had come to Detroit with Bradstreet. Fortunately, 
he was of a literary bent, and the tale of his experiences before 
and after he reached the site of Fort Wayne has been preserved 
in a small volume of the captain's efforts, published in England 
after his return home. 

At this time, Pontiae, sullen in the failure of his great eon- 


spiracy,^^ took up his abode five miles from the Maiimee, the trail 
leading out oi' the site of the present Defiance, in Ohio. To this 
camp, with messages of peace, Captain Morris, under the direction 
of Colonel Bradstreet, made his way with a company of Indians and 
Godefroy as guide. Disappointed and embittered, Pontiae received 
Morris with coldness, but saved him from imminent death by halt- 
ing the fierce demonstration of his followers with the proclamation 
that the life of an ambassador should ever be held sacred. With 
Pontiae 's consent, Morris and his escort finally were allowed to 
proceed up the Maumee to the site of Fort Wayne where the earlier 
perils were forgotten in the face of real danger.'^ 

Arriving at the lower point of the present Lakeside, the party 
of Captain Morris stepped from their canoes and proceeded up the 
east bank of the St. Joseph toward the fort. Morris remained in 
boat absorbed in the reading of Shakespeare's "Antony and Cleo- 
patra," when he was rudely aroused by the arrival of a motley 
crowd of savages who, on failing to find "the Englishman" in the 
advance party, had sought him out. He M'as dragged forth and 
conducted with many indignities into the fort enclosure, where 
he was cautioned not to enter any of tlie French cabins therein.'* 
Here he was left for a short time, while the savages met in council 
to determine his future. He was then brought forth to torture. 
From the beginning, Godefroy — the man who had led in the be- 
trayal of Holmes at this very spot — befriended ]Morris, as did also 
another Frenchman, St. Vincent, who had accompanied Morris from 

Says the captain in his book : 

"Two Indian warriors, with tomahawks in their hands seized 
me, one by each arm. * * * Tlicy dragged me into the water 
[St. Joseph river]. I concluded their intention was to drown me 
and scalp me, but the river was fordable. They led me on till we 
came near the village [in Spy Run] and there they stopt and stripped 
me. They could not get off my shirt, which was held by the wrist- 
bands, after they had pulled it over my head, and in rage and 
despair I tore it ofl' myself. They then bound my arms with my 
sash. * * * The whole village was in an uproar. Godefroy 
* * * encouraged Pontiae 's nephew and the Little Chief's son 
to take my part. He spoke to Le Cygne's [a chief] son, who whis- 
pered his father and the father came and unbound my arms. Ves- 
culair, upon my speaking, got up and tied me by the neck to a post. 
I had not the smallest hope of life, when Pecanne,'^ king of the 
Miamis nation, and just out of his minority, having mounted a horse 
and crossed the river [St. Joseph], rode up to me. When I heard 
him call out to those about me, and felt his hand behind my neck, I 
thought he was going to strangle me out of pity [to avoid the tor- 
tures to which the captain previously referred, but are here omitted] 
but he untied me, saying, 'I give this man his life. You want Eng- 


lish meat — go to Detroit or the Lake, and you'll find enough. 
What business have you with this man's flesh who has come to speak 
with us?" " 

Captain Morris, on being released, sought refuge in the fort, 
where he was befriended by a Frenchman named I'Esperance who 
lodged him in his garret. To this refuge came two young women, 
said to have been sisters of Chief Pecanne, who showed him kind- 
nesses. Those who had bound him, however, awaited his reap- 
pearance, and a band of Kickapoos, arriving after the excitement 
had abated, threatened to put the captain to death if the Miamis 
failed to do so. 

Bradstreet's instructions to Morris contemplated his proceeding 
onward to the Wabash towns, but the plucky Englishman, after his 
experience here, decided to await an opportunity of escape. It came 
in due time, and he, with Godefroy disappeared into the wilderness 
and reached Detroit after the passage of many days. 

At this time. Colonel Henry Bouquet, of the British, advancing 
from Pennsylvania at the head of six hundred troops, marched to the 
strongholds of the Senecas, Delawares and Shawnees, in Ohio, 
demanding that they not only cease their depredations but that 
before the passage of twelve days they deliver into his hands all 
the persons in their possession — "Englishmen, Frenchmen, women" 
and children, whether adopted into their tribes, married or living 
among you under any denomination or pretense whatever." 
Colonel Bouquet returned to Fort Pitt, but one detachment of his 
army pushed to the westward and followed the left bank of the 
St. Mary's river to the site of Fort Wayne. Everywhere, the mes- 
sage of Bouquet was spread, and the savages appeared to fear the 
consequences of their failure to comply with the colonel's terms. 
Soon the Indians commenced to arrive at Bouquet's camp with their 
captives, until a total of thirty-two men and fifty-eight women and 
children from Pennsylvania, Kentucky and Ohio, who had been 
taken in the savage raids, were surrendered into the hands of 
Bouquet. Many of these were relatives of the members of the 
rescue camp, and the reunion was the occasion of the most touching 
emotional scenes. 

The savages of the lower Wabash came not under the influence 
of the expedition of Bouquet, and so, in order to convince them 
of the attitude of the British, Sir William Johnson, in 1765, chose 
Colonel George Croghan to visit these tribes, by whom he was well 
known. Colonel Croghan left Fort Pitt May 15th. After losing 
two of his men, who were shot by Indians in ambush, the colonel, 
wounded, was captured and taken to Vincennes. Fortunately he 
met here a number of leading Indians whom he formerly had be- 



friended, and he was allowed to proceed up the Wabash river to 
Ouiatanon and then to Post Miami (Fort AVayne). While at 
Ouiatanon, the chiefs of the Miamis came to him and "renewed 
their Antient Friendship with His Majesty & all His Subjects in 
America & Confirmed it with a Pipe," writes Colonel Croghan in 
his journal. Continuing, he says: 

"Within a mile of the Twightwee [Miami] village [Kekionga], 
I was met by the chiefs of that nation who received us very kindly. 
The most part of these Indians knew me and conducted me to their 
village where they immediately hoisted an English flag that I had 
formerly given them at Fort Pitt. The next day they held a council, 
after which they gave me up the English prisoners that they had. 
• * • The Twightwee village is situated on both sides of a river 
called St. Joseph. This river where it falls into the Miami [Mau- 
mee] river about a quarter of a mile from this place is one hundred 
yards wide, on the east side of which stands a .stockade fort some- 
what ruinous. The Indian village consists of about forty or fifty 
cabins, besides nine or ten French houses, a runaway colony from 
Detroit during the late Indian war [the Pontiac uprising]. They 
were concerned in it, and being afraid of punishment, they came 
to this spot where ever since they have spirited up the Indians 
against the English. All the French residing here are a lazy, indolent 
people, fond of breeding mischief and spiriting up the Indians 
against the English, and should by no means be suffered to remain 
here. The country is pleasant, the soil rich and well watered." 

As he proceeded to Detroit, which place he reached August 17, 
and where Colonel Bradstreet awaited the coming of the chiefs for 
a council, Croghan was accompanied by all the English prisoners 
released to him at the various points which he visited. 

The spectacle of the return of the white captives to the British 
and of complete submission of the savages to the will of Colonel 
Croghan (who reported that the Miamis "expressed great pleasure 
that the unhappy differences which embroiled the several nations 
with their brethren [the English] were now so near a happy con- 
clusion"), filled Pontiac 's cup of bitterness to the brim. To Croghan, 
the chief declared that he would no longer give his life to the fight- 
ing of the whites. 

Sad at heart, the great warrior departed for the west, where, 
near the site of St. Louis, in Missouri, he was treacherously stabbed 
to death by a Peoria brave — an act prompted, it is said, by an 
Englishman named Williamson — which precipitated a war of ex- 
termination of the Peorias. 




(1) Francis Parkman's "The Con- 
spiracy of Pontiac," vol. i, page 197. 

(2) Parkman's "The Conspiracy of 
Pontiac," vol. 1, page 189. 

(3) From the Gladwyn Papers, Bur- 
ton Historical Collection, Detroit. 

(4) "The Ojlbway maiden, Cath- 
erine, is unquestionably a myth. Re- 
cent discoveries show beyond a doubt 
that the information came from An- 
gelique Cuillier (also called Beaubien), 
and that her lover, James Sterling, 
who later became her husband, was 
the actual informant." — Landmarks 
of Wayne County and Detroit," page 
90, Robert B. Ross and George B. Cat- 

(B) "Mrs. [Laura] Suttenfleld, de- 
ceased," wrote the late Colonel R. S. 
Robertson, "stated that she became 
acquainted with this woman [the 
squaw who betrayed Holmes], in 1815, 
when she had a son. a man of some 
years, who, the squaw said, was 
Saginish [English], and from the age 
of the man, the Inference was drawn 
that he was the son of Holmes. After 
leaving here, the woman took up her 
residence in the Raccoon village. She 
lived to a great age, and as known 
to many of the early settlers of Fort 

(6) Parkman's "The Conspiracy of 
Pontiac." vol. 1. 

(7) Morris adds that he met this 
man in New York at a later time, 
where he was eraoloved as a boat- 

(8) This account is compiled from 
the Gladwyn Papers in the Burton 
Historical Collection, Detroit. 

(9) Barnes relates that at a later 
time, in Detroit, when Godefroy was 
a prisoner, Godefroy paid him for the 
buckles which he had stolen. 

(10) This man was probably the 
Francois Malsonville whose name ap- 
pears in the list of French residents 
of the village on the site of Fort 
Wavne in 1769. He was here as late 
as 1778. when Hamilton's array passed 
over the site from Detroit on the 
way to its capture at Vlncennes. He 
had taken several American prisoners 
but was himself captured by George 
Rogers Clark's men who, according 
to Hamilton's report, would have 
killed him but for the intercession 
of his brother, Alexis Malsonville. 
Francois Malsonville was taken to 
■Virginia as a fellow-prisoner of Ham- 
ilton; he committed suicide while In 
confinement. Alexis Malsonville, ac- 
cording to Hamilton, was "the person 
best able to give him information of 
the country and the character of the 

Inhabitants" between Detroit and Vin- 

(11) Parkman's "The Conspiracy of 
Pontiac," vol. i, page 287. 

(12) Detroit, after a severe siege, 
had been relieved by Colonel John 
Bradstreet, and Fort Pitt weathered 
the storm under the protection of the 
troops of Colonel Henry Bouquet. 

(13) En route up the river, the 
travelers met an Indian riding a beau- 
tiful white horse which, they were 
told, had been the property of Gen- 
eral Braddock, and which had been 
taken from the field of battle at the 
time of the ambuscade. 

(14) The post had been without a 
garrison for a period of about eigh- 
teen months — ever since the Holmes 
massacre. It was at this time, and 
until it crumbled Into ruins, tenanted 
by Indian and French "of the worst 
sort," as they were described by Sir 
William Johnson In a report dated 
this same year. (New York Colonial 
Documents, vol. vil, page 716.) 

(15) Pecanne was an uncle of Chief 
Jean Baptiste RichardvlUe (see Chap- 
ter X). 

(16) The thrilling narrative of Cap- 
tain Morris, as quoted from his "Mis- 
cellanies In Prose and Verse, is given 
In "Early Western Travels," vol. i, 
page 301; in "Western Annals." page 
ISO, and in Parkman's "The Con- 
spiracy of Pontiac," vol. 11; Fort 
Wayne Public Library. 

(17) "No female captive is ever 
saved by the Indians from base mo- 
tives or need fear the violation of 
her honor. The whole history of the 
wars may be challenged for a solitary 
instance of the violation of female 
chastity." — Schoolcraft. "Travels in 
the Central Portion of the Mississippi 
Valley," page 394. 

(18) It will be recalled that the 
savages at Post Miami (Fort Wayne) 
in their speech to Ensign Holmes, 
asked him to send their message and 
the war belt to "your general and 
George Croghan, and let them And 
out the man [Pontiac] that Is making 
the mischief." Colonel Croghan's ac- 
count of this remarkable expedition 
is recorded in "Early Western Trav- 
els," by R. G. Thwaites, vol. i. page 
151; "Annals of the W^est." page 185, 
and "The Wilderness Trail," vol. 11, by 
Charles A. Hanna. All are to be found 
at the Fort Wayne Public Library. 
The name of Colonel George Croghan 
is ofttimes confused with that of 
Major George Croghan, a nephew of 
George Rogers Clark, who figures in 
local history of 1812. 

CHAPTER Vm— 1766-1779. 
Miami Town (Fort Wayne) and the Revolution. 

The savages renew their allegiance with the English — Sir William Johnson 
fears the Indians may aid the colonists — Would reclaim the site of Fort 
Wayne — Hamilton in authority at Detroit — Sends out scalping parties to 
raid the American settlements — McKee, Elliott and the Girtys — George 
Rogers Clark's brilliant capture of Kaskaskia, Cahokia and Vincennes — 
Celeron flees from Ouiatanon — Hamilton's army moves up the Maumee 
to the site of Fort Wayne — Conference with savage tribes — Valuable 
goods stored at the Miami village — Proceeds to Vincennes— The army 
passes over the ancient portage — How the beavers helped — The defeat 
of Hamilton — DePeyster, the tory, assumes command of the scalping 
parties — Rum demoralizes the savages. 

WITH the passing of Pontiac, the savages gradually assumed 
a show of friendship for the British which became a vital 
attachment as soon as the Indians realized their depend- 
ence for subsistence upon their former antagonists — or rather upon 
those against whom they had fought with the hope of driving them 
from the Indian lands. 

A new element, too, was gradually creeping into the controversy 
— the revolt of the American colonists against the British oppres- 
sion. The Indians, who classed all of the enemies of the French 
as British — as, indeed, they were, broadly speaking — failed to under- 
stand the grounds for possible rupture between the colonists and 
the home government. The problem of holding them as firm allies 
in ease of a break became a matter of deep concern to the British, 
who saw a possible chance of their turning to the colonists and 
assisting them in their fight for independence in case the war 
should come. That the British feared the outcome is expressed by 
Sir William Johnson, in charge of Indian affairs in America, as 
shown by his letter written ten years before the Declaration of 

"I have given them an answer with the utmost caution," he 
said, "well knowing their disposition, and that they might incline to 
interest themselves in the acair or fall upon the inhabitants in re- 
venge for old frauds which they cannot easily forget." 

Nor did the alarm of Sir "William subside with the approach 
of the period which preceded the outbreak of hostilities, for we 
find him, as late as 1771, observing that "if a very small part of 
these people have been capable of reducing us to such straits as 
we were in a few years since [during the Pontiac uprising] what 




may we not expect from such a formidable alliance as we are now 
threatened with?" — a feared coalition of several of tlile western 

The reclaiming of the site of Fort "Wayne at that time also was 
a matter of concern to Sir William, who sought the co-operation of 
the home government to strengthen and re-occupy the post at the 
confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's. 

"St. Joseph [a post on the St. Joseph river which flows into 
Lake Michigan] and the Miamis [site of Fort Wayne] have neither 
of them been re-established," he wrote. "The former is of less 
consequence for trade than the latter, which is a place of some 
importance. At the Miamis there may be always a sufficiency of 
provisions from its vicinity by the river of that name' in the proper 
season, to protect which the fort there can, at small expense, be 
rendered tenable against any coupe de mains." 

The outbreak of the Revolution found Sir Guy Carleton estab- 
lished at Detroit as the civil governor of the British possessions 
in America, and Captain (afterward Colonel) Henry Hamilton, of 
the Fifteenth Regiment of British troops, holding the dual office 
of lieutenant-governor and superintendent of Indian affairs. Under 
the Quebec act, which was so odious in the eyes of the colonists 
as to merit their condemnation in the Declaration of Independence, 
the entire region northwest of the Ohio river was made subject to 
the absolute power of the governor and lieutenant-governor and a 
council of twenty-three per- 

Hamilton, whose personal- 
ity overshadowed every other 
factor in the governmental af- 
fairs of Canada, entered 
promptly upon a policy of ex- 
termination of American set- 
tlers' in the west, "whose arro- 
gance, disloyalty and im- 
prudence," he said, "have 
justly drawn upon them this 
deplorable sort of war."* 

Parties of savages, under 
the leadership of British 
soldiers and adventurers, were 
soon scouring every quarter of 
Pennsylvania, Ohio and Ken- 
tucky, where defenseless American pioneers might be captured and 
brought to Detroit, or wliose scalps formed a kind of gory tribute 


The Illustration is a re-drawing of 
a picture in Vol. I. of the "History of 
the Maumee River Basin." from the 
copyright of Dr. Charles B. Slocum, by 
his permission. The sword was found 
in Lakeside (Fort Wayne) and came 
Into the possession of L. W. Hills; it is 
now a part of the Slocum collection. 
The specimen is twenty-two Inches in 
length. "Probably," says Dr. Slocum, 
"this weapon was made by a French 
armorer for a savage warrior who pre- 
sented a bone of one of his human vic- 
tims for a handle." 




to please the enemies of the proposed republic .= Hamilton's official 
reports of these bloody raids form a sickening page of the story 
of the time." 


To add to the distressing conditions, Captain Alexander McKee, 
Matthew Elliott and Simon Girty' — men whose names are written in 
the history of the frontier as synonyms of outlawry — deserted the 
American stronghold, Fort Pitt, and made their way to Detroit 
where they offered their services to Hamilton, a man whose policies 
they were well qualified to promote. 

This action of the traitors brought to the fore one of the most 
daring and picturesque characters of the time — Major George 
Rogers Clark, of Virginia. The plans of Clark were twofold: 


The map shows the route of General George Rogers Clark from Pittsburgh 
to the capture of Vincennes and Kaskaskia (1778): the route of Colonel Hamil- 
ton from Detroit to his defeat at Vincennes (1778); and the route of La Balmo 
from Kaskaskia and Vincennes to the scene of his massacre near the site oB 
Fort Wayne after he had destroyed the Miami village, Keklonga (1780). 

Were he to command the posts of Kaskaskia and Cahokia on the 
Mississippi, and Vincennes on the Wabash, he would not only gain 
possession of the most important of the centers of British power in 
the west— aside from Detroit — but their capture would, he hoped, 
destroy the plan of Hamilton to lead an expedition against Fort 
Pitt, which had been weakened by the desertion of McKee, Elliott 
and Girty as well as others whom they had influenced. How well 
Clark succeeded needs no detailed reference here. With four hun- 



dred men, assigned to him by Governor Patrick Henry' of Virginia, 
Clark floated down the Ohio to Fort Massac and marched overland 
to the bloodless capture of Kaskaskia and Cahokia, an accomplish- 
ment which was followed quickly by the taking of Vincennes. 

M. de Celeron (son of Captain Bienville de Celeron), the British 
agent at Post Ouiatanon, thinking to prevent the northward move- 
ment of Clark's army, incited the savages to an attack on the Ameri- 
cans, but a detachment under 
Captain Leonard Hebn put 
Celeron and his followers to 

At this moment, Governor 
Hamilton was under indictment 
at Detroit for murder, deter- 
mined by a grand jury called 
on demand of the outraged peo- 
ple of the little settlement. A 
storehouse in the town had 
been robbed and burned. A 
negress and a white man had 
been charged with the crime 
and adjudged guilty by a jus- 
tice of the peace, Philippe De- 
jean, who sentenced them to 
death. As no one would con- 
sent to officiate as hangman, 
Colonel Hamilton offered lib- 
erty to the woman if she would 
act as executioner to the man. 
"Hamilton," says a late author- 
ity," "was so frightened at the 
knowledge that a warrant for 
his arrest was issued, that he 
gathered all the troops he could 
at Detroit, stripped the country 
of all the provisions he could 
carry and started for Vincennes, [by way of the site of Fort 

It is evident that Hamilton sought, by the overthrow of George 
Rogers Clark, to remove the stain from his name. 


On October 7, 1778, Hamilton's army, with fifteen large 
bateaux and numerous pirogues, laden with army supplies and 

This portrait of the first white per- 
son born on the site of the city of Fort 
Wayne, is from a lithograph in Brice'a 
"History of Fort Wayne," published in 
1868. The father of Hyacinth Lasselle 
(Jacques Lasselle) Indian agent for the 
British, came from Montreal to Keki- 
onga (site of Lakeside) in 1776. Hya- 
cinth was born February 25. 1777. The 
family fled to Montreal when La Balme 
invaded the Miami Village in 1780; a 
sister of Hyacinth (Marie Anne) fell 
from their canoe and was drowned. 
Hyacinth returned to Kekionga in 1795, 
Wayne's fort having been erected In 
the meantime. He removed to Vin- 
cennes, and upon the outbreak of the 
Indians preceding the battle of Tip- 
pecanoe, served in Harrison's army and 
attained the title of major general of 
militia. A famous but friendly trial 
concerning the holding of slaves by 
Lasselle occupied attention during his 
residence at Logansport, Ind., where 
he conducted a tavern. Lasselle died in 
Logansport, January 23, 1843. 


gifts for the Indians, departed from Detroit for the lower "Wabash. 
The army consisted of 177 whites — 36 British regulars with two 
lieutenants; 79 militia, with a major and two captains; 45 volun- 
teers and 17 members of the department of Indian affairs, and a 
large body of Indians, whose numbers increased as recruits were 
induced to join the campaign while en route along the Maumee 
and the Wabash. 

"On the 24th," says Hamilton in his official report, "we arrived 
at the Miamis town [Fort Wayne] after the usual fatigue attend- 
ing such a navigation, the water [of the Maumee] being remarkably 
low. Here we met several tribes of the Indians previously sum- 
moned to meet there and held several conferences, made them 
presents, and dispatched messengers to the Shawnees, as well as 
the nations on our route, inviting them to join us or at least watch 
the motions of the rebels [Americans] on the frontiers, for which 
purpose I sent them ammunition."" 

Goods valued at $50,000 were deposited at the site of Fort 
Wayne ; these included a six-pounder cannon and a large part of 
the army supplies brought from Detroit intended for the comfort 
of the troops during the winter. 

With ox-carts in the lead, the British army, after Hamilton had 
held further councils with the leaders of the Indians, departed for 
the Wabash. The waters of Little river, en route, were shallow, 
and the progress of the army was rendered difficult in the extreme. 
Had it not been for the work of beavers in constructing dams across 
Little river the advance of the troops would have been still more 

"Having passed the portage of nine miles," wrote Colonel 
Hamilton, "we arrived at one of the sources of the Oubache [Wa- 
bash] called the Riviere Petite [Little river]. The waters were 
so uncommonly low that we should not have been able to have 
passed but that at the distance of four miles from the landing place 
the beavers had made a dam which kept up the water. These 
we cut through to give a passage to our boats, and having taken in 
our lading at the landing, passed all the boats. The beaver are 
never molested at this place by the traders or Indians, and soon 
repair their dam, which is a most serviceable work upon this dif- 
ficult communication. With great labor, we next passed a swamp 
called les volets [the water plants], beyond which the little Riviere 
a Boete [Aboite] joins the one we made our way through. The 
shallowness of the water obliged us to make a dam across both 
rivers to back the waters into the swamp, and when we judged the 
water to be sufficiently raised, cut our dyke and passed with all 
our craft. The same obstacle occurred at the riviere a I'Auglais, 
and the same work was to be raised." 

The advance troops of Hamilton's army reached Vineennes 


December 16 and demanded the surrender of the post. Clark was 
at Kaskaskia. The post at Vincennes was in command of Captain 
Helm, who, with four companions, surrendered the fort, when 
assured that its "entire garrison" should be granted all the honors 
of war. The American colors gave place to the banner of Great 

On February 7, 1779, after bringing his little army of 170 men 
through the flood waters between Kaskaskia and Vincennes, Clark 
appeared before the fort occupied by Hamilton's garrison. His 
vigorous attack resulted in the surrender the following day. At 
last the "scalp buyer" was brought low. With twenty-seven other 
oflScers and regulars, including his friend Dejean, Hamilton was 
taken to Virginia, condemned for "gross and most cruel atrocities," 
and, after being confined in the dungeon of the jail at Williamsburg 
for a period, he was allowed to depart for England.^" 

A few days after the surrender of Hamilton, Clark took pos- 
session of all of the goods of Hamilton's army which had been 
stored at the site of Fort Wayne. Captain Helm and Major Legare 
met the convoy en route to Vincennes and captured forty officers 
and men. 

The defeat of Hamilton's great plan brought to Detroit as 
his successor Colonel Arent Schuyler DePeyster, a New York tory. 
Captain Richard Beringer, who was appointed to succeed to the 
temporary vacancy, proved to be unsuited to the position, but 
DePeyster appears to have met the situation with satisfaction. 
One of his first acts was a complaint that the savages had consumed 
in a very short time 17,520 gallons of whiskey which had utterly 
unfitted them for their scalping raids. 

It will be seen that in spite of Clark's brilliant success, the 
great stretch of the Maumee and Wabash valleys was still British 
territory — more strongly so than ever, for with the destruction of 
Hamilton's army, the British redoubled their efforts to clear the 
region of American "rebels." Indeed, this condition prevailed 
until the building of Fort Wayne sixteen years later. The interim 
provides the material for some of the most thrilling chapters of 
our story. 





(1) The word Maumee Is a corrup- 
tion of Miami (Me-ah-me). 

(2) New York Colonial Documents, 
vol. vli, page 974. 

(3) The penalty of loyalty to the 
American cause is shown by the Brit- 
ish treatment of John Edgar, a promi- 
nent Detroit merchant, who was 
taken from his home, and brought 
to the southwest, over the site of 
Fort Wayne, and on to Kaskaskia to 
his banishment. His goods were con- 
fiscated. Later, the United States 
congress awarded him two thousand 
acres of land as a compensation for 
his loyalty. 

(4) "Some Delawares are this day 
arrived who are desirous of showing 
their intention of joining their 
brethren [in warring against the 
Americans] and have presented me 
with two pieces of dried meat 
[scalps], one of which I have given 
the Chippeways, another to the 
Mlamis, that they may show in their 
villages the disposition of the Dela- 
wares." wrote Hamilton to Haldimand 
June 18, 1778. 

(5) George Rogers Clark called 
Hamilton "the scalp buyer." Whether 
or not this title was merited may be 
Judged from the contents of an In- 
tercepted message directed to Hamil- 
ton by one of his oflicers operating 
along the Ohio river: "I hereby send 
to your Excellency under care of 
James Hoyd, eight packages of scalps, 
cured, dried, hooped and painted with 
all the triumphal marks, and of which 
consignment this is an invoice and 
explanation: Package No. 1. 43 scalps 
of Congress soldiers, inside painted 
red with a small black dot to show 
they were killed by bullets; those 
painted brown and marked with a 
hoe denote that the soldiers were 
killed while at their farms; those 
marked with a black ring denote that 
the persons were surprised by night; 
those marked with a black hatchet 
denote that the persons were killed 
with a tomahawk. Package No. 2, 98 
farmers' scalps; a white circle denotes 
that they were surprised In the day- 
time; those with a red foot denote 
that the men stood their ground and 
fought in defense of their wives and 
families. Package No. 3, 97 farmers' 
scalps; the green hoops denote that 
they were killed in the fields. Pack- 
age No. 4, 102 farmers' scalps; eigh- 
teen are marked with a yellow flame 
to show that they died by torture; 
the one with the black band attached 
belonged to a clergyman. No. 5. 88 
scalps of women; those with the 
braided hair were mothers. No. 6, 

193 boys' scalps. No. 7. 211 girls 
scalps. No. 8, 122 scalps of all sorts; 
among them are twenty-nine Infant 
scalps, and those marked with the 
small white hooks denote that the 
child was unborn at the time the 
mother was killed. The chief of the 
Senecas sends this message: 'Father, 
we send you here these many scalps 
that you may see that we are not 
idle friends. We want you to send 
these scalps to the Great King that 
he may regard them and be re- 
freshed.' " (This letter was carried 
to France by Benjamin Franklin and 
presented as a part of his appeal to 
France to help America in her pro- 
test against the British attacks on 

(6) See Roosevelt's "Winning of the 
West," vol. 11. page 20. 

(7) There were four Girty brothers: 
Thomas lived at Pittsburg and re- 
mained' loyal to the United States. 
Simon served as second lieutenant in 
the Continental army and later de- 
serted from Port Pitt; after his vil- 
lainous conduct toward his country- 
men, he died in Canada in 1S18, having 
been blind for several years. James 
married a Shawnee and became a 
trader with the Indians; he made the 
village at the head of the Maumee 
a center of his activities. George 
married a Delaware woman; he was 
located at the site of Fort Wayne 
during a considerable period, and 
died, while intoxicated. In the Shaw- 
nee village of Chlllicothe on the Mau- 
mee two miles below Fort Wayne. 
During their period of service with 
the British, the Girtys received two 
dollars a day. Their savage conduct 
during this time has been excused by 
many on the ground of their early 
training while they were captives of 
the Indians. All were natives of 

(8) For a fac simile reproduction of 
Patrick Henry's instructions to 
George Rogers Clark, and of the 
notes which passed between Clark 
and Hamilton, see "Conquest of the 
Northwest." vol. 1, by William H. 
English; Fort Wayne Public Library. 

(9) Hamilton, in his report, accused 
Celeron of treachery. 

(10) C. M. Burton. Detroit, in a 
pamphlet, "Early Detroit, a Sketch 
of Some of the Interesting Affairs of 
the Olden Time." 

(11) From the George Rogers Clark 
papers, page 116. 

(12) See "Narrative of Henry Ham- 
ilton," American Magazine of His- 
tory, vol. 1; Fort Wayne Public Li- 

CHAPTER IX— 1780-1789. 

The Massacre of LaBalme — ^Washington Foresees Fort 


French traders at Miami Town (Fort Wayne) advance the cause of England 
In their war against the American colonists — The Lasselles, Beaublen 
and LaFontaine— Hyacinth Lasselle, the first white child born on Fort 
Wayne soil— The village thrown into consternation upon the approach 
of LaBalme— His identity and mission— Inhabitants flee to places of 
safety — LaBalme confiscates the property of anti-American traders — The 
camp on the Aboite— Little Turtle leads in the night attack— Slaughter 
of LaBalme's men— George Rogers Clark would take Detroit— Washing- 
ton prevented from sending troops — British lead savages in attacks on 
the settlements — Washington would establish a fort on the site of Fort 
Wayne — His letters — As president, he opens his program of conquest 
of the west — Colonel Hardin's raid inaugurates the period of warfare 
on the frontier. 

THE NEXT SCENE of the tragic story is laid in Miami Town— 
the name by which the village on the site of Fort "Wayne 
was called at this period. 
The French residents of the place were nearly all traders, 
though some had been located here for many years and were 
engaged in various pursuits.' All of them were warm friends of 
their former foes, the British — and for a mercenary reason. The 
utter discouragement of the Americans in their attempt to occupy 
the Maumee-Wabash valleys meant the preservation of the business 
of fur trading to the French. It was from the savages that they 
procured the furs which they sold at Detroit for the Montreal and 
European markets. Anything, therefore, which disturbed the activ- 
ity of the Indians and turned them from trapping to the war-path 
tended to destroy their business. Hence, their devotion to the 
British cause. 

None but those holding a license issued by the British author- 
ities was permitted ito engage in the trading business in this region. 
Frenchmen were chosen in many cases as the representatives of 
the British government. Stationed here at the time in the capacity 
of British Indian agent was Jacques Lasselle,* who had been ap- 
pointed in 1776. To Jacques Lasselle and wife was born, in 1777, 
a son. Hyacinth Lasselle, to whom has been awarded the honor of 
being the first white child born on the site of Fort Wayne. 

The year that brought Lasselle to the head of the Maumee 
(1776) gave also to the region Peter LaFontaine and Charles Beau- 




bien, from Detroit. Both built log cabins in the village in Spy 
Bun. Of the two, the name of LaFontaine is best known locally, 
because it is preserved in that of his grandson, Francis LaFontaine, 
the last of the line of Miami chiefs. In their marriage with Miami 
women and the identification of their interests with those of the 
Indians, LaFontaine and Beaubien declared their loyalty to the red 
men, which was amply proven five years later when they incited 
the savages to the massacre of LaBalme and his unfortunate 

To the picture of the clus- 
ter of these French homes, add 
the villages of the Miamis and 
the Shawnees, and we have a 
fair scene of the semi-civilized 
conditions at the confluence of 
the St. Mary's and the St. Jo- 
seph rivers during the Revolu- 

The condition of society in 
the village is reflected in a let- 
ter written by George Ironside,' 
a prominent trader, to David 
Gray at Vincennes. "We have 
a sort of dance here once a 
week during the winter," said 
he, "which has made us pass 
our time very agreeably." He 
adds: "Groosbeck is married 
to Miss Beaufait, and Rede is 
going to be married as soon as 
Rivard returns from the Ouias 
[Wea settlement on the Wa- 
bash] to Mad'le." 

The spirit of the times is 
suggested in further corre- 
spondence between Ironside 
and Gray. "The fate of Cha- 
peau makes me uneasy of your 
getting clear of that cursed 

country [along the lower Wabash]," wrote Ironside. "For God's 
sake, if there is any risque, be wary how you undertake the voyage 
to the Miamis [site of Fort Wayne]." 

Ironside in a later letter to Gray tells of the Indians gathered 
about the "store" at the site of Fort Wayne, waiting for the return 


This sabre, thirty-four Inches In 
length and ■well preserved, was found 
several years ago on the field of the de- 
feat of Harmar on the site of Fort 
W^ayne, by the late Carl Wolf, of New- 
Haven, Indiana. The eagle head, at 
the end of the bone handle stamps it as 
an American weapon. It Is now in the 
private museum of L. W. Hills, Fort 


of George Sharp, agent of the "Society of the Miami," who had 
received a large shipment of intoxicants. "He'll have a forte de 
affaire to keep the store from being plundered if he won't sell it," 
wrote Ironside. "As soon as he arrives, they [the Indians] think 
he will set up an Indian tavern in which he will be the waiter." 

To this place came Little Turtle, LeGris, Pecanne, and other 
savages who were one day to figure strongly in the story of the 
middle west. 

Little Turtle,* called "the greatest Indian of all times," was 
as yet unknown to fame. But his time was about to eome.^ A 
tragic event brought him from his place of obscurity and wrote, 
even though faintly, his name on the page of history. This affair 
is known as the LaBalme massacre. 

On the 3d of November, 1780, numbers of frightened savages 
created alarm in the quiet Miami Town by rushing in with the tale 
that an army of the "rebels" (Americans) was approaching rapidly 
from the southwest. There was no time to call in the scattered 
braves and traders for a defense of their homes — nothing to do 
but hasten to places of safety. Hurriedly abandoning the village, 
the men, women and children fled to the northward or across the 
St. Joseph, while others launched their canoes and pirogues upon 
the open river and paddled to places of safety. Among the families 
which chose the latter method was that of Jacques Lasselle ; in 
some manner, one of the children, a girl, fell from the boat and 
was drowned. 

Soon the invaders poured into the villages and plundered the 
dwellings of the traders and a large storehouse belonging to Beau- 
bien,° remaining long enough to make thorough work of the de- 
struction of the property of those whom the.y considered the most 
offensive enemies of the American cause.' Then they retired to 
their camp for the night. They chose a spot a few miles to the 
west of the scene of their raid, an open space, on the bank of a 
small stream, known as Aboite* (or Aboit) river or creek. 

The leader of this adventurous body of men was Augustus 
Mottin de LaBalme. He had served in France as a lieutenant-colonel 
of cavalry, and as a colonel in the colonial army during the latter 
part of the American revolution. LaBalme had come to America 
with the Marquis de LaFayette and entered at once into active 
service for the republic. 

Without announcement, he appeared in October, 1780, at Kas- 
kaskia on the Mississippi, now under the American flag, where he 
was received with gladness^ by the French and the Indians who 
encouraged his plan to proceed to Detroit to capture that post for 



the United States.'" Fired with the vision of a success which should 
equal or surpass that of Clark on the lower Wabash, LaBalme lost 
no time in gathering his followers and starting to the northward. 
A great demonstration attended the departure from Kaskaskia. 
The inhabitants en masse, as well as large companies of Indians, ac- 
companied the expedition for a considerable distance on its way up 
the Wabash. At Ouiatanon, LaBalme went into camp with the 
hope that re-enforcements would reach him before his movement 

northward. Here he passed 

twelve impatient days. The 
four hundred men who were to 
have joined him failed to ap- 
pear. Meanwhile, he feared, 
the anti-American settlements 
on the site of Fort Wayne 
might learn of the proximity of 
his detachment and prepare for 
defense. So he decided to make 
the raid on the ofifending vil- 
lages and then go into camp 
and await the addition to his 
numbers before proceeding to 

We have seen his confisca- 
tion of the villages, and now 
we find the small company of 
103" men settling themselves 
for the night in their camp on 
the Aboite. The tragic fate of 
the expedition is soon told. 
While the men were arranging 
for a few hours of comfort, 
Charles Beaubien, the chief 
trader at Miami Town, who 
seems to have been the chief 
anti-American agitator of the region, was active in assembling the 
savages and laying plans for a fierce retaliation. That LaBalme 'a 
attack on the Miami village was directed against Beaubien is shown 
by a clause in a letter written by Richard Winston to Colonel John 
Todd to the effect that "'tis the general opinion that he will take 
Baubin [Beaubien], the general partisan at Miamis [Fort Wayne], 
and proceed thence to Fort Pitt." 

With the gathering of the shades of night, a large number of 
Indians, fully armed, were assembled at the village. A council. 

The savage deeds of the Girty broth- 
ers — Simon, James and George — darken 
the pages of pioneer history of the 
Maumee region. After their desertion 
of the United States cause during 1778 
and 1779, the three, with McKee. Elliott 
and other traitors, entered heartily into 
the plans of the British commandant, 
Colonel Henry Hamilton, to carry for- 
ward a reign of terror to all foes of 
Great Britain. Simon was the most ac- 
tive of all as a party to the outbreaks 
of the savages about the Maumee dur- 
ing tile campaigns of Harmar. St. Clair 
and Wayne. The portrait is after a print 
in Vol. VI of the "Ohio Archaeologollcal 
and Historical Society's Publications," 
from a work of Prof. W. H. Venable. 


directed by Beaubien, resulted in the choice of Little Turtle to plan 
and execute the attack on the camp of the invaders. Following 
the custom of savage warfare, to which LaBalme and his men 
appear to have been strangers, the Indians quietly surrounded the 
place, and then, with the terrifying warwhoop, fell upon the sleeping 
encampment. The scene is best imagined from the story of the 
results. During the few minutes that followed the opening of the 
attack, thirty or forty of the Americans, including LaBalme, were 
killed, a few escaped in the darkness, and the remainder, among 
whom was one "Mons. Rhy, who styles himself aide-de-camp"'^ 
were taken prisoners. The Miamis lost five of their party. 

Such re-enforcements as may have been on the way to join 
LaBalme were turned back by the news of his destruction, and 
the Wabash valley, above the influence of Vincennes, remained in 
the hands of the British partisans. 

The LaBalme escapade sent a thrill of alarm throughout Can- 
ada. "It was certainly the beginning of a general attack against 
this province," wrote Governor Haldimand, at Quebec, to DePey- 
ster, in command at Detroit, "which, from different intelligence 
I have received, I have every reason to think, will be attempted in 
the spring against these upper posts. Monsr. LaBalm's papers 
clearly evince the sentiments of the Canadians, and you will benefit 
by the discovery." 

An alarming feature of the hour was the revelation that the 
French in Canada knew of the expedition and were prepared to 
assist LaBalme when he reached Detroit. Thomas Bentley, at Vin- 
cennes, already had written to DePeyster — indeed, before the mas- 
sacre of LaBalme 's men — that "war belts have been sent off to 
the Shawnee and other nations by the French Colonel who came 
here about a month ago, which belts, from what I can understand, 
import that the savages should remain quiet and not go to war 
any longer, as the French are coming again amongst them, who 
are to drive both the Americans and the English out of the country 
and are to possess themselves of Canada and its dependencies." 

DePeyster, as soon as he heard of the proximity of LaBalme's 
expedition through the refugees from Miami Town, hastened to send 
troops to the head of the Maumee. "Upon the alarm," he wrote 
to Brigadier H. Watson Powell, "I ordered the Rangers to take post 
at the Miamis, to cover the cannon, which cannot be brought off 
till there is water. You will see, sir," he added, "that this ex- 
cursion was no less than an attempt on Detroit, independent of the 
rebels. I shall not say how necessary troops are to be sent to this 
garrison, instead of weakening it for Michilimackinac. This is a 
numerous settlement. Should the enemy enter it, the Canadian in- 



habitants would require good looking after, since Colonel LaBalm's 
papers fail not to say that the inhabitants of Post Vincent [Vin- 
cennes] have been invited by those of Detroit." 

An interesting incident in connection -with DePeyster's rela- 
tion to the affair is revealed in his postscript to this letter. He 
says: "I have opened this dispatch upon the arrival of Colonel 
LaBalm's aide-de-camp, who 
says the Indians mistook him 
for the Colonel, who was killed 
in the action.^^ I forward the 
young man to Niagara. He ap- 
pears to be a very smart young 
gentleman, and a very intelli- 
gent one. He acknowledges 
their loss and says that the 
Colonel's little army consisted 
of four hundred men, and three 
had only got up to engage." 

It has been observed that 
LaBalme stopped at the Miami 
village to "take" Charles Beau- 
bien, who, in turn, appears to 
have been the real organizer of 
the attacking party which 
"took" LaBalme, instead. 
Never before has the name of 
Charles Beaubien figured prominently in the written history of 
Fort Wayne. An understanding of succeeding events requires a 
better knowledge of the man. 


Charles Beaubien came from Detroit to the Miami village at 
the head of the Maumee in 1776 to operate a trading post under the 
protection of the authorities at Detroit. That he served the British 
to their entire satisfaction in his treatment of Americans is shown 
in the letter of Governor Haldimand of Canada to DePeyster, 
directly after the LaBalme massacre. "I approve much your per- 
mitting Monrs. Beaubien to remain amongst them [the Miamis]," 
said he. "His allowable resentment against the people of Post 
Vincennes and the benefit he will derive from the present situation, 
tinder the King's protection, may, if he is clever, be turned to good 

Beaubien" already had made a name for himself because of his 
anti- American activities. From his home on the site of Fort Wayne, 

The map shows the vast area of the 
original Northwest Territory, created 
by the "Ordinance of 1787." General 
Arthur St. Clair was made governor, 
with Marietta as the seat of govern- 
ment. Out of this area were carved 
the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, 
Michigan and Wisconsin. 


he, with a young Frenchman named Lorimer, and a band of savages, 
made a raid into Kentucky where the party captured Daniel 
Boone and a number of his men in April, 1778. Boone was taken 
to Detroit, where the Indians refused to sell him to Governor Hamil- 
ton, giving as their excuse the claim that they desired to make 
him their chief. Boone escaped, was tried by courtmartial for 
surrendering his camp, and soon received a promotion to major in 
the American army. 

In September of the same year, Beaubien, with five Chippewas 
and fifteen Miarais, preceded Governor Hamilton's army to Vin- 
cennes, serving as scouts. In June, 1780, the Miamis pleaded with 
DePeyster to send them ammunition and .supplies to enable them 
to carry on their war against the Americans, with Beaubien as 
their leader. 

Such was the man whom LaBalme sought to destroy. 

The news of the triumph of the savages and their British 
supporter.s determined George Rogers Clark, now promoted to 
brigadier general, to carry forward his plan to take Detroit. His 
appeal to General Washington for troops, however, met with the 
regretted response that "it is out of my power to send any re- 
enforeements to the westward." Clark's visit to Governor Thomas 
Jefferson of Virginia was also without favorable result. That 
Washington realized the need of troops in the west is shown by his 
letter of explanation to Jefferson written December 28, 1781, in 
which he said: "I have ever been of the opinion that the reduc- 
tion of the post at Detroit would be the only certain means of 
giving peace and security to the whole frontier, and I have con- 
stantly kept my eyes on that object. But such has been the re- 
duced state of our Continental force, and such the low ebb of our 
funds of late that I have never had it in my power to make the 

Atrocities of the bloodiest order now startled the entire frontier. 
An American expedition against Sandusky, under Colonel William 
Crawford, resulted in disaster, and its leader was burned at the 
stake. Emboldened by these successes, a horde of savages was 
gathered by Colonel Alexander McKee, Captain William Caldwell 
and the Girtys for a successful raid of the town of Bryan's Station, 
in Kentucky. 


Immediately after the signing of the Treaty of Versailles, in 
1783, which was supposed to bring to a close the Revolutionary war, 
Washington demanded of Governor Haldimand the evacuation of 
the British posts at Detroit, Michilimackinac, Niagara and O.swego, 



in compliance with the terms of the treaty. The request was re- 
fused, on the ground that the treaty was provisional and had no 
specific application to the western posts. From that moment 
the mind of "Washington centered upon the saving of the west 
to the Union." He determined to exert every power to compel 
Great Britain to evacuate the American posts, and as an opening 
wedge, he proceeded to use his influence to the end that a garrisoned 
fort should occupy the lands at the head of the Maumee, where 

Herewith are shown two curious In- 
dian relics found at different times on 
the site of the city of Fort Wayne. The 
ladle Is of a hard, flne-gralned white 
wood, measuring about five inches in 
length. It Is now In the private col- 
lection of Leslie W. Hills. It was 
found by boys who were assisting In 
some excavation work on the land plat- 
ted by George Jaap In Spy Run. be- 
tween Spy Run avenue and the St. 
Joseph river, where the Miami burying 
ground was located, and in the vicinity 
of the grave of Chief Little Turtle. The 
ladle was enclosed In a copper kettle. 
The Iron handle of the kettle was 
rusted away, but the contents, thor- 
oughly sealed, were In perfect condi- 
tion. A turtle Is carved In relief on the 
handle of the ladle. The second speci- 
men la carved from bone and was found 

by the late J. W. Stockbrldge In the 
neighborhood of Rockhlll. Wayne and 
Berry streets. It now forms a part of 
the collection of Charles A. Stock- 
bridge, a brother. The design of the 
turtle according to students of Indian 
life and customs, was of common 
use. Jacob P. Dunn says: "The Ml- 
amls have specific names for the most 
common turtles — at-che-pong for the 
snapping turtle, ah-koot-yah for the 
soft-shell turtle, we-neet-chah for the 
box turtle or tortoise, kach-ki-yot for 
the map turtle, and mi-shl-kln-noq- 
kwa, spelled by many writers me-che- 
can-noch-qua, for the painted terrapin." 
The name of the latter, the commonest 
of the turtles of this region, was the 
Indian title of Chief Little Turtle. 
"Wlien it came to translation," adds Mr. 
Dunn, "the Interpreters knew no spe- 
cific English name for the painted ter- 
rapin, and. as it Is a little turtle, never 
growing more than six or eight inches 
across, they conveyed the Idea as well 
as they could by saying. 'The Little 
Turtle." (Dunn's "True Indian 


the city of Fort "Wayne now stands. But he was not yet in execu- 
tive power. Possibly he had no thought that he would be honored 
with the presidency of the republic. Nevertheless, there remains 
the evidence that as early as 1785, Washington's plans were clear 
and positive. Writing to Richard Henry Lee, February 8, 1785, 
he said: 


"Would it not be worthy of the wisdom and the attention of 
congress to have the western waters well explored, the navigation 
of them fully ascertained, and accurately laid down, and a com- 
plete and perfect map of the country, at least as far westerly as 
the Miamis running into the Ohio [the Great Miami] and Lake 
Erie [the Maumee], and see how the waters of these communicate 
with the River St. Joseph, [which empties into Lake Michigan], 
for I cannot forbear observing that the Miami village [site of 
Fort Wayne] points to an important post for the Union. The 
expense attending such an undertaking could not be great; 
the advantages would be unbounded, for I am sure Nature has made 
such a display of her bounties in those regions that the more the 
country is explored the more it will rise in estimation, consequently 
the greater will be the revenue to the Union. The spirit of emigra- 
tion is great. People have got impatient and, though you can 
not stop the road, it is yet in your power to mark the way; a little 
while and you will not be able to do either. It is easier to prevent 
than to remedy an evil."^^ 

In so expressing himself, Washington advocated a "military" 
road to the west, a pathway for settlers protected by garrisons at 
convenient centers. Writing to Major General Knox, secretary of 
war, Washington recommended the placing "at Miami fort or vil- 
lage [site of the city of Fort Wayne] and dependencies, two hun- 
dred [soldiers]."" 

"What has already been quoted concerning the fortification 
of the Miami village [and other points] shows that Washington 
was the ultimate authority on the western problem. * * * 
When, during his first presidency, the Indian war waged by Harmar, 
St. Clair and Waj'ne attracted the nation's attention, no one knew 
better the country or the conditions that prevailed than did the man 
at the helm. For years, Washington kept up a private correspond- 
ence with military men on the frontier for the sole purpose of 
getting additional pieces of information concerning the rivers and 
portages of the west."'^ 

From the realm of suggestion, Washington, soon elevated to 
the presidency, put his recommendations into direct action. In 
1789, addressing General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the newly- 
created Northwest Territory," Washington cautioned St. Clair 
against hasty action against the Indians who, as the president well 
knew, were acting under the influence of the British who had 
poisoned their minds with the belief that the sole purpose of the 
Americans was to rob them of their lands. However, Washington 
authorized the calling of militiamen to the number of 1,000 from 
Ohio, and 500 from Kentucky, if necessary, to control the situation 
and insure protection to the pioneers. 

On August 26, Colonel John Hardin — whose defeat in the battle 




fought in the following year on the ground occupied today by the 
city of Fort Wayne has placed his name prominently on the pages 
of the history of the middle west — led 200 mounted volunteers in an 
attack on some of the Indian villages on the Wabash. Without 
the loss of a man, the raid resulted in the killing of six Indians 
and the destruction of an important village and much valuable 
property of the savages. 

This was the first blow by the Americans; it opened the wars 
in the middle west which were to cost the nation so dearly in the 
loss of lives and property. 


(1) Upon the body of LaBalme, 
knied by Little Turtle's band In 1780, 
was found the following list of names 
of the white residents of the present 
Spy Run and Lakeside, with notations 
concerning the character of each: "On 
the south side [of the St. Joseph river 
— the stream runs in a southeasterly 
direction]; M. Labelle. father, the 
Beaubiens. north and south, M. Ma- 
zontel, Godet. kinsman of M. de 
Placey, Father Potier, a good old man, 
speaking Huron (Morrisceau mis- 
trusts him). Melosche, a good French- 
man. Drouillard at the windmill, 
Montforton. keep an eye on as he Is 
neither English nor honest; Baby, 
merchant at the fort; Adhemar, 
merchant, a dangerous man, M. 
Gregoire, English, a thorough 
scoundrel, Navarre, a treacherous 
man, and Antonny amounts to noth- 
ing, Beaubien, a profligate. On the 
north side; Messierus Chacehton, 
merchant, three fourths of a league 
from the fort to whose house the 
proud Commandant goes now and 
then. • • • Put a guard over 
Mons. Alexis de MalsonvlUe, captain 
of militia, a two-faced man. hating 
the militia and a friend of England. 
• • • Mr. Barthelemy, Mr. Rlvard, 
Mr. Lorrance, Mr. Gouln. of Detroit, 
Mr. Lascelle. Mr. Patteoin. Mr. Du- 
plessy, and others, equally well dis- 
posed, and an American, called 
George, a partner of Israel, are of 
the party." The informant adds that 
these men trade "at the little fort of 
St. Joseph's and toward Fort St. Clair, 
which Is about an equal distance from 
thence to Detroit; that Is to say, 
about one hundred miles." (Michigan 
Pioneer and Historical Collection.) A 
record of the earlier residents (1769) 
contains the following; Capauchln, 
Baptiste Campau, Nicholas Perot, 
Pierre Barthe, Bergerson, Barthelmy. 
Dorlen Francois MalsonvlUe and 
Lorain. (See "Documents Relating to 
the French Settlements on the Wa- 
bash," collected by Jacob P. Dunn and 
published in the Indiana Historical 
Society's Publications, vol. 11,; Fort 
Wayne Public Library.) 

(2) The members of Lasselle family 
departed hastily upon the sudden ap- 
pearance of the troops of LaBalme, 
In 1780, and made their way to Mon- 
treal. Hyacinth, In later years, lo- 
cated at Detroit, where two brothers 
already had preceded him, and then 

came to Fort Wayne and opened the 
first store within Wayne's fort. After- 
ward, as a resident of Vlncennes and 
Logansport. he became widely known. 
During the period preceding the civil 
war, when Indiana was taking its 
place with the anti-slave states, Las- 
selle was arrested at Logansport, 
charged with slave-holding. 

(3) George Ironside and George 
Sharp are the subjects of treatment 
In Chapter X, of this work, in con- 
nection with the Journal of Henry 

(4) "The village where Little Turtle 
was born in 1752 was located on the 
north tributary of Eel river, twenty 
miles northwest of Fort Wayne. In- 
diana. In Whitley county, on lands 
now (1916) owned by William Ander- 
son, in Section 9, Smith township 
(Whitley county). • • • The vil- 
lage stood on the west side of the 
river." — Calvin Young In Ohio Archae- 
ological and Historical Society Publi- 
cations, vol. xxlll, page 108. 

(5) Little Turtle, though not of 
imposing stature, was both brave and 
wise. He had also a remarkable dig- 
nity of manner that commanded re- 
spect, and, although not an hereditary 
chief, he soon rose to a position of 
leadership which he held until the 
day of the battle of Fallen Timber. 
His defeat of LaBalme gave him the 
confidence of the tribes which marked 
the beginning of his rise to power. 

(6) LaBalme knew of this store and 
its contents. The memorandum, 
found In his pocket, contained these 
words; "What Is the nature and 
quantity of the goods at the Miamis? 
A thousand weight of powder and 
lead In proportion, arms, blankets, 
cloth, shirts and other goods of trade, 
of the value of about 50,000 livres, all 
in Baubin's store kept by Mr. LaFon- 
taine and an old man. Another store 
kept by Mr. Moulton. a partner of 
Baubin, value about 50,000 livres." ' 

(7) Col. DePeyster, at Detroit, re- 
ported that LaBalme, on November 16, 
1780. entered the village, took several 
horses, destroyed the horned cattle, 
and plundered a store which he al- 
lowed to be kept there for the benefit 
of the Indians. See "Maumee River 
Basin." vol. i. page 144. 

(S) This little stream rises In Allen 
county, Indiana, of which Fort Wayne 
is the county seat, and flows in a 
southerly direction to join the Wa- 



bash. Some have claimed that the 
name Abolte Is derived from "abat- 
toir," a slaughter house — because of 
the bloody event which gave it a 
place in history — but the name Is 
merely a corruption of the French 
Riviere a Boitte, or river of minnows. 

(9) "He was received by the 
[French] inhabitants [at Kaskaskla] 
just as the Hebrews would receive 
the Messiah." — Virginia State Papers, 
vol. i, page 380. 

(10) That LaBalme's independent 
movement was not countenanced by 
the Virginia authorities is shown by 
the words of Richard Winston, writ- 
ing from Kaskaskia to Colonel John 
Todd, October 21, 1780: "He passed 
about one month here without seeing 
Colonel Montgomery, nor did Colonel 
Montgomery see him." — Virginia 
State Papers, vol. i, page 380. 

(11) LaBalme's company Included 
seventy or eighty Creoles, many of 
whom were traders and bush-rangers, 
rather than Indian fighters. It Is be- 
lieved that the savages, awed by the 
punishment so recently given by 
Clark, would not have Interfered 
with the progress of LaBalme If he 
had proceeded peaceably to Detroit 
and without molesting the property 
of the French traders at the Miami 
village upon whom the Indians de- 
pended for their supplies. (John Todd 
Papers, Fergus Historical Series, No. 
33, page 207, note.) 

(12) From Colonel DePeyster's let- 
ter to Governor Haldimand of Canada. 
LaBalme's personal effects, including 
hia watch, set with diamonds, his arms, 
regimentals, spurs, commission and 
papers, were forwarded to Governor 
Haldimand by Beaubien. 

(13) DePeyster, in the body of his 
letter, had stated that "I expect the 
Colonel [LaBalme] in every hour." 
The aide's report that LaBalme sup- 
porters numbered four hundred men 
appears to have been greatly exagger- 

(14) Will H. W. Peltier, in 1916, 
said: "I believe Charles Beaubien 
was an uncle of my great grand- 
father, James Peltier I. His mother 
was a Beaubien, probably a sister 
of Charles. James Peltier I came 
from Detroit to the French village, 
Miami Town (or Kiskios or Keklonga, 

as the Indians called it), before 
Wayne's fort was built. We have al- 
ways understood that he came aa 
early as 1787, seven years before the 
Wayne campaign, and it is reasonable 
to suppose that he was induced to 
settle here as a trader through the 
influence of Beaubien. James Pel- 
tier I was a messenger for the gov- 
ernment, passing between Detroit 
and Fort Dearborn in the later years. 
I have often heard of his experience 
at Fort Dearborn just before the 
massacre. The Indians were friendly 
to him. One day in 1812, as he was 
approaching Fort Dearborn, they In- 
tercepted him and made him promise 
to leave the fort before a certain day, 
which proved to be the day on which 
they had determined to attack the 

(15) Washinpton's great faith In 
the development of the west is shown 
in his ownership at this time of 32,37$ 
acres of ground in Ohio (most of It 
near the mouth of the Kanawha 
river). In 1770, he visited his proper- 
ties and learned much concerning the 
perilous condition of the pioneers of 
the frontier. "Had not the Revolu- 
tionary war been Just then on the eve 
of breaking out," says James S. Al- 
bach. "Washington would, in all prob- 
ability, have become the leading set- 
tler of the west, and all our history, 
perhaps, have been changed." (See 
"Washington and the West"- Fort 
Wayne Public Library.) 

(16) Sparks's "Writings of Wash- 
ington," vol. Ix, page 80. 

(17) Sparks's "Writings of Wash- 
ington," vol. ix. page 110. 

(18) Archer B. Hulburt, "Washing- 
ton and the West," page 191. 

(19) On October 5, congress, by the 
passage of the "Ordinance of 1787," 
created the Northwest Territory, which 
included the present states of Ohio, In- 
diana, Michigan and Wisconsin, with 
General Arthur St. Clair as governor. 
The Ohio river soon became a great 
highway of travel for the pioneers. 
One of the largest companies came 
from New England under the leader- 
ship of General Rufus Putnam; tMs 
body of settlers founded Marietta, O., 
and here was established the first cap- 
ital of the Northwest Territory. 

CHAPTER X— 1789-1790. 

Life in Miami Town (Fort Wayne), the Anti- American 
Center of the West. 

Extracts from the journal of Henry Hay, of Detroit, a British partisan, 
who sojourned in Miami Town during the winter of 17S9-1790 — The 
social life of the village — Savages bring in many captive Americans — 
others are tortured and scalped — Wild scalp dances of the savages In 
Lakeside — Little Turtle and LeGris — Religious services among the 
whites of the village — People summoned to worship by the ringing of 
cow bells — Richardville as a youth— His mother — Early merchandising 
described as a "rascally scrambling trade" — John Kinzie, the Girtys, 
James Abbott, LaFontaine and Lorraine — Hay would not risk his "car- 
cass" among the "renegades" (Americans) — Prisoners at Chillicothe 
village — The town flooded — Narrow escape of George Ironside — Negroes 
brought from the Ohio — Virginia prisoner adopted by Chief Black Bird — 
News of St. Clair's preparations to wage war against the savages. 


HE NARRATIVE brings us now to the eve of the battle of 
the site of Fort Wayne, designated in American history as 
"Harmar's Defeat." 
During 1789, the Maumee- 
Wabash valleys resembled a 
hive of angered hornets. Small 
bands of savages scattered 
through Ohio and Indiana 
vied with each other in the 
performance of deeds of cru- 
elty. The Miami village at the 
head of the Maumee was the 
center of this fierce hatred of 
the Americans. Says a recent 
authoritative work: "There 
is a tradition that a secret so- 
ciety or fraternity of Miami 
warriors of approved courage 
and cunning met at stated in- 
tervals on the site of Fort 
"Wayne and included in the 
program of every such enter- 
tainment the burning of at 
least one captive and in the banquet the eating of his flesh."' 

"Whether this be true or not, it is certain that this village was 



The dotted lines show the location of 
some of the more southerly Spy Run 
streets of today. The shaded portion 
sug^gests the general location of the 
flourishing antl-Amerlcan village of 
Miami Town, which was wiped out of 
existence by General Harmar's men In 
October, 1790. A chapter in this work 
dealing with the journal of Henry Hay. 
describes the dally routine of the wild 
life of the settlement Just preceding Its 


the heart of conspiracies of hatred and revenge and that the 
British partisans acquiesced in these wild carnivals of blood. 

In imagination we may take up our abode in this village of 
1789,^ and see its every-day activities through the eyes of a man 
who sojourned here for a period of four months, during which 
time he made a full written record of the activities of the people and 
of his personal observations. The writer of this most enlightening 
journal was one Henry Hay, of Detroit.' Evidently, he was in 
the employ of George Leith, a Detroit merchant, but the object 
of his visit is not revealed in the manuscript. As the reader 
gathers in the recorded thoughts of Henry Hay, let him look for- 
ward to the conditions which prevailed here in less than one year 
after the words were written — namely, the utter destruction of the 
place upon the arrival of Harmar's army. 

Quotations from Hay's journal, as dated, have been taken in 
their chronological order, with the addition of general quotations 
at the close. Hay writes as follows: 

"December 16th [1789]. * * * Arrived at the Miami Town 
about 10 o'clock, found the roads very bad. I visited Mrs. Adam- 
hers* family. 

"17th. Wrote to my brother, Meredith & Baby,' gave them 
an account of my jants & this place etc — visited a couple more of 
the French familys at this place found them very decent & polite — 
particularly at Mr. Adamhers who gave me a very friendly invita- 
tion to their house sans ceremonie. 

"18th. Wrote Mr. Robertson' with respect to my i^ pay cer- 
tificates not being able to send them in by Mr. Sharpe'' who left 
this place for Detroit this day — but promised to get them made 
out the 25th Inst & forward them by the first opportunity. * * * 
I think upon the whole this is a verj' pretty place — the River that 
this town is built upon is called the River St. Joseph which falls 
into the Miami [Maumee] River very near the town at the S. W. 
end of it. This day a prisoner [American] was brought in here; 
Rather a elderly man was taken better than a month ago at a 
place called Little Miami — the Americans are making a settlement 
at that place* — this man was engaged to work for one John Phillips, 
one of the settlers, was out in a field about two miles from his 
masters, saving fother [fodder] for the cattle when he was taken. 
* * * The Indians who took him are Delawares.' * * * 
Visited Mrs. Adamher and family this morning. This evening also 
visited Mr. Rivarr's^" — Miss Rivarr** is a very pretty girl, inclined 
to be stout, very fair, black eyes, but rather aukward. un pen a la 



"19th. * « * This day arrived here the Little Turtle'* a 
chief of the Miamias with his war party consisting of about fifteen 
or sixteen — they had made two prisoners a negro and a white man 
[Americans] the negro was left with a few whites at the Little 
Miami. The rest went out looking for more, thej' left their baggage 
& four Horses — during which time the Americans came on them, 
retook the negro, plundered the baggage, horses, &c. The Indians 
made ofif and joined the others. Went and paid a visit this after- 
noon to Mrs. Adamher — drank coffee with her. She showed me a 
further mark of her Politeness & attention, by telling me it was 
very difficult to get cloathes & Linnen washed at this place, begged 
that I would send her mine that her Ponnie" wench should wash 


"20th. Saw this day the rifle horn & Pouche Bagg belonging 
to the American that was murdered. • * » i find that this 
man was immediately killed after he was taken by one of the 
party who struck him twice or thrice in the back and side in conse- 
quence he said of having some of his relations killed lately. This 
is their way of retaliating. Paid a visit this morning to Mr. Pay- 

etts" family, think nothing of Miss She's very brown. Passed 

an agreeable afternoon and evening at Mrs. Adamhers in company 
with Mrs. and Miss Rivare & Mrs. Ranjard; I played the flute and 
sang. Mr. Kinzie" the fiddle, & all the ladies except two sang 
also. Mrs. Ranjard has a fine voice. • * » The French settlers 
of this place go to prayers of a Sunday morning, and evening at one 
Mr. Barthelmis'" which is performed by Mr. Payee," the people 
are collected by the Ringing of three cow bells, which three boys 
runs about with thro' the village, which makes as much noise as 
twenty cows would. I went this morning to their prayers, it being 
Sunday. * * * i forgot to mention the 19th inst. that on the 
arrival of the warriors the other side of the river [Lakeside], the 
Gree" ordered a Pirogue (which happened to be just arrived from 
the forks of the river with wood) to be unloaded by some of the 
french lads who stood on the bank, and sent some of them over 
with it ; on their arrival he Billeted them like Soldiers so many 
in each house according to the bigness of it, and took care to trouble 
the families as little as possible — we had six ; — this he ordered in 
a very polite manner, but quite like a general or a commandant. 

21st. • * * This morning Mr. Leith told me the Gree [Le- 
Gris] was going off immediately after breakfast with his people a 
hunting — & that this hunt was to bring in meat for me, and that 



consequently I should be under the necessity of giving him a small 
two gallon keg — which I did; as rum is very dear at this place no 
less than 40/ a gallon. I borrowed it to be returned at Detroit. 
The reason I gave them the rum now is that they may not drink 
it about the village ; it being against Major Murray's [the command- 
ant at Detroit] positive orders to give Indians rum at this place or 
sell, etc. And as I'm for supporting those orders as much as lay in 
my little power was my particular reason for giving it to them at 
present; for they no doubt will not expect any more. If they do 
I must say they shall not get it from me— not only to prevent 
quarrels which might happen in the village if they got drunk and 
also supporting the Major's orders, but its an expense to myself 
which I shall not be able to support. » * * I was shovm this 
morning the Heart of the white prisoner I mentioned the Indians 
had killed some time ago in the Indian country — it was quite dry, 
like a piece of dried venison, with a small stick run from one end 
of it to the other and fastened behind the fellows bundle that killed 
him, with also his scalp. Another party of Miamies and one Shaw- 
anie came in from war this day with one scalp, they danced over the 
river [in the present Lakeside], one with a stick in his hand scalp 
flying ; it being their custom. Some of the warriors came over in the 
evening to our house. * * * 

"23. * * * I never observed 'till this morning that a Man 
may easily walk over this River it being very shallow. * • • 
There are two villages at this place one belongs on this side of the 
river [Spy Run] and one on the other [Lakeside] — the former 
belongs to the Gree [LeGris]— the other to Pecann" who's now in 
Illinois, but in his absence is Commanded by his nephew one Mr. 
Jean Baptist Richerville, son of one Mr. Richerville="* of Three 
Rivers in Canada by an Indian woman^^— This young man is a 
Trader here — his Father has wrote for him to go to him which he 
means [to do] next Spring. His mother is now gone into the Indian 
country (dans les Terre as the french term it) to trade; She lives 
with him when she's here— the young man is so bashful that he 
never speaks in council, his mother who is very clever is obliged to 
do it for him. 

"This evening the Grees Brother arrived from his hunting 
Ground— his name is the Deer. He formerly was the great Chief 
of this Village but chose to give it to his brother— he's very clever 
— his brother never does anything without consulting him. — Captain 
Johnny" left this place this morning for his Village. 

' ' 24th. • • • Several Potewatomies arrived here this after- 
noon with skins, meat &c. Visited Mrs. Adamher was pleased to 


desire I should send her any linnen or anything else that I may 
want to mend. She asked me to go with her to the midnight 
[Christmas eve] mass — and also asked me if I would play the flute 
which I did. Mr. Kinzie and myself went to Mrs. Adamhers about 
11 o'clock — he brought his fiddle with him — we found a frenchman 
there who played with us. 

"25th. Came home this morning about two o'clock from mass; 
Mr. Kinzie and myself called first at Mrs. Adamhers on our return 
home, who gave us some venizon stake and roasted rackoon — 
Played the flute & Kinzie the fiddle with the french man this Morn- 
ing at Mass; being a particular desire of the Peoples. We left 
our instruments at the house where prayer was said. 


"I cannot say much indeed for the Trade of this Place their 's 
but few skins comes in, and almost every individual (except the 
engages) ^^ is an Indian trader, everyone tries to get what he can 
either by fowle play or otherwise — that is by traducing one an- 
others characters or merchandise. For instance by saying such a 
one has no Blankets another no strowde or is damned bad or he'll 
cheat you & so on — in short I cannot term it in a better manner 
than calling it a Rascally Scrambling Trade &c &c. • * • piay 
again this afternoon at Vespars. 

"26th. Got infernally drunk last night with Mr. Abbott" and 
Mr. Kinzie. * • • Damnation sick this morning in consequence 
of last nights debashe • • • Kinzie and myself went to mass 
and played as usual — Mrs. Ranjard gave us a cup of coffee before 
mass to settle our heads. • • • 

"Mrs. Grie made us a present of a very large Turkey Cock 
weighing about 30 pounds, we propose having a Dinner among us 
Englishmen here. Mr. Abbott fetched some Maderia & Mr. Kinzie 
a piece of newly-corned pork — upon which we made a most excellent 
dinner at V2 past 3 o'clock after Kinzie & I played at Vespers as 

usual. After K and I went to see Miss Rivarre & found the 

Miss Adamhers there, the old people were out of the way. 

"George Girty'* arrived here this day from his wintering 
ground which is only four miles from here — its called the Delaware 
Town — he so desired I should write in to Capt. McKee^' by the 
first opportunity to acquaint him that in consequence of the Miami 
Indians upbraiding the Delawares with telling them that the ground 
they occupy is not theirs and that upon which the Delawares 
answered, they were great fools to fight for lands that was not 
theirs and consequently would not go to war against the Americans 
any more. * • • 


"27tli. Sunday. Kinzie and myself were invited to sup with a 
Mr. Barthelmie (the man of the house where prayer is said) last 
night with Mr. and Mrs. Adamher— Mr. de Sanlaren^" [later written 
by Hay as Saleron] a french gentleman a Trader at this place 
who formerly was an officer in the french Service before the taking 
of Canada &e &e. and Mr. Baptist Lassell— we had roasted Turkey 
and to my great surprise and indeed everyone else we had a roasted 
Loine of Veal— a kinde of wilde sallad which they have here all 
winter on the other side of the River which was very good & also 
some very [good] cocombers piekels cheese &e. Grogg the only 
drink — everything served up in the french stile. — 

"The weather very mild. * * * if it continues the Fur 
Trade will be very bad this year and no doubt its impossible for 
the Indians to hunt in this kind of weather; they may get a few 
Rackoon, Otter & Beaver with Traps. They only kill a few deer 
and Bears in this wett weather particularly Bears— but not equal 
to as when the snow is on the ground. * * * Played as usual 
at mass. 

"28th. * * * Made out my Half -Pay certificate this day- 
was sworn by Mr. Leith— Mr. Ironside" made out the Bills of Ex- 
change for me; So that everything is now ready to send to Mr. 
Robertson at Detroit by the first opportunity. * » * 

"This evening about five the Gree and his Brother in Law, the 
Little Turtle arrived from their wintering Place; they drank tea, 
also maderia. * * * 

"30th. * * * The Gree and Turtle visited us this morn- 
ing. * * * 

"1 January 1790 Friday— It being New Year the Indians who 
are in great number more so indeed than I could ever have thought, 
also the Woman — came into the house in great numbers by three 
o'clock this morning which prevented Ironside & me from Sleeping 
— one lady came to shake hands with me when in bed — The House 
was quite full at Breakfast time— The Gree & Turtle came to visit 
us & breakfasted with us as usual. * * * Visited most of the 
Principal families of this place this morning & kissed all the ladies 
young and old. * * * * 

"2nd Jany. * * * a french man arrived from Maria Lou- 
isa's Trading Place about 25 Leagues from here — this ]\L Louisa 
is mother to yon J. Baptist Richerville * * * He brought word 
that M. Antoine LasselP' is made prisoner by the Ouias In- 
dians. * * ♦ 

"3 January Sunday The Gree and Turtle went off on horse 
back for their Wintering Camps after breakfasting with and 
thanking us for the reception they received from us during their 


stay. I gave them a bottle of Rum. For it must be observed that 
they have nothing here to live upon — everything they possess and 
have is in the woods ; they all come in in the Spring to the amount 
of four or five hundred. 

"5 Jany. » » * Mr. Lassell -writes Mr. Adamher by this 
Tramblai [a trader] that he never traded better nor easier, that 
the Indians are perfectly quiet in that part of the Country — Such 
a Damnable lying Report [see January 2] I never experienced be- 
fore in my life. « * « 

"9th Jany • * * I seated [skated] for the first time yes- 
terday upon a marrai-' about H mile back of the village — this 
marrai falls into a creek which goes by the name of le Rouisso de 
Roill,*" which falls into the Miami [Jlaumee]. This creek takes 
its name from a Frenchman who once had a hut close by it. 

"13th. Yesterdaj' about 2 o'clock arrived here Mr. Antoine 
Lassell accompanied by a french man and one Blue Jackett** a 
Shawanie chiefe. • * * 

"16th. Played cards last night at Mr. [Antoine] Dufrenes 
in Company with all the principal people of the Village, did not 
come home untill this morning about 4 o'clock rather drunkish. 

* • * This day the Grie arrived about 2 o'clock. This evening 
Mrs. Adamher and Mrs. Ranjard made a Bouquet which we all pre- 
sented to Mr. Dufresne in Honor of St. Antoine, he bearing that 
name — It was then carried from that to Mr. Adamher, Mr. Rivarr, 
Mr. Barthelmies, Mr. Selerons & then back again to Mr. Dufresne 
we danced in each house, the Ladies being with us. 

"17th. * * * This evening we had a dance at Mr. Du- 
fresnes by Mr. Anto'n Lassells invitation w(h)ere all the descent 
[decent] Ladies of this place were Present. 


"19th Sunday. I never enjoyed myself at a Dance better than 
I did last night. The Gentlemen & Ladies all appeared dressed in 
their best bibs & Tuckers, and behaved very descently not one of 
the men in the least in Liquor, & which is mostly the case in this 
place when they collect together. * «• << j made tangrie for the 
Ladies and Grogg for the Gentlemen. * * « "We danced some 
Dance Ronby, one particularly a very curious one — It was sung' 
by Mrs. Rangard, the chorus was rather Bawdie. * * * As this 
is three nights now I have danced, I find myself very tired this 
morning, my feet much swelled — and what with dancing, catching 
cold & given the word of Command yesterday I am quite hoarse. — I 
forgot to mention that yesterday was rather a disagreeable day. 

* * * Mr. Adamher & Mr. De Seleron made their appearance 


at the Ball with very fine fur caps on their heads adorned with a 
quantity of Black Ostrich Feathers — Cockades made with white 
tinsell Ribbon, amasingly large— As their was a great deal of Mudd 
Mrs. Payette who is an exceedingly large woman was sent for in a 
Carte, accompanied by her Husband and Daughter. • • « 

"22 * * * Several Putewatomies arrived this afternoon 
with Peltrie & a great quantity of meat — viz. Venison, Rackoons, 
Porcupine, Bare & Turkeys &c. the most of which Mr. Abbott 
bought ; the blanket is what the Indians want most at present & no 
one else except Mr. Dufresne has any at this post but Mr. Ab- 
bott. • * * 

"23. * * * The Grie & Son arrived this afternoon from 
his wintering camps — He immediately sent for Mr. Ironside & me ; 
when we went to him he addressed himself to me — Son says he, 
here is my Son your Brother who has brought you a little meat to 
make you some brothe which he beggs you will accept, I should 
not says he have come myself, but my Son M'ho is very bashful 
asked me to come with him. • • * 

2.5th * » * -vve went and serenaded the young girls and 
women of the Village. 

27th. * * « Gros Loup, (a Mohicken Indian who has lived 
amongst the Miamis ever since his Infancy) gave me a love letter 
which he picked up in some place or other — Its dated New Madrid, 
May 6th, 1789 signed by J. S. Story and directed to Miss Betsy 
Gray, Ipswich Masseehusech. * * * 

"28th. • * « Yesterday Evening arrived here a Mr. La- 
fontenne,'^ a Trader who left this about 36 days ago — He went 
down the Wabache River then turned into the woods towards 
White River & their traded with the Indians. — he made 80 Deer 
Skins and about 500 Rackoons. — which he brought upon the horses 
he took out his goods upon — however he did not trade all his goods 
away, for he feteh'd some back — Its very extraordinary that meat 
was so difficult to be had that he & the Indian that was with him 
were five days feeding on acorns on their return home. The fifth 
day in the Evening he sent the Indian on the lookout for Indian 
hutts to purchase meat, who fell in with a large Rackoon Tree 
which he cutt down and found five in it, which was a great re- 
source. * • • 

"31st. Sunday. • • • took a ride on a cariolle this day 
with Mr. J. B. Richerville, as far as Mr. James Girtys House which 
is about two miles. — Several Indians arrived this day from dif- 
ferent places with peltry. — This afternoon arrived here Mr. George 
Girty from his wintering camp with two loaded horses of peltry. 


Brought with him his wife & two sisters in law (Indians) — He con- 
firms the intention of Delawares going to the Spaniards in the 
spring, but says not many of them. * • • 

"1st February. * • * Mr. James Girty told me this Even- 
ing that Capt. Johnny Chief of the Shawnees was collecting all the 
Indians together to a Grande Council — He also show'd me a red 
scalp which he got from a Delaware Indian ; the meaning of this 
scalp he does not know as yet, but it seems it must be sent to 
Detroit by the first opportunity. 

"3d. • • • Mr. Abbott [to whom Hay already had referred 
as a "disaffected subject"] proposed my going with him as a Com- 
panion in the Spring to Fort Vincennes — I told him I could not 
think of venturing my Carcass to such as place as that, among a 
parcel of renegades [Americans]." 

Hay relates that a party of savages arrived with a prisoner, 
one McMullen, of Richmond, Virginia, whom the Indians painted 
black from head to foot. He was captured by the Indians of 
Mississinewa village. "The reason for bringing him here," saya 
Hay, "is that he's given to a man of this [Chillicothe] village." 
Black Birde, Chiefe of the Chillicothe village is not at home. Theire 
will be a ceremony w(h)en he arrives to adopt the Prisoner." Hay 
adds: "They have washed his face — but not his boddy, which will 
be done & also cleanly dressed when the Chief arrives." 


On the 17th of February, the rivers began to rise, and soon 
the village was partly submerged, transforming the higher lands 
into three islands. "We are obliged to make use of the Peerogues 
or canoes to go to see those people who live on the other two 
islands," wrote Hay on February 18th. The ice-choked river rose 
rapidly on the 19th and carried off a plank bridge which had been 
constructed between the "islands." On the 24th, the flood sur- 
rounded John Kinzie's house and "he desire he might bring his 
apprentices here & also stay himself." Soon the homes of most 
of the residents were under water. "We are obliged to put our 
trunks and things in the lofte," wrote Hay, who added, "Mr. Leith 
and Kinzie put up a stove in the loft of the Company's House'* 
— Mr. Ironside and myself joined them this afternoon. Mr. Iron- 
side and myself got under way in the Canoe to return to our 
Garrett, but we were unfortunate, just as we came to the rappidest 
part of the water, a whirl Pool very near overset the Canoe, Mr. 
Ironside who was steering, slipped backwards and fell into the 
water, the Canoe had then greate way & lucky anough arrived close 
to the upper part of the Picketts of Grave Yarde which I immedi- 


ately took hold of & held fast by them standing on the ribbon, 
pushing the Canoe off immediately with the lads that were in it, 
who got down the current in time to save him. He says when 
the canoe came up to him he was just gone. The lads took him 
in to one J. Morris — & came immediately back for me. I am not 
over-fond of canoes." Hay says that the water forced "J. B. 
Richerville" to abandon his house and go to his mother's, whose 
house "is very high from the Earthe, which prevents the water 
coming to it as soon as the others." 

On a later day, Hay observes : ' ' There is an old French woman 
in this place of the name of Barthelmie who says she recollects 
when the banks of the river [St. Joseph] were so near to one another 
and consequently the River so narrow, that at low water the children 
used to jump over it." 

"This day," wrote Hay on March 10, "the Chillcothy young 
men came down from the place where The Town is to be built, 
they have already finished the Council House which by all accounts 
is a very large one." 

On the 12th of March occurred the death of one Lorraine," 
who "was the oldest inhabitant of this Place & Environs, he has 
been here &c 40 years." 


"A party of Shawnees arrived from war'' at their village on 
the 19th," wrote Hay on March 21. "They have brought three 
prisoners and a negro man [Americans]. It seems that there was 
another party of them attacked a boat wherein there was an officer 
& about 21 men. They killed every one of them; Sank the Boat & 
hid every utensil they found in it, in the woods. They also took 
nineteen persons near Limestown which they have all Prisoners 
except 2 or 3. The first party were the Chilicothy People — & the 
others the Picowees. One of the above prisoners told Mr. Kinzie 
this morning the General [Arthur] St. Claire came down the Ohio, 
to the Big Miami [near the site of Cincinnati] about Christmas last. 
This man's name is John Witherington, comes from a place called 
Limestown. * * * Their was at least 40 souls taken & killed. 
This John Witherington's family is separated from him, he has a 
wife 7 months gone with child & 7 children, which some of the 
other Parties have got prisoners."^' That night, continues Hay, 
"the Miamis of the opposite side [Lakeside] danced from 7 oClock 
untill this morning at day breake; they were taken in what they 
call their Natt, which is with them, like the Colours of a Regiment, 
with us ; they take it out to war with them, and when they return. 


there is a ceremony of taken it into the Council House, Chiefs 
House or Place where they keep theire Trophies." 

Among the persons mentioned by Hay who do not otherwise 
figure in the story are Jacques Godefroy (probably the same man 
who led the conspiracy to murder Ensign Robert Holmes in 1763 
and then became the protector of Captain Morris in 1764), Jean 
Cannehous, Lamoureux, Etienne Pantonne, Henri Rainbeare, Jaque 
Clairmont, Jean Coustan, Little Egg (a Miami), the Sirropp (an 
Indian), The Snake (Shawnee chief). The Porcupine, and The 
Soldier (chiefs who signed the Greenville Treaty), J. B. Lasselle, 
Ribidos, Francis Lasselle (nephew of Jacques, who with his family, 
fled when LaBalme's men took the town), B. Lasselle, Mr. and Mrs. 
Cicotts, LaChambre, Robedeux, The Wolf (a Shawnee chief), J. 
Forsythe, Sherlock, Montroilles and L. Dubois. 

Hay bade adieu to his friends at !Miami Town and departed 
for Detroit on the 1st of April, 1790. There is nothing in his record 
to suggest that the French, English or savage occupants of the 
villages anticipated the calamity which befell them within ten 
months of that time, although they were fully aware of the move- 
ments which preceded the coming of Harmar. "John Thompson 
[a prisoner] told me their was a great talk of raising men to come 
against the Ind's," wrote Hay on March 2, 1790. "However Gen- 
eral St. Clair who is now at the Bigg Miami [Cincinnati] with two 
boat loads of goods, means to call the Indians together at a council 
at Post Vincennes — But if the Indians do not come to a settlement 
with them, they mean to fight them." 

This and other councils were held. The savages, acting on 
the advice of the British, at Detroit, refused to listen to Washing- 
ton's terms of peace, and the series of costly wars which form the 
following chapters of the story, ensued. 


(1) Logan Esarey, "History of In- Quaife, superintendent of the Wiscon- 
diana," page 102. sin Historical Society, says: "Prob- 

(3) The original belongs to the ably the name should be spelled Ad- 
Detroit Public Library. A copy fur- hemar. LaBalme, who plundered the 
nlshed by C. M. Burton, appears in traders at Miami Town (Fort Wayne) 
the Proceedings of the Wisconsin in 1780. lists one Adhemar. a mer- 
Historlcal Society, for 1915. chant, as 'a dangerous man.' This 

(2) Miami Town, the i''rench village, meant, of course, that he was loyal 
occupied the ground on the Spy Run to the British cause. In March, 1799, 
bank of the St. Joseph river, extend- one Adhemar, who had been sent by 
ing to the southward nearly to the Hamilton to Miami Town with ten 
point of land formed by the conflu- pirogues and thirty men to get pro- 
cnce of the St. Mary's and the St. visions forwarded from Detroit, was 
Joseph. The writer, in company with captured by George Rogers Clark. In 
Jacob M. Stouder, after a careful 1788, St. Martin Adhemar was ap- 
reading of Hay's Journal and a thor- pointed one of the commissioners of 
ough study of the contour of the site the newly-created district of Hesse, 
in question, is convinced that this William Robertson, the spokesman of 
spot is the scene of Hay's description. the Detroit traders who memorialized 
The principal village of the Miamls Lord Dorchester against the new act, 
occupied a site in Lakeside. gave as the objection to Adhemar 

(4) The identity of this family Is that he was settled at Vincennes, 'in 
not positively known. Dr. M. M. the American states." " 



(5) A prominent Detroit merchant. 

(6) William Robertson was a promi- 
nent mercliant who settled at De- 
troit in 1782. 1786, George Leith 
(the employer of Henry Hay) wrote 
a letter to David Gray, then located 
in Miami Town (Fort Wayne) as a 
trader, in wliich he stated that Rob- 
ertson was seeking the payment of a 
debt owed by Gray to Robertson. 
Leith added: "You know what kind 
of a man Robertson is; therefore, as 
a friend, I would advise you not to 
come to Detroit this summer If you 
have nothing pressing to bring 
you, as he will do everything in his 
power to detain you and give you 
trouble." (See "Letters from Eigh- 
teenth Century Merchants," compiled 
by Christopher B. Coleman, from the 
Lasselle collection. In the Indiana 
Quarterly Magazine of History.) 

(7) Wisconsin Historical Society 
Proceedings, 1915: "George Sharp, 
also a prominent trader at Detroit. 
Robertson describes him as 'of liberal 
education and highly respected." 
Sharp was with Matthew Elliott when 
the latter ransomed O. M. Spencer 
at Grand Giaize. The picture Spencer 
draws of him is not flattering." In 
1786, Sharp was located at the site 
of Fort Wayne. At that time he 
wrote in a letter to Paul Gamelin, at 
Vincennes, as follows with reference 
to a delayed shipment: "We try only 
to accommodate our customers and 
to give the goods here at the Detroit 
prices vrithout risk or expense." 

(8) This town, on the Ohio river, a 
short distance below the site of Cin- 
cinnati, was called Columbia City. Its 
founders hoped to make it the me- 
tropolis of the west. It was ab- 
sorbed by Cincinnati. 

(9) This matter-of-fact description 
of the capture of a lone and defense- 
less settler suggests the hazardous 
situation of every family which un- 
dertook to live on the frontier. Most 
of the prisoners brought to the Miami 
Town were from the regions of Ohio 
and Kentucky bordering the Ohio 

(10) Wisconsin Historical Society 
Proceedings, 1915: "The papers cap- 
tured from LaBalme upon the destruc- 
tion of his force near Miami Town 
In 17S0, contained a list of French 
Inhabitants of the place, including one 

(11) Hay relates the story of the 
marriage of Miss Rlvard to J. B. 
Lasselle on February 23. 

(12) Little Turtle was yet to make 
his reputation as a warrior although 
he had already led in the massacre 
of LaBalme and his followers. 

(13) A pani was a slave of the 
Indian race, usually procured from 
the Pawnee tribe. (Wisconsin His- 
torical Society Proceedings, 1915.) 

(14) Possibly the same as listed by 
LaBalme as Palllet. 

(15) John Klnzie, whose name la 
connected Inseparably with the story 
of Fort Dearborn (Chicago). He was 
located here as a trader. 

(16) "One of the oldest inhabitants 
of Miami Town [Fort Wayne]. His 
name is Included in the 'census* of 
Indiana of 1769, and also in La- 
Balme's list of the Inhabitants of 
Miami Town in 1780." — Wisconsin 
Historical Society's Proceedings, 1915. 

(17) Probably the priest, Louis 
Payet, who was bom at Montreal In 
1749 and came to Detroit in 1781." — 
(Wisconsin Historical Society's Pro- 
ceedings, 1915.) 

(18) LeGris, one of the prominent 
chiefs of the time; he was a 

of the Greenville Treaty in 


Pecann, Pecan or Pecanne la 
the Miami chief who rescued Captain 
Morris at this point in 1764. He was 
an active chief of the Miamis, who 
signed the Treaty of Greenville and 
participated in the battles of the 
savages up to that time. 

(20) Joseph Drouet RichardvlUe, 
Jean Baptiste Richardviile became 
the successor of Little Turtle as the 
civil chief of the Miamis. 

(21) Ta-cum-wah, the mother of 
Richardviile, was a sjsteral__iil 
Turtle, a woman of k e enTRTell e c t aff 
business sagacity, as is suggested by 
the fact that by the year 1814, Rich- 
ardviile, through her influence, be- 
came the wealthiest Indian in the west. 

(22) A Shawnee chief, some of 
whose speeches are preserved In ths 
Michigan Pioneer and Historical Col- 

(22) An engage was an employe of 
the trader whose business it was to 
accompany the Indians on their trap- 
ping e.\peditions and guard the In- 
terests of his employer by prevent- 
ing the Indians from selling the furs 
to other parties and to discourage 
other forms of trickery. 

(23) James Abbott, born In Dublin. 
1725, became an extensive trader. He 
was the father of Robert, James and 
Samuel Abbott, the two former of 
Detroit and the latter of Mackinac. 
James Abbott, Jr., married Sarah 

rVhlstler, daughter of Major James 
Whistler, at Chicago, in 1804. Mrs. 
Abbott was Chicago's first bride. 

(24) George Girty was the youngest 
of the three notorious brothers — 
Simon, James and George — terrors to 
the Americans along the frontier. All 
were natives of Pennsylvania. George 
died near Fort Wayne, shortly be- 
fore the outbreak of the war of 1812. 

(25) Colonel Alexander McKee, the 
traitor who deserted Fort Pitt In or- 
der to aid the British. 

(26) Dr. M. M. Quaife believes this 
man to have been a son of Pierre 
Joseph Celeron, former commandant 
of the post at Detroit, and who was 
afterward accused of treachery by 
Colonel Hamilton because of his re- 
treat from the attack of George 
Rogers Clark. 

(27) George Ironside was a leading 
trader of the Maumee valley, born 
in 1760. He died at Amherstburg, 
Canada, in 1830. He was In the Brit- 
ish Indian service for many years. 

(28) Antoine Lasselle had lived In 
Miami Town for nineteen years at 
the time of the writing of Hay's 
Journal. On the day of the battle 
of Fallen Timber, in 1794, Wayne 
questioned Lasselle and made the fol- 
lowing report concerning him to the 
war department: "He says that he 
has resided for twenty-nine years In 
Upper Canada, twenty-one of which 
he has passed at Detroit and on this 
river [the Maumee], and that he has 
constantly traded with the Indians 
all that time; that he resided at the 




Miami villages [Fort Wayne site] for 
nineteen years before Harmar's expe- 
dition, when he kept a store at that 
place, and used to supply other 
traders with goods." When captured, 
Lasselle was painted and dressed like 
an Indian. He was sentenced to be 
hanged and a temporary gallows 
erected, when Major John F. Ham- 
tramck Interceded and saved his life. 
Later he was a licensed trader at 
Fort Wayne for many years. 

(29) The present Spy Run creek 
which empties Into the St. Mary's 
near the Spy Run bridge. 

(30) St. Mary's river. 

(31) Blue Jacket was the leader 
who succeeded to the command of the 
savages the night before the battle 
of Fallen Timber, after Little Turtle 
sought to Induce the chiefs to make 
peace with Wayne. He was one of 
the signers of the Treatv of Green- 

(32) Probably Peter LaFontalne, 
who, with Charles Beaublen, Incited 
the Indians to the attack of La- 
Balme. At that time LaFontalne was 
In charge of the warehouse of Beau- 
blen, the principal trader at Miami 

(33) The ChilUcothe village was lo- 
cated a short distance down the Mau- 
mee, probably on the site of the pres- 
ent Catholic cemetery. 

(34) Hay refers to this warehouse 
as a Friponne. 

(35) Dr. Qualte: "The census of 
1769 Includes Lorraine's name among 
the nine heads of families then at 
Miami Town. In 1763 he, or another 
of the same name, was at Ouiatanon 
when the savages overpowered the 
English garrison. Lorraine and an- 
other Frenchman were Instrumental 
in saving the lives of the captives." 

(36) At this time, preparations for 
the conquering of the savages un- 
der the direction of Washington, 
whose great object was the erection 
of a fort at the site of this village, 
were going forward, and many small 
encounters were occurring in the 
Ohio region. 

(37) This tragic event, receiving the 
sanction of Hay and the British sym- 
pathizers who fomented the action of 
the savages, is but one of many dur- 
ing this troublous period on the 

CHAPTER XI— 1790. 

The Battle of the Site of Fort Wayne- 


General Josiah Harmar as a soldier — His mission to France — Is sent to 
expel George Rogers Clark from Vincennes — Benedict Arnold and Dr. 
Conolly disturb the west — Major Hamtramck sends Antoine Gamelln 
to the site of Fort Wayne to pacify the savages — Failure of his mission — 
Cannibalistic feast at the head of the Maumee — St. Clair sends Harmar 
against the Miami villages (Fort Wayne) — Deplorable condition of the 
army — Reaches the Miami villages and destroys them with fire — Hardin's 
detachment led into ambush — A terrible slaughter at Heller's Corners — 
The army at Chilicothe on the Maumee — The retreat to Cincinnati 
halted to allow Hardin to return — Plan of the battle on the site of Fort 
Wayne — The fatal error — Slaughter of Wyllys's regulars at Harmar's 
ford — Fierce engagement on the St. Joseph — The retreat — Washington's 


ENERAL JOSIAH HARMAR, whose name is seldom spoken 
today except in its association with "defeat," deserves a 
kindly remembrance by 

the people of the old north- 
west, and especially should the 
people of Fort Wayne appre- 
ciate more truly his character 
as a military leader. Born at 
Philadelphia in 1753, and edu- 
cated at Robert Front's Quaker 
school, Harmar entered the 
Continental army in 1776. His 
services raised him successively 
to the offices of lientenant- 
colonel, brevet-colonel, briga- 
dier-general, and general-in- 
ehief of the United States 
army. During the Revolution, 
he served in General Nathaniel 
Greene's corps. To him was 
entrusted the carrying of the 
ratification of the final treaty 
of peace to France. Upon his 
return, he entered at once upon 
Washington's plans for the 
pacification of the western 



The campaign of General Harmar, 
while commander-in-chief of the armies 
of the United States in 1790, which re- 
sulted in the battle on the site of the 
city of Fort Wayne, recorded in Ameri- 
can history as "Harmar's Defeat," 
threw the entire west Into a state of 
alarm. The victory of Little Turtle, in 
command of the savages, was the sec- 
ond event in his career as a war chief 
to lift him to the height of his fame. 

Portrait by permission of Charles 
Scribner's Sons. 




We have been impressed with the story of the conditions at 
the head of the Maumee as revealed in the preceding chapter. A 
review, then, of the principal events which preceded the famous 
battle of the site of Fort Wayne will introduce many of the prob- 
lems which confronted General Plarmar and made his work diffi- 
cult, if not impossible, of accomplishment. 

General George Rogers Clark, whose commission had been with- 
drawn, acting with other independent spirits, decided to garrison 
the abandoned post at Vincennes, with the "determination that 
they [the Spanish merchants at Vincennes] should not trade up 
the river if they would not let the Americans trade down the 
Mississippi." This unwarranted act received the condemnation of 


This peaceful scene presents a view of Harraar's Ford at the Maumee river, 
looking from the south bank northwestward into Lakeside, from a point near 
the foot of Harmar street. The houses front on Edgewater avenue. On Oc- 
tober 22, 1790, at this spot, where the regulars met the deadly Are of Little 
Turtle's braves, and at a point farther nortli. near the present Tennessee avenue, 
where the militia and the Indians clashed, 183 "whites were killed, including* 
Major Wyllys, Major Fontaine and ten other officers. 

f. ■-^. -• C 




the Council of Virginia, and General Harmar was dispatched with 
a small force of United States soldiers to remove Clark and the 
men "who had in a lawless and unauthorized manner taken pos- 
session of Fort Vincennes." Thus was averted a probable conflict 
between the United States and Spain and Prance combined. 

The activities of such disturbing elements as Dr. John Conolly, 
Benedict Arnold (reported to be in Detroit to promote a Mississippi 

When General Harmar's army reached the site of the city of Fort Wayne 
In October, 1790, one of the soldiers, Ebenezer Denny (later major in St. Clair'a 
army) made a map of the region about tlie confluence of the St. Joseph and 
the St. Mary's rivers. This now forms a part of the journal of Major Denny, on 
record in the Pennsylvania archives. The above map is a re-drawing olj 
Denny's record. While the course of the rivers is inaccurately shown, it Iq 
evident that the map-maker sought to indicate the location of the villages of 
the Miamis, the Shawnees and the Delawares, destroyed by Harmar. togethen 
with tlie cornfields, gardens and forests. Major Denny was a trustworthj* 
soldier, as is proven by the fact that he was cliosen as the messenger to convey 
to President Washington the news of the defeat of St. Clair's troops in 1791. 

expedition) and others in the employ of the British kept the savages 
in a hostile state, so that congress in July, 1787, directed General 
Arthur St. Clair — or, if he were unable to give the matter his 
personal attention, then General Harmar — to meet the Indians on 
the Wabash and there explain fully the attitude of the United 
States government toward the tribes. General Harmar held the 
council, but with no decisive result. 




Major John F. Hamtramek — whose name is connected with the 
history of Fort Wayne as the first commandant of the post after 
its establishment by General Wayne — had been sent to assume 
the charge of Fort Vincennes. Acting in consonance with instructions 
from President Washington, Major Hamtramek commissioned An- 
toine Gamelin, a prominent Vincennes merchant, to make a visit 

These war mementos form an interesting part of tlie display of the rello 
room In the Allen county court house. 1. 2, 3, 4 — Fragments of flintlock guns 
from the collection of the late Colonel R. S. Robertson: they were found in 
the St. Joseph and Maumee rivers at the fords which figured In the defeat of 
General Harmar, October 22. 1790. 5 — Bayonet found at the St. Joseph ford, for- 
merly the property of August Slemon. 6 — Flintlock gun found in the St. Joseph 
river, near the old clubhouse of the St. Joe Athletic club. The gun was dug up 
from the river bed in 1894 by a Mr. Schafer, while hauling sand; Frank Budd 
secured It and took It to New York city, where it was seen by R. B. Rossinffton. 
Mr. Rosslngton bought it and brought it back to Fort Wayne. 

of pacification to all of the Indian towns along the Wabash and at 
the head of the Maumee. We have Gamelin's record of his expedi- 
tion; special interest centers in these paragraphs from his journal: 
"The 23d [of April, 1790] I arrived at the Miami Town [Fort 
Wayne]. The next day, I got the Miami nation, the Chaouanons 
[Shawnees], and the Delawares all assembled. I gave to each 
nation two branches of wampum, and began the speeches [supplied 
to him by Governor St. Clair and ISIajor Hamtramek], the French 
and English traders being present, they having been invited by the 
chiefs and I having told them myself that I would be glad to have 
them present, having nothing to say against anybody. After the 
speech, I showed them the treaty concluded at IMuskingum between 
His Excellency, Governor St. Clair, and sundry nations. This dis- 
pleased them. I told them that the purpose of this present time 
was not to submit to them any condition, but to offer them the 
peace, which made their displeasure disappear. The great chiefs 


told me he was pleased with the speech ; that he would soon give 
me an answer. 

"In a private discourse with the great chief, he told me not to 
mind what the Chaouanons [Shawnees] would tell me, since they 
had a bad heart and were the perturbators of all the nations. He 
said the Miamis had a bad name on account of mischief done on the 
Ohio river, but he told me it was not occasioned by his young men, 
but by the Chaouanons, his young men going only for the hunt." 

On the 25th, Blue Jacket, chief of the Shawnees and Delawares, 
at a private conference, declared to Gamelin that the tribes could 
not give an answer "without hearing from our father [the British 
commandant] at Detroit. "- 

Gamelin was a Frenchman with a wide acquaintanceship among 
the Indians. His failure to touch the heart of the savage was a dark 
omen, indeed. Within three days after the close of his mission of 
peace to the French-Indian village on the site of Fort Wayne, a 
captured American prisoner was burned at the stake and eaten in 
the Miami town.' 

Governor St. Clair, while on a visit to the settlement at Kas- 
kaskia, received the reports of Gamelin and General Harmar, tell- 
ing of their failure to make peace with the savages. This deter- 
mined him, immediately upon his return to Fort Washington, site 
of Cincinnati, to organize a strong expedition, under General Har- 
mar, with special instructions to capture the Jliami stronghold on 
the site of Fort Wayne and erect there a military fortification which 
would command the St. Joseph, the St. Mary's and IMaumee at the 
point of meeting. At this time. General Harmar was made the com- 
mander-in-chief of the United States army. 

On the 4th of October, General Harmar 's army departed from 
Fort Washington for the Miami towns. It was composed of 320 
regulars and artillery with three light brass cannon ; 1,133 Kentucky 
militiamen and a battalion of Pennsylvania infantrymen. From 
the journal of Major Ebenezer Denny is gained a conception of 
the deplorable condition of Harmar's army and its equipment. 
"General Harmar was much disheartened at the kind of people from 
Kentucky," writes Denny. "One-half certainly serve no other pur- 
pose than to swell the number. * * * The Colonels [Hardin 
and Trotter] disputed about the command. * * * There was 
much trouble in keeping the officers, with their commands, in proper 
order, and the pack horses, etc., compact."* 


The wealth of material provided for the weaving of the story 
of the movements and engagements of Harmar's army should make 
the telling of the story an easy one, but the many viewpoints of the 

i"» "HARMAB'S DEFEAT" 103 

narrators bring difficulty into the task. "We have chosen, in review- 
ing the story, to interweave the narratives of Major Denny and 
Captain John Armstrong, each of whom kept a daily record of 
events and of his observations thereon, and to add such com- 
ments of other narrators as may shed light upon the movements of 
the campaign.'* 

On the 14th of October, the army having reached the St. Mary's 
river, Colonel Hardin, with a company of regulars and six hundred 
militia, was detached early in the morning to push for the Miami 
villages at the head of the Maumee, thirty-five miles away, to give 
battle to the Indians who, it was learned from a captured Shawnee, 
were preparing to evacuate their settlements. 

Hardin's detachment, reaching the Maumee, probably near the 
present Harmar street and to the eastward, in advance of the main 
body, found the villages" on both banks of the St. Joseph deserted. 
The savages, in their departure, left a number of cows and vast 
quantities of grain and vegetables, including 20,000 bushels of corn. 
The main village, on the Lakeside shore of the St. Joseph, had been 
destroyed by fire by the Indians and traders as they deserted it, 
evidently to prevent the soldiers from enjoying the comforts of 
their abodes if they should remain during the approaching cold 
season. The precaution was unnecessary, however, as General Har- 
mar, on his arrival, continued the work of destruction by consuming 
with fire all of the dwellings in the neighboring villages — 185 addi- 
tional buildings in all, according to the general's official report.'' 

The men under Hardin, on their arrival at the Miami village,' 
fell to plundering the ruins of the burned village and were with dif- 
ficulty brought under control of their officers. Finally the army 
went into camp on this ground, and then cast about them to discover 
the whereabouts of the savages. Major McMullen and others re- 
ported that the tracks of women and children had been discovered 
on an Indian path leading out from the villages to the northwest- 
ward. General Ilarmar, supposing that the refugees, with their 
families and baggage, had gathered at some point not far from the 
settlements, determined to discover their encampment and bring 
them to battle. Accordingly, on the morning of October 18th, he 
detached Colonel Trotter, Major Hall, Major Ray and Major Mc- 
Mullen, with a force of three hundred men composed of thirty 
regular troops under command of Captain John Armstrong, forty 
of Major James Fontaine's light horse, and two hundred and thirty 
riflemen. The detachment was provided with three days' pro- 
visions and ordered to examine the country around the Miami 



After the troops, under the 
command of Colonel Trotter, 
had moved about one mile from 
the encampment, the light 
horsemen discovered, pursued 
and killed an Indian on horse- 
back. Before this party re- 
turned to the columns, a second 
savage was discovered, when 
the field officers left their com- 
mands and pursued the Indian, 
and left the troops for the 
space of about half an hour 
without any directions what- 
ever. The flight of the second 
Indian was intercepted by the 
light horsemen, who de- 
spatched him after he had 
wounded one of their party. 
Colonel Trotter then changed 
the route of his detachment 
and marched in various direc- 
tions until night, when he 
turned back to the camp at 
the Miami village. The unex- 
pected return of Trotter, who 
had been ordered to recon- 
noitre for a period of three 
days, displeased Ilarmar, and 

^ (HeLH.6RS 

The map shows (1) the route of Har- 
mar's army and its arrival at Kekion- 

upon the request of Colonel ^^LifLH^^,''' ^?,';' wayne, where the 

' H " wuiuii^,! deserted Indian viUages were destroyed 

Hardin, the latter was allowed 5,^, ti^^ 'fpop/; .(3) the route taken by 

Colonel Hardin's troops to the site of 
to take the troops out for the Heller's Comers, (4) where the sav- 
. . ' ages in ambush, under command of Lit- 

tle Turtle, Slaughtered the regulars, un- 
der Hardin and drove the remnant back 
to the camp of the main army at the 
Maumae village of Chlllicothe (6), 
Sick a heart. General Harmar led his 
army toward Port Washington (Cincin- 
nati), but when it halted for camp sev- 
en miles southwest of the site of Fort 
Wayne (7). Colonel Hardin, smarting 
under the chargin of the defeat of his 
men, was granted the privilege of going 
back to Kekionga to rout the sav- 
ages. Returning, then, by the route 
(8), the detachment suffered defeat at 

remaining two days 


The men under Hardin' 
moved off reluctantly, accord- 
ing to Denny. Five miles from 
the village, they came upon an 
abandoned Indian camp. From i^^. Junction of the rivers wT'tiTe 

. ,, „ , fleeing survivors (10) rejoined the 

this point all or the companies I?*!'" army and the retreat to Fort 

Washington was ordered. 

except that of Captain Faulk- 
ner, were ordered forward, Colonel Hardin having neglected to 
give Captain Faulkner the order to march. The troops advanced 

i"» "HARMAR'S DEFEAT" 105 

about three miles, when they discovered two Indians on foot, who 
threw off their packs, and made their escape in the thick under- ■ 
brush. About this time, Colonel Hardin despatched Major Fontaine 
with part of the cavalry in search of Captain Faulkner, supposing 
him to be lost, and soon afterward, Captain Armstrong, who com- 
manded the regulars, informed Colonel Hardin that a gun had been 
fired in front which might be considered as an alarm gun, and that 
he had seen tracks of a horse that had come down the road and 
returned. The colonel, however, moved forward, without giving 
any orders or making any arrangements for an attack; and even 
when Captain Armstrong discovered the camp fires of the Indians 
in the distance, and informed Ilardin of the circumstance, that 
officer, declaring the Indians would not dare to fight, rode in front 
of the advanced columns until suddenly the detachment was at- 
tacked fiercely from behind the fires. The fusillade of musketry 
threw the troops into the wildest confusion. 

The attack of Little Turtle who led his braves in this fierce but 
brief encounter proved to be one of the bloodiest ambuscades of 
the annals of the west. 

With the first fire of the savages, the militiamen, with the ex- 
ception of nine who remained with the regulars and were shot 
down, fled without firing a gun. This gave the Indians the freedom 
to center their deadly fire upon the regulars who stood their ground 
and made a brave resistance with the bayonet until twenty-two of 
the thirty were killed. In the midst of the melee, Captain Arm- 
strong, Ensign Hartshorn and five privates managed to escape. The 
ensign was saved by falling behind a protecting log. Armstrong 
plunged into a swamp, where he sank up to his chin and there 
remained for several hours of the night within a short distance 
of the scene of the wild war dance of the victorious savages. Arm- 
strong and Hartshorn remained hidden until such time as they 
could emerge from their places of concealment and make their 
way back to camp.'" 

Details of the ambush, preserved in the letters of Thomas Irwin, 
one of the soldiers who were left behind through the neglect of 
Hardin to order the advance of Faulkner's detachment, throw new 
light on the affair and give a clear conception of the minuteness 
of Little Turtle's plan of the ambuscade. Says Irwin: 

"The trail Led through a Small or narrow prairie heavy tim- 
ber on Both Sides. On the right of the timber and [omission] was 
within 20 Step of Sd trace The Indians had Kindled a fire at the far 
End of Sd prairie and Left some Trinkets at it which Called a halt 
when the front arrived at it the Indians that moment gave them a 
deadly fire from the right the men Sallied toward the Left and 
[omission] another from there out of the woods at that Side. The 


ambuscade was planned as neatly as one sets a trap for a rat. 

* * * If there had been flankers out as Should have Been the 
Indians Could not have got so great an advantage." 

Detailing the movements of his detachment before it came upon 
the scene of the ambuscade, Irwin says : 

"The Col. * * in a hurry forgot to give orders to our 

Company They had marched over one mile Before they found out 
the mistake our Company had marched in front the 1st day and in 
the rear the 2d after waiting a Considerable time we move to the 
trace found they had been gone Some time pursued after went with 
Major Fountain he stated that he had Been in advance found the 
Indians was retreating as fast as Possible he thought could Be Soon 
overtaken Stated the Col had Entirely forgot to give orders to our 
Company When he Started we had gone over half a mile with the 
Major meet 2 mounted men on the Retreat Each had a wounded 
man Behind him appeared to Be very Bloody they Called out for 
gods Sake retreat you will be all Killed there is Indians enough 
to eat you all up we then Could hear the firing and yelling went 
over a small river there met the poor fellows retreating and the 
Indians after firing and yelling we formed a line across the Trace 
and took trees intending to give them a fire if they Came up Col 
Hardin Col Hall and Major Fountain and one or 2 more on horse- 
back halted with us the Indians came within 80 or 90 yards and 
halted I Expect they Seen the Men on horse Back Stop Then we 
stopped the pursuit and Covered the retreat tarried there untill 
Dark or until all the retreating party passed by us as none of them 
halted with us But the Sd officers it was after night Before we 
arrived in Camp * * * there was no Detachment sent out next 
Day to ascertain how many was Killed or to Bury the Dead 

• * * I was well acquainted with Col Hall Rode Behind him that 
night of Sd retreat across the river and was in his Camp next 

The disaster tended to add to the demoralized condition of the 
troops and consequently to the burden of the commander-in-chief. 

On the morning of October 19th, the main army of General 
Harmar moved from the present Lakeside down the north bank of 
the Maumee to the Shawnee village of Chillieothe," two miles dis- 
tant, where the commander issued orders for the utter destruction 
of the remaining Indian villages and the food supplies of the neigh- 
borhood. He added this sharp criticism of the conduct of his troops : 

"The cause of the detachment being worsted yesterday was 
entirely owing to the shameful, cowardly conduct of the militia, 
who ran away and threw down their arms without scarcely firing 
a gun. In returning to Fort Washington, if any officer or man 
shall presume to quit the ranks, or not to march in the form that 
they are ordered, the general will most assuredly order the artil- 
lery to fire on them. He hopes the check they received yesterday 
will make them in future obedient to orders. ' ' 

In utter despair. General Harmar determined upon an imme- 
diate retreat to Fort Washington (Cincinnati). Accordingly, on 




the morning of October 21, the army moved, and by evening had 
reached a point about seven miles southeast of Fort Wayne, where 
it went into camp. 

Here, while the army was settling itself for the night, Colonel 
Hardin sought an interview with General Harmar. He informed 
the commander of his plan to bring victory out of defeat and ac- 
complish the object of the expedition, by returning to the village 
sites and giving the savages a severe and final punishment which 
would bring them into subjec- 
tion to the Americans and 
cause them to abandon their 
British alliance. The account 
of the result of this interview 
is quoted largely from the 
journal of Captain Armstrong : 

Harmar was reluctant to 
send back a detachment of the 
army, but Hardin urged the 
matter, pleading that, as he 
had been unfortunate on the 
earlier occasion, he wished to 
have it in his power to pick 
the militia and restore the 
honor of the men and retrieve 
his own reputation. Harmar, 
thereupon, consented to the de- 
tachment of four hundred men 
to return to the villages, while 
the remainder of the army 
awaited the outcome. 

Late in the night of the 
21st, a- corps of three hundred 
and forty picked militiamen 
and sixty regular troops under 
command of Maj. John P. "Wyl- 
lys, were detached, that they 
miglit gain the vicinity of the 
Miami village before daybreak 
and surprise any of the Indians 
who might be found there. The 
detachment marched in three 
columns. The regular troops 
were in the center, at the head of which Captain Joseph Asheton 
was posted, with Major Wyllys and Colonel Hardin in his front. 


Of the treasured war relics picked 
up on the battlefield of the site of Fort 
Wayne, the one here pictured Is per- 
haps the most interesting, if not the 
most valuable. It is a bayonet, found 
by the late Carl Wolf, of New Haven, 
Indiana, which was later secured by L. 
W. Hills, of this city. When the bayo- 
net (A) became detached from the gun 
and fell to the ground it rested on the 
earth In such a position that the open- 
ing which fits over the muzzle of the 
firearm (AA) enclosed the tender shoot 
of a tree Just issuing from the ground; 
the shoot grew up through the opening 
until It completely filled the space. Mr. 
Wolf cut off the shoot (C) and the 
root (B). 


The militia formed the columns to the right and left. 

The detachment did not reach the high ground overlooking 
the Maumee (probably in the vicinity of the present East Washing- 
ton and Jefferson streets near Harmar) until some time after sun- 
rise. The savages, however, had not discovered their presence and 
were busily engaged in unearthing the buried property in their 
ruined village in Lakeside. The spies reported this condition to 
Major Wyllys, who halted the regular troops and moved the militia 
on some distance in front where he gave his orders and plan of 
attack to the several commanding officers of the corps. Wyllys 
reserved to himself the command of the regular troops. 


According to the plan of Wyllys, Major Hall with his battalion 
was to have taken a circuitous route to the westward ( throught the lands 
in the heart of the present city of Fort Wayne), cross the St. Mary's 
river at the ford (near the present Wells street bridge) and there, 
in the rear of the villages wait until the noise of the attack of Major 
McMullen's battalion, Major Fontaine's cavalry and the regulars 
under Major Wyllys should inform him that the engagement had 
opened on the south. The latter were waiting to cross the Maumee, 
en masse, and thus drive the surprised savages to the westward, 
where they w^ould encounter Hall's battalion. This, it was reckoned, 
would give time for ^Mc^Iullen and Fontaine to spread their troops 
along the east side of the Indian encampment and thus surround the 
savages, who would be mowed down by a crossfire from all sides. 
The plan was splendid in theory, but the human element, which 
can never be weighed or measured, made of it a tragic failure. 

Hall gained his ground unobserved. But one of his men disobeyed 
orders by firing upon a lone Indian before the commencement of 
the action. This gave the aroused savages in the village an oppor- 
tunity to scour the entire neighborhood before the troops under 
Wyllys, McMullen and Fontaine were prepared to advance. Little 
Turtle and his nimble-witted warriors gave little heed to Hall, but 
centered their attention upon their nearer foes. Small bands of 
savages were soon seen running to the northeastward (from the 
present Lakeside toward Forest Park) and the militia, under Mc- 
Mullen, and the cavalry, under Fontaine, pursued them in dis- 
obedience to orders. 

This left Wyllys at the IMaumee, unsupported. But the brave 
regulars, trained to face danger with the utmost courage, advanced 
boldly into the river and attempted to force their way up the Lake- 
side shore when a superior force of the Indians turned upon them 




a deadly fire from the front. The brave Wyllys was one of the first 
to die. Few of the others escaped, and the writhing bodies of men 
and horses soon filled the river bed. 

To the northward (near the present Tennessee avenue) Major 
Fontaine at the head of the mounted militia was engaged in a hot 
fight with a liand of the savages. The leader fell with a mortal 
wound, antl many of his men died there. '- 

In the meantime, Major Hall, who was about to cross from the 
west bank of the St. Joseph into the present Lakeside to support 

MALI. ^ 


The map, designed to show the movement of the troops of Harmar's de- 
tachment during the engagement with Little Turtle and the savages October 
22, 1790. shows the present streets in dotted lines. 1 — Location of the divisions 
of Majors Hall. Wylly.'i. McMuUen and Fontaine before the attack. 2 — Posi- 
tion of Hall's troops when the first shot was fired. 3 — Harmar's Ford, where 
Major Wyllys and his men. deserted by the militia under McMullen and Font- 
aine, were .shot down by the savages. 4 — Location of the troops of Mr-Mullan 
and Fontaine when they prevented a large body of Indians from escaping to 
the northward and drove them to a cross-fire position between Hall (5) and the 
combined troops of Fontaine and McMullen. The greatest number of fatalities 
occurred at the spots Indicated by stars. General Harmar. in his official report 
makes special mention of the engagement near the French fort. 


Fontaine's and McMullen's troops, found the savages driven 
into the river and directly between the two portions of the army.^' 
That the fiercest fighting took place here is shown by the report of 
General Harmar, who states that "the action was fought near the 
old fort and up the St. Joseph river," referring to the French fort 
on the east bank of the St. Joseph at the junction of the present 
St. Joe boulevard and Delaware avenue. 

Messengers from the scene of the battle hastened to General 
Harmar to advise him of the condition of affairs, and a battalion 
under Major Ray was ordered to the assistance of the retreating 
army. Major Ray met Hardin, who was hastening back to the 
camp of Harmar to urge him to send the entire army against the 
savages, but the commander, pointing out the poor condition of his 
troops, declined to grant the request." 

The dispirited troops, alarmed lest the savages attack them in 
their camp, took up their line of march to Cincinnati on the 23d 
of October and arrived there the 4th of November.'^ 

The number of men lost in this campaign is given as 183 killed 
and 31 wounded, although it is very probable that some deserted and 
made their way back to Kentuckj'.'* 

During this period, Washington had been rusticating at his 
Mount Vernon home, in utter ignorance of the outcome of the Har- 
mar campaign. Wasliington Irving, describing the president's 
anxious state of mind at this time, says: 

"Week after week elapsed without any tidings. * * * It 
was not until the last of November that he received a letter from 
Governor George Clinton, of New York, communicating particulars 
of the affair related to him by Brandt, the celebrated Indian chief. 
'If the information of Captain Brandt he true,' wrote Washington, 
in reply, 'the issue of the expedition against the Indians will indeed 
prove unfortunate and disgraceful to the troops who suffered them- 
selves to be ambuscaded.' "'-' 

The court of inquiry appointed to investigate the conduct of 
Harmar exonerated him and he was appointed adjutant-general of 
the Pennsylvania troops, in which capacity he rendered good service 
in providing men for the succeeding campaigns of Generals St. 
Clair and Wayne.^' 

The outcome of the campaign, considered from the most favor- 
able angle, gave naught to the American government to increase 
its hopes of the pacification of the west. On the other hand, the 
savages, their spirit of revenge aroused to the white heat of the 
fiercest hatred, assembled at the site of their ruined villages and 
there, led to renewed defiance of the Americans through the fiery 
speech of Simon Girty, set about the work of preparation to meet 
the next American force which might be sent against them. In 




a body, these savages, led by Little Turtle, LeGris and Blue Jacket, 
proceeded to Detroit,'^ where they "paraded the streets, uttering 
their demoniac scalp yelps while bearing long poles strung with 
the scalps of many American soldiers"^" slain at the battle of the 
site of Fort Wayne. 


(1) Probably LeGris. It will be ob- 
served that Henry Hay. in his journal, 
gives precedence to the name of Le- 
Gris whenever that chief's name Is 
mentioned in connection with Little 

(2) Antoine Gamelln's Journal, 
American State Papers, Indian Af- 
fairs, vol. I, page 93. 

(3) Tales of cannibalism among the 
savages of the Maumee-Wabash val- 
leys are obtainable from various 
sources. E. F. Colerick, writing of 
early days in Fort Wayne, says: "I 
remember one Sabbath afternoon. In 
September. 1836. of taking a stroll 
with mv aged friend. Jean Baptiste 
Bruno, an old Indian trader, who was 
then in his sixtieth year, hale and 
hearty. We had reached a beautiful 
spot — a small grove — when we were 
accosted by a shriveled old Indian 
woman, the only daughter of White 
Skin, the last head of the man-eating 
Indians. 'I knew her brother,' said 
Bruno, 'when I first came to this part 
of the country to trade with the In- 
dians. They were known as the man- 
eating family. They had no friends 
that I knew of, except Father Badln, 
a French missionary who frequently 
visited them and helped them when 
they were in want." . . . John 
May, captured in 1790, was roasted 

alive and his flesh eaten 

During the course of his speech In 
Fort Wayne at the time of the open- 
ing of the Wabash and Erie canal 
In 1843, General Lewis Cass stated 
that the present Swinney park was 
the scene of cannibalistic feasts. 
Jesse L. Williams, in his "History 
of the First Presbyterian Church of 
Fort Wayne." points out as another 
scene of these dreadful ceremonies of 
the savages "the extreme point of 
land just below the mouth of the 
St. Joseph river [Lakeside]." 

(4) The Journal of Major Ebenezer 
Denny (Fort Wayne Public Library) 
gives an Intimate view of the expe- 
dition of Harmar from the "Inside." 
Denny and Harmar were the warmest 
of friends, as Is shown by a letter 
of Harmar to Thomas Mifflin, of 
Philadelphia. In 1789. in which the 
general said: "The bearer. Lieuten- 
ant Denny, is my adjutant: his long 
and faithful services claim my warm- 
est re£tard for him." Born In Car- 
lisle. Pennsylvania, in 1761. Denny be- 
came treasurer of Cumberland county, 
Carolina; entered the army; became an 
army contractor; was elected the first 
mayor of Pittsburgh; Interested him- 
self In banking enterprises, and was 
prominent in political affairs. He died 
at the age of sixty-one at Pittsburgh. 

(5) Major John Whistler, later to 
become a commandant of Fort 
Wayne and the builder of Fort Dear- 
born, served with Harmar and was 

also with St. Clair in the succeeding 

(6) In his official report. General 
Harmar described the villages at the 
head of the Maumee, as follows: 
"The savages and traders (who were, 
perhaps, the worst savages of the 
two) had evacuated their towns and 
burnt the principal village called the 
Omee [Miami] together with all the 
traders' houses. This village lay on 
a pleasant point [Lakeside] formed 
by the junction of the rivers Omee 
[Miami, or Maumeel and the St. Joseph. 
It wa-s situate on the east bank of the 
latter, opposite the mouth of the St, 
Mary's, and had for a long time, been the 
rendezvous of a set of Indian desper- 
adoes who Infested the settlements 
and stained the Ohio and parts ad- 
jacent with the blood of defenseless 
Inhabitants. • • • On Sunday, the 
17th [of October, 1790.1 we entered 
the ruins of the Omee [Miami] town, 
or French village, as part of It Is 
called. Appearances confirmed the 
accounts I had received of the con- 
sternation Into "Which the savages 
and their allies were thrown by the 
approach of the army. Many valu- 
ables of the traders were destroyed 
in the confusion, and vast quantities 
of corn and other grain and vege- 
tables were secreted in holes dug In 
the earth and other places. ♦ • • 
Besides the Omee village, there were 
several other villages situated on the 
banks of the three rivers. One of 
them, belonging to the Omee [Miami] 
Indians, called Kekaiogue, was 
standing and contained thirty houses 
on the bank opposite the principal 
village [It stood In Spy Run]. Two 
others, consisting together of about 
forty-five houses, lay a few miles up 
the St. Mary's [near the old county 
infirmary opposite Foster Park] and 
were inhabited by Delawares. Thirty- 
six houses occupied by other savages 
of this tribe formed another but 
scattered town on the east bank of 
the St. Joseph two or three miles 
north of the French village. About 
the same distance down the Omee 
[Maumee] lay the Shawnee town of 
Chilllcothe. consisting of fifty-eight 
houses, opposite which, on the other 
bank of the river, were sixteen more 
habitations belonging to the savages 
of the same nation. All these I or- 
dered burnt during my stay there, 
together with great quantities or 
corn and vegetables, hidden as at the 
principal village, in the earth and 
other places, by the savages who had 
abandoned them. It is computed 
that there were no less than 20,000 
bushels of corn, in the ear, which 
the army either consumed or de- 
stroyed." „ „, ., 
(7) John Kinzie. George Sharp and 
Antoine Lasselle were at the Miami 



Town when Harmar's array ap- 
proached. Following is an extract 
from a letter written by George 
Sharp to Colonel Alexander McKee 
from Glalze (site ot Defiance) October 
17, 1790, before he knew the fate 
which had befallen Harmar's troops: 
"I left the Miamies the 15th. The 
people in general had then saved a 
"Considerable part of their property, 
but tlie village was burned to ashes 
by the Indians, lest it offer shelter 
to their enemies. • • • Messrs. 
Kinzie and Lacelle were to remain 
in the environs of the Miamis four 
days at least after my departure, and 
promised to send me every Intelli- 
gence of consequence to this place." 
Major John Smith, adding to the re- 
port, says in a letter to Captain Le- 
Mastre: "The traders have saved 
most of their movable goods; their 
corn has. for the most part, suffered 
in the fire." 

(8) "When We arrived, found what 
the prisoner Stated was True. 2 In- 
dians happened to Be under the Bank 
of the river when the army came 
up. they tried to Escape, the troops 
Discovered them and about 100 guns 
were Discharged at them. One was 
found Dead the next Day in the 
Brush." — Thomas Irwin Notes, "His- 
toric Highways of America," vol. viii. 

(9) "Colonel John Hardin was 
senior commander, but Colonel Trot- 
ter was a personal favorite of the 
men." (Logan Esarey, History of In- 

(10) The scene of this unfortunate 
encounter was near the point in Allen 
county called Heller's Corners, in Eel 
River township, about eleven miles 
north of Fort Wayne. The present 
Goshen road passes the place. 

(11) "From Judge Coleman, who 
settled on the farm now owned by 
Mrs. Phillips, in 1827, we learn that 
every evidence of former cultivation 
of the ground there [site of Chilli- 
cothe] was seen; there being no tim- 
ber growing, evidences of ancient 
building, of gardening, such as aspar- 
agus, etc., and also there were found 
many old bayonets, gun barrels, 
knives, pack saddle frames, etc." — 
Fort Wayne Times, September 25, 

(12) "He [Major Fontaine] Charged 
right in among the Enemy, fired oft 
his pistols and Drew his Sword Be- 
fore thev Could recover the Shock. 
George Adams » • • was near 
the Major at that time, that it hap- 
pened. When the Enemy got over their 
surprise, ten or twelve Indians Dis- 
charged their guns at him. Tlie Ma- 
jor kind of fell or hung on his horse. 
They then Discharged Several Guns 
at said Adams. He received Several 
Flesh wounds But recovered. By 
this time, the Militia with the regu- 
lars came up. The Indians fought 
with Desperation. Was Drove from 
their Encampment by the Militia and 
regulars Down the Bank into the 
river [St. Joseph]. Colonel Hardin's 
men on the opposite Side which placed 
them Between two fires. The In- 
dians charged on Hardin's trbops 
having no Chance to Escape. Har- 
din's troops gave way and retreated 
the same way they went out and 
was not in tliat Battle any more. 
Some of the troops informed me that 

Major Fountain [Fontaine] was living 
when our troops Drove the Indians 
from the Battle Ground. Major Mc- 
Millen [McMullen] collected the 
troops and tarried on the Battle 
Ground until the Indians had entirely 
Disappeared and not one was to be 
seen or heard. • • • My opinion 
is there was more Indians killed in 
that Battle than was killed when 
Genl Wayne defeated them in 1794. 
If Harmar had sent out a detachment 
of six hundred men next day to Col- 
lected the Dead and Buried them and 
ascertained how many of the enemy 
was killed I think there would have 
Been no risk in it. As it was the 
Indians "was so completely cut up 
the Day of the Battle Such a move 
would have Been an honor and Credit 
to the Campaign. I can Never agree 
that Harmar's Campaign was a De- 
feated one." — From the Notes of Pri- 
vate Thomas Irwin. See "Historic 
Highways of America," vol. viii. 
Quoted by permission of the pub- 
lishers. The Arthur H. Clark Co., 

(13) "Two soldiers. Captain Asheton 
says, signalized tliemselves on this oc- 
casion by gigging the foe, like fish, 
with their bayonets. * • • An af- 
fecting incident occurred here (at the 
St. Joseph river) that deserves to be 
noticed. An old Indian had two boys 
who rushed into the river by his side. 
One of them was shot down near him. 
He dropped his gun and seized him, 
no doubt in order to save his scalp 
from his enemies. The other was 
killed also. He drew them to the 
shore and sat down between them, 
where he was killed." — Recollections 
of David Hamilton Morris, first lieu- 
tenant of Captain Asheton's company 
in Harmar's army. 

(14) "1 am clearly ot the opinion 
that had the enemy made an attack 
upon our camp this evening or the 
following morning, the militia were 
so panic struck that few of them 
would have stood. The consequences 
that would have happened stared 
every person with horror — the sick 
and wounded and all the stores, artil- 
lery, etc., would have fallen a prey 
to the savages." — Major Denny: 
Draper manuscripts. "Indeed," said 
Ensign D. Britt, in his testimony be- 
fore the court of inquiry, "the gener- 
ality of them [the militia] scarcely 
deserved the name of anything like 
soldiers. They were mostly substi- 
tutes for others, who had nothing 
to stimulate them to their duty." 

(15) General Harmar considered the 
battle on the site of Fort Wayne to 
have been a success, if we may judge 
from the record in his journal. He 
wrote, under date of October 17, 1790: 
"The detachment under Major Wyllys 



Aide-de-camp to General Harmar and 
General St. Clair. 




and Colonel Hardin performed won- 
ders, although they were terribly cut 
up. Almost the whole of the federal 
troops were cut oft, with the loss of 
Major Wyllys. Major Fontaine and 
Lieutenant Frothingham — which Is 
Indeed a heavy blow. The consola- 
tion is that the men sold themselves 
very dear. The militia behaved them- 
selves charmingly. It Is reported 
that not less than 100 warriors of 
the savages were killed upon the 
ground. The action was fought yes- 
terday near the old fort up the river 
St. Joseph. The savages never re- 
ceived such a stroke before In any 
battle that they have had. The action 
at the Great Kanawha was a farce 
to It." In addition to the loss of 
Wyllys, Fontaine and Frothingham, 
the whites left on the battlefield Cap- 
tains Thorp, McMurtney and Scott, 
Lieutenants Clark and Rogers, and 
Ensigns Bridges, Sweet, Hlggins and 
Thielkeld, of the militia. 

(16) Robert Gavin. Sr., In a recent 
conversation with the writer, stated 
that his father, who came to Fort 
Wayne in 1849, "worked" the Com- 
paret farm. In Lakeside, for several 
years, and that In turning over the 
soil, a large number of human bones 
were found. A. M. Harrington, who 
lived at the corner of Coombs and 
Begue streets, made It a fad to col- 
lect skulls from the battlefield, and 
his cellar showed many specimens of 
grim reminder of Harmar's fateful 
day. Mr. Gavin stated that the bones 
were gathered and burled In trenches 
so as to clear the land of their pres- 

(17) Michigan Pioneer History and 
Farmer's History of Detroit. 

(18) Severe criticism of the per- 
sonal conduct of General Harmar 
brought to his defense some of the 
ablest men under his command. 
Major W. Ferguson, commanding of- 
ficer of artillery, testified: "Report 
says he was Intoxicated all the cam- 
paign, and unable to execute the Im- 

portant duties of his station. • • • 
I do declare that from leaving Fort 
Washington to our return. I never 
seen Gen'l Harmar Intoxicated or so 
as to render him unfit for the execu- 
tion of any duties. In him and his 
abilities as an officer I placed the 
greatest confidence. (Draper Manu- 
scripts, Frontier Wars, vol. Iv.) En- 
sign D. Brltt, In his testimony, states 
that General Harmar succeeded in 
bringing friendly relations between 
Colonels Hardin and Trotter which 
weakened the expedition at the be- 
ginning. Lieutenant David Hamilton 
Morris, writing as late as 1842. said: 
"I regard General Harmar as a vet- 
eran soldier and an accomplished 
gentleman and especially as the sin- 
cere friend of the poor soldier." 

(19) The British authorities were 
moved to concern themselves in the 
protection of the Detroit merchants 
who. with strong petitions, pleaded 
for the aid of the home government 
to preserve their business Interests In 
the Maumee-Wabash valleys. Sir 
John Johnson was addressed In 
August, 1791. by means of a petition 
which contained these sentences; 
"As we understand you are about 
setting out [from Montreal] to Que- 
oec. we [the merchants of Detroit! 
take the favorable opportunity of re- 
questing the favor of your repre- 
senting to His Excellency. Lord Dor- 
chester, the present very alarming 
situation of the trade to the south- 
ward of Detroit, wherein we are very 
largely Interested. • • • The trad- 
ers suffered considerable loss last 
year In consequence of the burning 
of the Miami villages [site of Fort 
Wayne]. • • • The loss of their 
houses and part of their goods has 
been severely felt." The petition 
closes with an appeal to Lord Dor- 
chester to advise the Indians to agree 
to a peace treaty with the Americans 
which would restore trade conditions. 
(Michigan Pioneer and Historical Col- 

CHAPTER Xn— 1791. 

St. Clair's Defeat Imperils the West — ^Washington's 


Hannar's failure to establish a fort at the head of the Maumee — Conse- 
quences of the campaign — Washington summons St. Clair and outlines 
his plan — Generals Scott and Wilkinson and Colonel Hardin invade 
Wabash region — Ouiatanon destroyed — St. Clair's army weakened by 
desertions — Poor equipment — Harmar predicts St. Clair's defeat — Forts 
Hamilton and Jefferson established — Army goes into camp on the fateful 
night of November 3, 1791 — General Butler's proposal meets with resent- 
ment on the part of St. Clair — Slough discovers Little Turtle's lurking 
savages— Butler fails to inform the commander-in-chief — Savages attack 
the camp at daybreak — "The bloodiest battlefield of American pioneer 
history" — The retreat — Death of General Butler — Many women massacred 
— Denny carries the news to the president — Washington in a rage — Sav- 
ages rejoice, and prepare for the coming of the next leader of the 


HERE has remained the feeling that if General Harmar, 
instead of conducting an aggressive warfare against the 
Indians, had built a 

strong fort at the head of the 
Maumee as soon as he arrived 
here, his would have endured 
as an honored name throughout 
the west. Such a move, fol- 
lowed by the establishment of 
supporting garrisons, might 
have accomplished all that 
Wayne succeeded in doing four 
years later. It is obvious that 
the army of Harmar was unfit 
for the work he tried to do. 
That these men 
built good forts 
their garrisons 
gether reasonable. 

But history is not a recital 
of that which might have been. 

Washington summoned 
Governor St. Clair to Philadel- 
phia. The conference was de- 
voted to a discussion of the 
plans for a second expedition to be led by St. Clair in person. In 
order to conceal from the Indians and the British their movements 


could have 
and formed 
seems alto- 


Sent, In 1791, by President Washing- 
ton, on a campaign against tlie allied 
tribes of the northwest, wltn explicit 
instructions to establish a chain of 
forts with the site of the city of Fort 
Wayne as the central stronghold, St. 
Clair's army was met by the savages 
under Little Turtle and defeated on 
"The bloodiest battlefield of American 
pioneer history." 'The disaster opened 
the way for Wayne's victorious cam- 
paign in 1793 and 1794. The portrait is 
after the pencil sketch by Colonel John 


in preparation for the expedition, Washington directed St. Clair 
to despatch one or more invaders into the enemy's country. Con- 
sequently General Charles Scott, with 800 Kentucky cavalrymen, 
was sent into the Wabash region, with the ancient settlement at 
Ouiatanon* as the chief objective. This town, with several others, 
was destroyed by the troops of General Scott, General James Wilkin- 
son and Colonel John Hardin. Many Indians were killed. 

Describing the town of Ouiatanon, General Scott said: "Many 
of the inhabitants of this village were French and lived in a state 
of civilization. By the books, letters and other documents found 
here it is evident the place was in close connection with and depend- 
ent upon Detroit."^ 

Meanwhile, General St. Clair made active preparations to take 
an army from Fort Washington to the head of the Maumee and 
there build the fort which Harmar had failed to establish.' 

One onlooker, depressed by the memory of his own misfortunes, 
predicted the defeat of St. Clair's expedition. That prophet was 
Josiah Harmar.* 

On the 17th of September, 1791, after a vexatious delay, deeply 
annoying to the president, St. Clair's forces moved northward from 
Fort Washington (Cincinnati), with Brigadier General Richard 
Butler, second in command. Secretary of War Knox had written 
that the president "is greatly anxious that the campaign be dis- 
tinguished by decisive measures." Weary of St. Clair's delay in 
leaving Fort Washington, the president authorized Secretary Knox 
to inform him that "unless the highest exertions be made by all 
parts of the army, to repair the loss of the season, the expenses 
which have been made for the campaign will be altogether lost, 
and the measures from which so much has been expected will issue 
in disgrace.'"^ 

Hundreds of the men and several oiBcers deserted the army 
during the first few days of the march northward from Fort 

Nothing pictures the condition of the army more significantly 
than the following extracts from the journal of Major Denny, 
aide-de-camp to General St. Clair: 

"Unpardonable mismanagement in the provision department. 
• * * A number of the militia who had deserted were appre- 
hended in Kentucky and confined in jails. * * * Two artil- 
lerymen attempted to desert to the enemy, were taken, tried and 
sentenced to suffer death; were hanged. * * * Forage en- 
tirely destroyed; horses failing and cannot be kept up."° 

After establishing Forts Hamilton and Jefferson in Ohio on its 
march northward, as a part of the general plan to place a line of 



fortifications extending from the Ohio river to the Maumee, at the site 
of the city of Fort Wayne, St. Clair's troops reached a tributary of 
the Wabash at a point about one and one-half miles east of the 
present Indiana-Ohio boundary. This spot, elevated from its sur- 
roundings, was chosen as an ideal place of encampment for the 
night of November 3— a date long to be remembered in the history 
of the frontier. The army now numbered 1,400 regulars and militia 
and 86 officers. The weather was bitterly cold. The commanding 
general was ill with gout. An estrangement had sprung up between 
St. Clair and General Butler when the former refused to entertain 
the suggestion of Butler that he 

(Butler) be permitted to pro 
ceed with 1,000 men to the con- 
fluence of the St. Mary's and 
St. Joseph rivers and there 
establish the proposed central 

The troops, busy with the 
preparations for the night, were 
innocent of the truth that hun- 
dreds of savages, under the 
leadership of Little Turtle, had 
come from the regions of the 
Maumee and the Wabash, and 
had surrounded the camp. It 
is the record of one of the 
soldiers — Thomas Irwin — that 
St. Clair "observed that he did 
not think the Indians were 
watching the movement of the 
army with a view to attack 
them other than to steal horses 
or catch a person if they had a chance.'" 
doom had already come ! 

A night scouting expedition, led by Captain Slough, returned 
to report the discovery of the presence of the Indians in large num- 
bers. General Butler, to whom Slough reported, failed to carry 
the fatal news to General St. Clair, who was confined to his quarters 
with illness — indeed, the commanding officer knew nothing of the 
scouting party until five days later.' 

Early on the morning of the fatal 4th of November, the army 
was aroused and entered upon parade before dawn. It was the 
plan to make a prompt start for the northwest, and to hold the 

The diagram shows the plan of the 
camp of the troops of General Arthur 
St. Clair, which suffered defeat by th« 
Indians in the morning of November 4, 
1791. The city of Fort Recovery, Ohio, 
now occupies the site. 

Alas! The moment of 




Indians at a safe distance while the fort which Washington longed 
to establish should be erected at the head of the Maumee.' 

atre o* 
\ice«f or TH« 

5;» ST CLAfR 

;.: I ■^9' 

J'; ' 

||J *f(J«T jCfFtSiO'* 

■' #FO«T nAnitro^ 
;| \ 

B S'T^orrr wvACMlNCrOH 


The sun had not yet risen when the army was thrown into a 
state of consternation by the yells of the savages who advanced 
from all sides and at once commenced their fierce attack upon the 
startled encampment."' With the Indians were many of their white 
sympathizers." Advancing under the shelter of shrubbery and the 
smoke of their own firearms and that of the whites, the savages 
poured their leaden hail into 
the camp for a period of nearly 
three hours. 

Quoting from Denny's 
journal, we gain a strong pic- 
ture of the scene: 

"Our left flank gave way 
first. Was at that time with 
the general [St. Clair] engaged 
toward the right; he was on 
foot and led the party himself 
that drove the enemy and re- 
gained the ground on the left. 

"The savages seemed not 
to fear anything we could do. 
They could skip out of reach 
of the bayonet and return, as 
they pleased. 

"The ground was literally 
covered with the dead. The 
wounded were taken to the center, where a good many who had 
quit their posts unhurt, were crowded together. It appeared as 
if the officers had been singled out; a very great proportion fell. 
The men being thus left with few officers, became fearful, despaired 
of success, gave up the fight, and, to save themselves for the moment, 
abandoned entirely their ground, and crowded in toward the center 
of the field, and no exertions could put them in order even for 

"The enemy at length got possession of the artillery, though 
not until the officers were all killed but one, and he badly wounded, 
and the men all cut off, and not until the pieces were spiked. Ex- 
posed to cross-fire, men and officers were seen falling in every 
direction. A few minutes longer and a retreat would have been im- 
practicable. Delay was death ! No preparation could be made ; 
numbers of brave men must be left to sacrifice ; there was no alter- 
native. Both officers and men seemed confounded; they could not 
move until it was told that a retreat was intended. The stoutest 
and most active now took the lead, and those who were foremost in 
breaking the enemy's line were soon left behind. At the moment 

The map shows the place of the de- 
feat of St. Clair's army In 1791, while 
en route to the site of Fort Wayne to 
erect a fortification under Instructions 
of Washington. 


of retreat one of the horses saved had been procured for the general; 
he was on foot until then ; I kept by him and he delayed to see the 
rear. The enemy pursued, though not for more than four or five 
miles; they turned to share the spoil. The road for miles was cov- 
ered with firelocks, cartridge boxes and regimentals. How fortunate 
that the pursuit was discontinued ! A single Indian might have fol- 
lowed with safety on either flank.' ' 

The fugitive army did not halt until safely within and about 
the palisades of Fort Jeflferson. 

The spoils of the camp were of high value to the savages. Their 
gleeful mistreatment of the dead and of the living is a tale of horror. 
"Perhaps never before nor afterward did any battlefield present 
a scene equal to that Wabash slaughter field. The dying were tor- 
tured and the dead frightfully mutilated. "^^ 

Five hundred and ninety-three privates were killed in the en- 
gagement. Thirty-nine officers lost their lives, including General 
Richard Butler, one lieutenant colonel, three majors, twelve captains, 
ten lieutenants, eight ensigns, two quartermasters, one adjutant, 
and a surgeon. As the troops were leaving the field. Captain 
Edward Butler found his brother, General Butler, fatally wounded. 
He was propped up on a mattress in his tent, a loaded pistol placed 
in each hand, and left to his fate. As his friends left the tent by 
the rear, the Indians surged in at the front.'' 

The wives of many of the soldiers, as well as other women, had 
accompanied the troops. One writer" states that about 250 women 
were with the army, of whom fifty-six were killed in the battle, 
and but a few escaped subsequent death or captivity. The first 
whites to visit the field at a later day found the corpses of many 
women pinned to the ground by large stakes driven through their 

Rightly has the scene of St. Clair's defeat been called "the 
bloodiest battlefield of pioneer American history." 

Major Denny, whose journal throws much light on this dis- 
astrous campaign, was chosen to carry the news of the defeat to 
President Washington. The difficulties of travel required that six 
weeks should elapse before the president received the message. The 
dispatch was handed to Washington as he entertained friends at 
dinner. Excusing himself at the conclusion of the repast, the presi- 
dent and his secretary, Tobias Lear, entered a private room. 

Says Washington Irving,'" in describing the scene: 
"The general walked slowly backward and forward. As yet 
there had been no change in his manner. Taking a seat on the 
sofa by the fire he told Mr. Lear to sit down ; the latter had scarce 
time to notice that he was extremely agitated, when he broke out 
suddenly, 'It's all over! St. Clair defeated! — routed! The officers 
nearly all killed, the men by wholesale ; the rout complete ; too 


shocking to think of, and a surprise into the bargain!' • • • 
'Yes,' exclaimed he, 'here on this very spot I took leave of him; 
I wished him success and honor. 'You have your instructions from 
the secretary of war,' said I. 'I had strict eye to them, and will 
add but one word, Beware of a surprise ! You know how the 
Indians fight us. I repeat, Beware of a surprise.' He went ofiE 
with that, my last warning, thrown into his ears. And yet! To 
sulFer that army to be cut to pieces, hacked, butchered, tomahawked, 
by a surprise — the very thing I guarded him against — 0, God! 0, 
God!' exclaimed he, throwing up his hands, and while his very 
frame shook Mith emotion, 'He's worse than a murderer! How can 
he answer to his country ! The blood of the slain is upon him 
— the curse of the widows and orphans — the curse of heaven!' 
When his wrath had subsided, Washington said, 'This must not go 
beyond this room,' and later, in a calmer moment, he added, 'Gen- 
eral St. Clair shall have justice ; * * * he shall have full jus- 
tice.' " 

St. Clair retained the confidence of Washington to the last of 
his days. He served for several years as the governor of the North- 
west Territory and of Ohio Territory, and died at Greensburg, Pa., 
in 1818, in comparative poverty. 

The site of the city of Fort Wayne, to which vast numbers of 
the savages repaired from the scene of the battle, laden with rich 
spoils, became a scene of wild rejoicing; indeed, the entire Maumee 
valley was alive with savages exulting over their victory and pre- 
paring to carry on the conflict against the Americans. 


(1) Ouiatanon, established in 1719 torical CoUection). 

or 1720 bv Francois Margane. Sieur de (4) "He • • • predicted a de- 

Vincennes. had been maintained as a feat. 'You must,' said he [to Major 

French and British stronghold tor Denny], 'go on the campaign; some 

nearly three-fourths of a century. will escape, and you may be among 

(2) American State Papers, Indian the number.'" — Journal of Bbenezer 
Affairs, vol. i, page 129. Denny, page 357. 

(3) Secretary of War Knox, Im- (5) American State Papers, vol. Iv, 
pressing upon General St. Clair the page 192. 

Importance of his mission, had writ- (6) That the savages and their al- 

ten him, on March 1: "The post at lies were watching every move ot St. 

the Miami village [site of Fort Clair's army is shown by the follow- 

Wayne] is Intended for the purpose ing extract from a letter written by 

of awing and curbing the Indians in Simon Girty to Colonel Alexander 

that quarter, and is the only prevent- McKee, October 28. 1791, as the army 

atlve of further hostilities. The gar- was moving northward from Fort 

risen which should be stationed there Washington: "This is to let you 

ought not only to be sufficient for know that 1,040 Indians are this day 

the defense of the place, but always going from here [site of Fort Wayne] 

to afford a detachment of five or six to meet General Butler [Butler was 

hundred men to chastise any of the second in command] and his army. 

Wabash or other hostile Indians or with the intention to attack him on 

to secure any convoys for provisions. his march to this place. • • • 

• • • The establishment of said The principal officers are St. Clair, 
post Is considered as an important Butler, Gibson and Duncan, all of 
object of the campaign and Is to take whom you know as well as I." Both 
place at all events. It is hardly pos- had known these American officers 
sible. If the Indians continue hostile, before they (Girty and McKee) de- 
that you will be suffered quietly to serted from Fort Pitt and cast their 
establish a post at Miami village; lots with the enemy. In the attack 
conflicts, therefore, may be expected. on St. Clair, the Indians were led by 

• • • The establishment of a post Little Turtle, of the Miamis. Blue 
at the Miami village will probably Jacket, the Shawnee, and Buck-ong- 
be regarded by the British on the a-helas, the most noted of the Dela- 
frontier as a circumstance of jeal- ware chiefs, with Little Turtle in su- 
ousy," (Michigan Pioneer and His- preme command. Tecumseh, the 



famous Shawnee chief of later days, 
had command of the Indian scouts 
who followed and observed the oper- 
ations of St. Clair. 

(7) See "Historic Highways of 
America," vol viii, page 145. 

(8) St. Clair's Narrative, page 55. 

(9) At this time, and. indeed until 
Fort Wayne was finally built, the 
plan to erect a fort at the confluence 
of the St. Mary's and St. Joseph 
rivers was a favorite topic of consid- 
eration at the seat of the national 
government. On December 26, 1791, 
Secretary Knox, in his official report, 
said: "It will appear, by reference 
to Report A, which accompanies this 
report, that the great object of the 
late campaign [St. Clair's] was to 
establish a strong military post at 
the Miami village [site of Fort 
Wayne], lying upon the river of that 
name [Maumee, called Miami at that 
time], which communicates with Lake 
Erie, and that subordinate posts were 
also to be erected on the river Miami. 
That by an examination of the posi- 
tion of the said Miami village, and 
its contiguity to, or connection with, 
the waters of the river St. Joseph, 
of Lake Michigan, and the river Illi- 
nois, and thereby the Mississippi, the 
Wabash and thereby the Ohio, the 
Miami of the Ohio, which at times, 
may afford considerable facility to 
transportation; it will appear that 
the said position with its proper com- 
munication, is greatly superior to any 
other in order to serve as a barrier 
to protect essentially a frontier of up- 
wards of eleven hundred miles 
stretching from the upper parts of 
the Allegheny to the lower parts of 
the Ohio. That it was intended to 
garrison the said post at the Miami 
village [Fort Wayne] and its com- 
munications with one thousand or 
twelve hundred troops and have it 

always well stored with provisions, 
etc. That from the said number, a 
detachment generally might be spared 
of sufficient magnitude to chastise 
any of the neighboring villages or 
tribes separately who might have 
dared to commit depredations; or be 
a place to which mounted militia 
might suddenly repair, draw supplies 
and act in conjunction, in case of a 
combination of the several towns or 
tribes in acts of hostility." 

(10) The conflict took place within 
the limits of the present city of Fort 
Recovery, Ohio. 

(11) "It is worthy of note that Wil- 
liam Weils [son-in-law of Little Tur- 
tle] who was soon to become a leader 
of the whites, is said to have slain 
several Americans with his own 
hands."— -Roosevelt's "Winning of the 
West," vol. Iv, page 79. 

(12) "Historic Highways of Amer- 
ica," %'ol. viii, page 157. 

(13) "Historic Highways of Amer- 
ica," vol. viii, page 157. 

(14) Caleb Atwater, "History of 
Ohio," page 142. 

(15) Dillon's "History of- lniia.n&." 
page 283. Of the women who es- 
caped, "Mrs. Catherine Miller, who died 
in Cincinnati about the year 1838, was 
so fleet of foot that she ran ahead of 
the army. She had a great quantity 
of red hair, that streamed behind aR 
she ran. and formed the 'orlflamme' 
which the soldiers followed." — Loss- 
ing's "Pictorial Fieldbook of the War 
of 1812," page 48. The volume to 
which this and other references are 
made is the property of John C. Hel- 
ler, of Fort Wayne. 

(16) Washington Irving's "Life of 
Washington." vol. iv ; see also George 
P. Custls's "Personal Recollections of 
Washington," and Henry C. Lodge's 
"Life of Washington." 

CHAPTER XIII— 1792-1794. 

"Mad Anthony" Wayne, Savior of the West — "Fallen 


Disheartening conditions in tlie west— Washington's problems — General 
Anthony Wayne chosen to lead the third expedition against the Indians 
— Washington's opinion of Wayne — Death of Colonel Hardin — Peace 
messengers tortured to death— Wayne trains his army and proceeds to 
Fort Washington (Cincinnati) — Joined by Harrison, Whistler, Lewis and 
Clark — The army at Greenville — Little Turtle leads In the attack on the 
builders of Fort Recovery — British build two forts on American soil — 
Captain William Wells Joins Wayne — The army reaches the Maumee — 
How Wayne deceived the savages — Fort Defiance erected — Blue Jacket 
leads the savages — The death of William May — Wayne's story of the battle 
of Fallen Timber — Sharp correspondence between Wayne and Major 
Campbell, commander of the British Post Miami— The Americans destroy 
British property and vast acreage of corn — The result of Wayne's victory. 

WE NOW HAVE a clear conception of the conditions in 
the west which rendered most difiScult and hazardous any 
further attempt by the United States to transform the 
frontier into an inhabitable region for the pioneer who gazed with 
longing eyes upon the opportunities which nature had provided 
for the tiller of the soil and the maker of the home. 

But there were other conditions which multiplied the diflScul- 
ties and rendered the task of Washington most disheartening. So, 
before entering upon the review of the story of the invasion of the 
west by the "Legion of the United States," under the leadership 
of General Anthony Wayne,' it may be well to look with impartial 
eyes upon the situation. 

The student of American history will recall that at this time 
"Citizen" Genet, the Frenchman, appeared in America with demands 
upon the new republic which Washington, with superior wisdom, 
declined to grant. Before the angered representative of France was 
recalled, there was every indication that if the United States had 
joined with France in a campaign to drive the Spaniard from the 
lower portion of the country, a war of gigantic proportions must 
have followed, with the United States and France engaged on the 
one side, against the Spanish, the British and the Indians on the 
other. At this critical time Washington chose "Mad Anthony" 
Wayne to proceed to the west with two great tasks in view — the 
pacification of the Indians and their separation from British control, 
and the protection of the Kentucky frontier against any demon- 
stration of hostilities by the Spaniards of the south.^ 



Wayne was at this time forty-seven years of age. While his 
choice gave general satisfaction, the friends of Richard Henry Lee,' 
of Virginia, a warm friend of Washington, expressed keen disap- 
pointment that Lee had failed to win the favor of the president. 
When the discussion had reached its height, Washington explained 
his position in a clean-cut letter to Lee, in which he said : 

"How far the appointment of General Wayne is a popular or 
unpopular measure is not for me to decide. It was not the deter- 
mination of a moment, nor was it the effect of partiality or influ- 
ence ; for no application (if that in any instance could have warped 
my judgment) was ever made in his behalf by anyone who could 
have thrown the weight of a feather into his scale; but because 
under a full view of all circumstances, he appeared to be the most 

"To a person of your observation and intelligence, it is un- 
necessary to remark that an appointment which may be popular 
in one place, and with one set of men, may not be so in another 
place with another set of men, and vice versa, and that to attempt 
to please everybody is to please nobody ; because the attempt would 
be as idle as the exertion would be impracticable. G. W. [General 
Wayne] has many good points as an officer, and it is to be hoped 
that time, reflection, good advice and, above all, a due sense of the 
importance of the trust which is committed to him, will correct his 
foibles or cast a shade over them."* 

A memorandum in Washington's handwriting, preserved in the 
New York State Library, dealing with the qualifications of many who 
had been suggested as leaders of the new western army, thus meas- 
ures the ability of Wayne to command the expedition : ' ' More active 
and enterprising than judicious and cautious, no economist, it is 
feared; open to flattery — vain — easily imposed upon and liable to 
be drawn into. scrapes; too indulgent (the effect, perhaps, of some 
of the causes just mentioned) to his officers; whether sober or a 
little addicted to the bottle. I know not."^ 

Taking his "legion of 'boys and miscreants,' gathered from 
the slums of the coast cities," Wayne "trained them until their 
skill equaled, if it did not surpass, that of the most noted backwoods 
Indian fighters.''" 

Before the arrival of Wayne's "Legion of the United States" at 
Cincinnati, a series of tragedies had occurred on the frontier. Col- 
onel John Hardin, while acting as a messenger of peace to the 
savages, was murdered; Major Alexander Trueman, and two other 
messengers. Freeman and Girard, sent to the head of the Maumee, 
never returned. William May, captured on the site of Fort Wayne, 
was sold by Simon Girty to ilatthew Elliott. After serving several 
months as a sailor on Lake Erie, May escaped and made his way to 
Wayne's headquarters. Later, in 1794, before the battle of Fallen 




Timber, ^lay was taken by the Indians and tortured to his death. 
Eeuben Reynolds, another messenger, escaped, made his way to 
Montreal, and returned to the United States in safety. 

After several weeks of hard training on the ground south of 
Pittsburgh, "Wayne took his army into camp twenty-two miles from 
that eity, down the Ohio river, "out of reach of whiskey, which 
baneful poison is prohibited from entering the camp," as Wayne 
explained to Secretary Knox. 
In April the army floated down 
the Ohio to Fort Washington 
(Cincinnati) where the legion 
went into camp. 

Among the noted men who 
joined Wayne was William 
Henry Harrison, the coming 
military leader and statesman; 
William Clark (brother of 
George Rogers Clark), and 
Meriwether Lewis, who were 
to gain fame as the leaders of 
the Lewis and Clark expedition 
to the northwest in 1803, and 
Lieutenant John Whistler 
(grandfather of James McNeill 
Whi.stler, the artist) and future 
commandant of Fort Wayne. 

On October 6, Wayne's 
army moved northward from 
Fort Washington. A band of 
savages attacked a convoy of 
twenty wagons loaded with 
grain and stores with the re- 
sult that fifteen of the men lost 
their lives, and the savages se- 
cured seventy of the horses. 

An epidemic of influenza — 
the modem "la grippe" — seized upon the troops, and many of the 
officers and men, including General Wilkinson, were left at Forts 
Hamilton and Jefferson, when the army moved.' 

"Wayne Trace," the northern terminus of which is within the 
city of Fort Wayne, had its beginning with the northward move- 
ment of Wayne's army. 

Ending the first march of six days at the site of Greenville, 



"One act of heroism (the storming of 
Stony Point) made his name famous for 
all time; and yet Wayne's exploits, each 
Inspired by the same dauntless valor, 
seem almost forgotten by his coun- 
trymen. Wolfe, it is said, gave Canada 
to England; but Wayne gave the whole 
territory between the Ohio and the 
Mississippi, comprising four states, to 
that peaceful Immigration of a noble 
civilization. His whole life was given 
ungrudgingly to his country." — Charles 
J. Stille, in his "Life of Major General 
Anthony Wayne." 



Ohio, where "Wayne erected a fort named in honor of General 
Nathaniel Greene, the troops went into winter quarters and the 
Kentucky militia was dismissed for the season. 

(AT THIS Potnr. 

THe SiTf OF 3T 
"^ THt W<r*T6C 
OP 17931. U^ 
AssAotTco ev 


-' I 




campeo «^or the winter, ' LEf r JU'-'I' 
28, r794. WITH «EC(?ijns of 

ReTO«Met> HERt NO". ^..;79-», 

ANO The peace tufK-xr was 

SiGnEO AUG lO 1796} 





- (C,HC,...AT0 R«S.°A'R\V.'^^';-S„l,t?S»,C.; 





During the winter of 1793-1794 a detachment of the army, 
under Major Henry Burbeck, erected a strong fort on the site of 
St. Clair's defeat, twenty-three miles distant. It was named Fort 
Recovery. Six hundred skulls littered the ground, the grim evi- 
dences of the slaughter of the Americans the year before.' 

On June 30, 1794, while the troops under Major McMahon 
were engaged in working on the fort, the savages, under Little 
Turtle, made a fierce assault on the builders. The watchful Amer- 
icans drove them off, but they returned the following day to renew 
the attack. Wayne reported to the secretary of war that the 
savages "were ultimately compelled to retreat with loss and dis- 
grace, from the very field where they had, on a former occasion 
[the defeat of St. Clair], been proudly victorious."' 

The American loss was twenty-two killed and thirty wounded. 
Six American scalps were carried to the British headquarters and 
presented to Colonel Alexander McKee at his farm on the Maumee 
nver near the newly established British fort. 

Throughout the spring of 1794, Wayne's army had undergone 
such a continuous round of training that, according to General 
Posey, "never in the Revolutionary war had he [Wayne] com- 
manded such well-disciplined troops."'" Wayne's record as a drill- 
master is unexcelled in the military annals of America. 

That the representatives of Great Britain in America still 
firmly believed that they could withhold the west from the posses- 
sion of the Americans by keeping the Indians well armed and filled 
with hatred of the citizens of the United States, is clearly proven 
by a bold move undertaken while Wayne held his army at Green- 

Lord Dorchester, governor general of Canada, had announced 
at a council with the savages that he would not be surprised "if 
we are at war with them [the Americans] in the course of the 
present year." The first step taken by the British to provoke 
such a result was the erection of a strong post on American soil, 
called Fort Miami, near the site of the present city of Maumee City, 
Ohio, just west of Toledo, on the north bank of the Maumee river. 
This post was given a garrison of four hundred and fifty men, com- 
manded at the first by Colonel Alexander McKee, and, later by 
Major William Campbell. Its equipment consisted of ten pieces of 
artillery. Another fort was erected on Presque Isle, an island 
within the mouth of the Maumee river, and belonging to the 
United States. 

President Washingtor, when he heard of the establishment of 
these forts on soil belonging to America, protested without effect 


against the unfriendly conduct of the British whom a treaty of 
peace, signed at the close of the Revolution, should have barred 
from such a questionable move. 

Wayne knew of the existence of these forts and had already 
received his instructions from the secretary of war to "dislodge 
the party" if he thought best to undertake to do it. We shall see 
how wisely Wayne conducted himself when the moment of decision 

Major General Scott, with 1,600 mounted volunteers from Ken- 
tucky, joined the troops at Greenville July 16; the army now eon- 

. 7^^. map shows the route of General Wayne's army from the time of its ar- 
rival at the Maumee river at the site of Defiance. Ohio, until the building of 
the fort at the site of Fort Wayne, and the departure for Greenville. The draw- 
ing Is from a copy of the original by Dr. Belknap. The map is reprinted by 
permission from "Historic Highways of America." Vol. VHI, copyrighted 1904 
by the Arthur H. Clark Company, Cleveland, Ohio. 

sisted of 2,000 regulars and this strong contingent from Kentucky, 
all eager to enter upon the campaign and to recover the ground 
lost by Harmar and St. Clair. The northward movement on July 
28, 1794, filled tlie M'atching savages with dismay, for the feinty 
of Wayne at road-building, with no intention of following any of 
the routes thus mapped out, caused a confusion of reports which 
routed any attempt at a satisfactory arrangement of battle. The 
rapid movement of Wayne's troops also left little time for the 
savages to design a plan of attack. As Little Turtle said, during 
the final council, on the eve of the battle of Fallen Timber, "Not- 
withstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we have never 
been able to surprise him." 



Among the noted men of the frontier who now joined the forces 
of Wayne and became of great assistance to him was Captain 
William Wells," son-in-law of Chief Little Turtle, whose name 
will figure prominently in the further narrative of Fort Wayne. 

Frontier history furnishes no more interesting picture than 
that of the parting of Captain Wells and Little Turtle, when the 
former left the savages to join the Americans. The story as 
handed down by the Wells family is to the effect that Wells and 
Little Turtle were in entire accord in their views of the situation, 
and especially as to the necessity of bringing amicable relations 
between the Indians and the United States. 

"For this reason," says Jacob P. Dunn in his "True Indian 
Stories," "it was agreed that Wells should join Wayne and use 
his influence with the whites, while Little Turtle tried to bring 
about a more pacific frame of mind among the Indians. The two 
parted at a point some two miles east of Fort Wayne, long known 
as 'The Big Elm.' With clasped hands, and both men visibly 
affected, Wells said: 'Father, when the sun reaches the noon mark 
I shall leave you and go to my people. We have always been 
friends and always will be friends. Upon the field of battle we may 
meet again. Let the result be what it may, the purity of the motives 
prompting us, and our common love for the wronged Indians, must 
be our warrant ; and we may well trust the Great Spirit for results 
that will vindicate our action this day.' Wells then made his way 
to the army of General Wayne." 

As the army moved northward, a brief stop was made on the 
banks of the St. Mary's river where Fort Adams was built. While 
urging haste upon the men who were taking from the forest the 
material to be used in the construction of the fort, Wayne was 
caught under a falling tree and pinioned to the ground. The acci- 
dent "nearly put an end to his existence," but his injuries were 
not found to be of a serious nature. He was in condition to 
proceed when the work was completed. 

On the 8th of August, Wayne's army arrived at the Maumee, 
near the mouth of the Auglaize river, the site of the present Defi- 
ance, Ohio.'^ Writing from this point, Wayne said: 

"I have the honor to inform you that the army under my 
command took possession of this important post on the morning of 
the 8th instant — the enemy, on the preceding evening, having 
abandoned all their settlements, towns and villages, with such 
apparent marks of surprise and precipitation, as to amount to a 
positive proof that our approach was not discovered by them until 
the arrival of a Mr. Newman, of the Quartermaster General's de- 


partment, who deserted from the army near the St. Mary and 
gave them every information in his power as to our force, the 
object of our destination, state of provision, number and size of the 
artillery, &c., &c., circumstances and facts that he had too good 
an opportunity of knowing, from acting as a field quartermaster 
on the march, and at the moment of his desertion. Hence I have 
good grounds to conclude that the defection of this villain pre- 
vented the enemy from receiving a fatal blow at this place, when 
least expected. "^^ 

"Wayne adds that he "made such demonstrations, for a length 
of time previously to taking up our line of march, as to induce 
the savages to expect our advance by the route of the Miami vil- 
lages [site of Fort Wayne] to the left, or towards Roche de Bout 
["point of rock," at the foot of the rapids of the Maumee, near 
the site of Wayne's Fort Deposit] by the right, which feints ap- 
pear to have produced the desired effect by drawing the attention 
of the enemy to those points, and gave the opening for the army 
to approach undiscovered by a devious route, i. e., in a central 
direction, which would be impracticable for an army, except in a 
dry season such as then presented. Thus, sir," he continues, 
"we have gained possession of the grand emporium of the hostile 
Indians of the west without loss of blood. The very extensive and 
highly cultivated fields and gardens show the work of many hands." 

Here Wayne directed the building of Fort Defiance. 

The savages were still in a confused state of mind, unable to 
discover Wayne's plans of campaign, and, in the absence of a united 
purpose, they decided to assemble their forces at a point on the 
north bank of the Maumee river almost within range of the guns of the 
newly established British Fort Miami, and to draw the enemy 
into a battlefield of their own choosing — a section of woods in 
which a great many trees had been felled by a tornado some time 
before. Wayne could not have chosen a better field for this pur- 
pose, for he had determined to introduce to the savages a method 
of warfare with which they were unfamiliar — the bayonet charge. 

Wayne's character stands out clearly in the words written to 
the secretary of war to the effect that "the safety of the western 
frontiers, the reputation of the legion, the dignity and interest of 
the nation, all forbid a retrograde manceuvre or giving up one 
inch of ground we now possess, until the enemy are compelled to 
sue for peace. "^* "Yet, I have thought proper to offer the enemy 
a last overture of peace," he wrote, on August 11, "and, as they 
have everything that is dear and interesting at stake, I have reason 
to expect that they will listen to the proposition mentioned in the 
enclosed copy of an address despatched yesterday by a special flag, 
who I sent under circumstances that will ensure his safe return, 





f'>'->i~.=i» V 

'- '^ ?'? f % 

and which may eventually spare the effusion of much human blood. 
But should war be their choice, that blood be upon their own 
heads. America shall no longer be insulted with impunity. To 
an all-powerful and just God I therefore commit myself and gal- 
lant army." 

The daredevil methods of Wayne, which had drawn upon him 
the title of "Mad Anthony" during the Revolution, were displaced 
during the present campaign and the utmost caution characterized 
every movement. 

At this time the region of Fort Defiance was surrounded by 
vast fields of corn, the largest, according to Wayne's report, that 
he had seen "in any part of 
America from Canada to Flor- 
ida. "'= 

Before proceeding on his 
march down the Maumee to 
attack the Indians in their for- 
est stronghold, Wayne waited 
long enough to send to the 
camp of the savages two mes- 
sengers of peace, an old Indian 
and a squaw, neither of whom 
returned. It is of interest to 
observe at this point that at a 
council of war on the 19th, a 
plan of battle presented by 
William Henry Harrison, then 
a young man of twenty-one, 
"was adopted by the veteran 

officers the moment it was submitted — an homage to skill and 
talent rarely awarded to a subaltern."'' 


The map shows the plan of the field 
of battle known as Fallen Timber. The 
British fort — Post Miami — occupied a 
spot in the present city of Maumee, 
Ohio, a short distance west of Toledo. 


On the night before the memorable battle, the chiefs held a final 
council to determine whether or not to make peace with Wayne. 
They confidently expected the warm support of their British friends, 
near whose fort they were assembled, and who had supported their 
earlier campaigns. Little Turtle, in a speech before the assembled 
chiefs, playing well his part in the compact with Wells, is credited 
with saying: "We have beaten the enemy twice under separate 
commanders [Harmar and St. Clair] ; we cannot expect the same 
good fortune always to attend us. The Americans are now led 
by a chief who never sleeps;" the night and the day are alike to 
him, and during all the time he has been marching upon our vil- 


lages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of our young men, we 
have never been able to surprise him. Think well of it. There 
is something whispers to me, it would be prudent to listen to his 
offers of peace." 

The counsel of Little Turtle was scornfully rejected. His 
words had forever deposed him as the war chief of the savages. 
A new leader of the host, Blue Jacket, the Shawnee, rallied the 
tribes, numbering about two thousand fighting men, and prepara- 
tions at once were made to meet the "chief who never sleeps." 

Wayne's army, thrilled with the prospect of an early and deci- 
sive encounter with the savages, advanced on the 16th of August, 
and followed the north bank of the Maumee for sixteen miles to the 
eastward. The army at the close of the day, went into camp at 
the site of the city of Napoleon, Ohio. Christopher Miller, a spy, 
returning from a conference with the enemy, brought the response 
that "if the commander-in-chief would remain at Grand Oglaize 
[site of Defiance] ten days, they would let him know whether 
they were for peace or war." 

Ten days! A strong British force from Detroit could reach 
the scene before the expiration of that period of time!^^ The 
proposition was promptly rejected. 

The next day, William May, the faithful American spy, was 
captured by the Indians and tortured to his death. 

When the army reached a distance of forty-one miles from 
Fort Defiance, works were thrown up in which to store the heavy 
baggage of the troops to allow the men more freedom of action in 
the impending conflict. It was called Fort Deposit. 

The story of the battle of Fallen Timber is best told in the 
language of General Wayne, from whose ofSeial report the account 
is quoted: 

"It is with infinite pleasure that I now announce to you the 
brilliant success of the federal army under my command, in a gen- 
eral action with the combined forces of the hostile Indians and a 
considerable number of the volunteers and militia of Detroit, on 
the 20th instant [August, 1794], on the banks of the Miami [Mau- 
mee] in the vicinity of the British post and garrison at the foot 
of the rapids. * * * 

"At 8 o'clock on the morning of the 20th the army advanced 
in columns, agreeable to the Standing Order of March, the legion 
on the right, its right flank covered by the Miamis [Maumee], 
one brigade of mounted volunteers on the left under Brigadier 
General Todd, and the other in the rear, under Brigadier General 
Barbie. A selected battalion of mounted volunteers moved in front 
sufficiently advanced so as to give timely notice for the troops to 
of the legion, commanded by Major Price, who was directed to keep 




form in case of action, it being yet undetermined whether the 
Indians would decide for peace or war. 

"After advancing about five miles, Major Price's corps re- 
ceived so severe a fire from the enemy, who were secreted in the 
woods and high grass, so as to 
compel them to retreat. The 
legion was immediately formed 
in two lines, principally in a 
close, thick wood which ex- 
tended for miles on our left, 
and for a considerable distance 
in front, the ground being cov- 
ered with old fallen timber 
probably occasioned by a tor- 
nado which rendered it imprac- 
tieal)le for the cavalry to act 
with effect, and afforded the 
enemy the most favorable cov- 
ert for their mode of warfare. 
The savages were formed in 
three lines, within supporting 
distance of each other and ex- 
tending for nearly two miles 
at right angles with the river. 
I soon discovered from the 
weight of the fire and extent 
of their lines, that the enemy 
were in full force in front in 
possession of their favorite 
ground, and endeavoring to 
turn our left flank. I therefore 
gave orders for the second line 
to advance and support the 

first, and directed Major General Scott to gain and turn the right 
flank of the savages with the whole of the mounted volunteers by 
a circuitous route; at the same time, I ordered the front line to 
advance and charge with trailed arms and rouse the Indians from 
their coverts at the point of the bayonet, and, when up, to deliver a 
close and well-directed fire on their backs, followed by a brisk 
charge, so as not to give them time to load again. 

"I also ordered Captain Mis Campbell, who commanded the 
legionary cavalry, to turn the left flank of the enemy, next to the 
river, and which afforded a favorable field for that corps to act 
in. All these orders were obeyed with spirit and promptitude ; but 
such was the impetuosity of the charge by the first line of infantry, 
that the Indians and Canadian militia, and volunteers, were driven 
from all their coverts in so short a time that, although every possible 
exertion was used by the officers of the second line of the legion 
and by Generals Scott, Todd and Barbie of the mounted volunteers 
to gain their positions, but part of each could get up in season 

Major Whitlock was General Wayne's 
aide-de-camp when the army reached 
the site of the city of Fort Wayne. To 
Whitlock, Wayne gave the camp bed 
which the general used during the Rev- 
olution and the Indian campaign of 
1792 to 1794. and which is now on ex- 
hibition In Fort Wayne. Whitlock was 
first in command under Major Ham- 
tramck. He served as a lieutenant in 
the company of which William Henry 
Harrison was the captain. In after 
years, while Whitlock was in charge of 
the land office in Indiana, he founded 
the city of Crawfordsville. The port- 
rait is from Losslng's "Pictorial Field- 
book of the War of 1812," to which the 
original was contributed by General 
Lew Wallace. 


to participate in the action, the enemy being driven in the course 
of one hour more than two miles through the thick woods already 
mentioned, by half their numbers. 

"From every account, the enemy amounted to two thousand 
combatants. The troops actually engaged against them were short 
of nine hundred. The horde of savages, with their allies, abandoned 
themselves to flight, and dispersed with terror and dismay, leaving 
our victorious army in full and quiet possession of the field of 
battle which terminated under the influence of the guns of the 
British garrison. * * *" 

Wayne makes special mention of the gallant conduct of Brig- 
adier General Wilkinson, Colonel John F. Hamtramck, Aides-de- 
Camp Captains Butte and T. Lewis, Lieutenant William Henry 
Harrison, Major Mills, Lieutenant Covington, Lieutenant Webb, 
Captains Slough and Prior, Lieutenant Campbell Smith, Captain 
Van Rensselaer, Captain Rawlins, Lieutenant McKenny, Ensign 
Duncan, Captain H. Lewis and Captain Brock. "But whilst I pay 
this just tribute to the living," he adds, "I must not neglect the 
gallant dead, among whom we have to lament the early death of 
those worthy and brave ofiScers, Captain Mis Campbell of the Dra- 
goons and Lieutenant Towles of the light infantry of the legion, 
who fell in the first charge." 

The total loss to the Americans was thirty-three killed and 
one hundred wounded. Eleven of the latter died before the sending 
of the report. The loss to the Indians was double that of the Amer- 

With lightness of heart the troops set about the establishment 
of their camp within sight of the British fort. The duty of the 
care of the wounded and the burial of the dead tempered the out- 
ward demonstration of rejoicing; but each man felt that a decisive 
blow against the enemies of American progress in the west had 
been delivered by the small army of which he was a part. 

Directly a messenger from the British fort, with a flag, ap- 
peared. He bore a communication to General Wayne from the 
British commandant, Major William Campbell, who wrote : 

"Sir: An army of the United States of America, said to be 
under your command, having taken post on the banks of the Miami 
[Maumee] for upwards of the last twent.y-four hours, almost 
within the reach of the guns of this fort, being a post belonging 
to His Majesty the King of Great Britain, occupied by his Majesty's 
troops, it becomes my duty to inform myself as speedily as possible 
in what light I am to view your making such near approaches to 
this garrison. I have no hesitation on my part to say that I know 
of no war existing between Great Britain and America." 

The tone of this note was such as to arouse the patriotic spirit 
of "Mad Anthony," who replied in the following vigorous language : 




"Sir: I have received your letter of this date requiring from 
me the motives which have moved the army under my command to 
the position they at present occupy, far within the acknowledged 
jurisdiction of the United States of America. Without questioning 
the authority, or propriety, sir, of your interrogatory, I think I 
may, without breach of decorum, observe to you that, were you 
entitled to an answer, the most full and satisfactory one was an- 
nounced to you from the muzzles of my small arms yesterday 
morning in the action against the horde of savages in the vicinity 
of your post, which terminated gloriously to the American arms; 
but had it continued until the Indians, &c., were driven under the 
influence of the post and guns you mention, they would not have 
much impeded the progress of the victorious army under my com- 
mand, as no such post was established at the commencement of the 
present war between the Indians and the United States. I have 

The famous "Wayne Trace," extending from the city of Fort Wayne to the 
city of Cincinnati, marks the pathway of General Wayne from the fort which 
bore his name to the site of Fort Washington. The upper map Indicates the route 
taken by General Wayne and the lower drawing shows that portion of the 
route within the city of Fort Wayne. A sketch of the "marker" erected by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution in 1906, is also shown. 


the honor to be, sir, with great respect, your most obedient and 
humble servant." 

This letter, and especially the phrase "&c.," referring, of 
course, to the British participants in the conflict, aroused the ire 
of Major Campbell, who retorted in these keen sentences of de- 
fiance :^° 

"Although your letter of yesterday's date fully authorizes me 
to any act of hostility against the army of the United States of 
America in this neighborhood under your command, yet, still 
anxious to prevent that dreadful decision which, perhaps, is not 
intended to be appealed to by either of our countries, I have for- 
borne, for those two days past, to resent those insults you have 
offered to the British flag flying at this fort, by approaching it 
within pistol shot of my works, not only singly, but in numbers, 
with arms in their hands. Neither is it my wish to wage waj 
with individuals ; but should you, after this, continue to approach 
my post in the threatening manner you are at this moment doing, 
my indispensable duty to my King and country, and the honor of 
my profession, will oblige me to have recourse to those measures 
which thousands of either nation may hereafter have cause to regret, 
and which, I solemnly appeal to God, I have used my utmost en- 
deavors to arrest." 

Campbell's anger had been aroused by Wayne's minute inspec- 
tion of the British fort, which, according to Wayne, was "a reg- 
ular strong work, the front covered by a wide river, with four 
guns mounted in that face. The rear, which was most susceptible 
of approach, he added, "had regular bastions, furnished with 
eight pieces of artillery, the whole surrounded by a deep ditch."^" 
Wayne responded to Campbell accusing him of "taking post 
far within the well-known and acknowledged limits of the United 
States, and erecting a fortification in the heart of the settlement 
of the Indian tribes now at war with the United States. Hence," 
he declared, "it becomes my duty to desire, and I do hereby desire 
and demand, in the name of the President of the United States, 
that you immediately desist from any further act of hostility or 
aggression, by forbearing to fortify, and removing to the nearest 
post occupied by his Brittanic Majesty's at the peace of 1783, 
and which you will be permitted to do unmolested by the troops 
under my command." 

Said Campbell, in his reply : 

"I certainly will not abandon this post at the summons of any 
power whatever, until I receive orders from those I have the honor 
to serve under or the fortimes of war should oblige me. I must still 
adhere, sir, to the purport of my letter this morning, to desire that 
your army, or individuals belonging to it, will not approach within 
reach of my cannon, without expecting the consequences attend- 
ing it. "21 


"Wayne, in his report of the situation, records that "the only 
notice that was taken of this letter was by immediately setting 
fire to, and destroying, everything within view of the fort, and 
even under the muzzles of his guns. Had Mr. Campbell carried 
his threat into execution, it is more than probable that he would 
have experienced a storm." 

The destroyed property included the farm buildings of Colonel 
Alexander McKee,^^ the British Indian agent, on the opposite shore 
of the Maumee. A vast area of corn was also consumed. The 
"madness" of "]\Iad Anthony" may have been held in check by a 
realization of the weighty consequences of an attack upon the 
British fort, but it is important to know that at that very moment 
he held on his person the supreme authority to open hostilities 
against the British if he had considered it best to do so. 

"If in the course of your operations against the Indian enemy," 
read his instructions, "it should become necessary to dislodge the 
party [the British garrison], you are hereby authorized in the name 
of the president of the United States to do it." 

Wayne's great victory was hailed with joy wherever the news 
reached the American settlements and cities. "Anthony Wayne," 
says Rufus King, "opened 'the glorious gates of the Ohio' to the 
tide of civilization so long shut off from its hills and valleys." 
Theodore Roosevelt declares that Wayne's "victorious campaign 
was the most noteworthy ever carried on against them [the Indians 
of the northwest] for it brought the first lasting peace on the border 
and put an end to the bloody turmoil of forty years' fighting. It 
was one of the most striking and weighty feats in the winning of 
the west."2» 


(1) Major General Anthony Wayne excelled In American history and for 

was born in East Town, Pennsyl- which he received a medal and the 

vania January 1, 1745. Early in life thanks of congress. By a bayonet 

he became a land surveyor, and as charge, he rescued Lafayette in Vir- 

an intimate friend of Benjamin ginia, made a daring attack on the 

Franklin, he took an active interest whole British army at Green Spring 

In public affairs. After his marriage and defeated the British and Indians 

to Mary Penrose in 1767, he became in Georgia. After the war, he retired 

a farmer. Elected to the Pennsyl- to his farm in Georgia. But the need 

vania convention and legislature in of a great leader against the western 

1774, he served on the committee of Indians brought him forward in 1792, 

safety, and in 1775 raised a regiment at which time he was made a major 

which did service in the campaign in general. His defeat of the savages 

Canada. He was wounded at the bat- at the battle of Fallen Timber and 

tie of Trois Rivieres, in January, the building of Fort Wayne In 1734, 

1776 and held the fortress of Ticon- have given him a name as 'the savior 

deroga and Mount Independence un- of the west." He died December 15. 

til May 1777. After receiving his at Presque Isle (Erie) Pennsylvania, 

commission as brigadier general, he while returning from Detroit, where 

led a division at Brandywlne, com- he had received the surrender of the 

manded the right wing at German- fort from the British, 
town and made a dashing raid on (2) Interest is added to the situa- 

the British lines and carried off a tion by a thorough acquaintance with 

large quantity of supplies. His most the circumstances of /"«, •'l-*f,f""| 

brilliant achievement was the storm- between Wayne and St. Cla r during 

Ing of Stony Point, on the night of the revolution, which culminated In 

July 15 1779, a display of daring un- the appointment of St. Clair to sue- 


ceed Wayne in command of the Penn- 
sylvania line following the battle of 
Monmouth. (See letter of Wayne, 
Stille's "Life of General Wayne," page 
186; Fort Wayne Public Library). 

(3) It was Lee who, in spite of his 
disappointment, retained his high re- 
gard for Washington, and, on the day 
of the funeral of the president uttered 
the words, "First in war, first in 
peace, and first in the hearts of his 

(4) "Washington's Writings," vol. x, 
page 248. 

(6) Quoted in "Historic Highways 
of America," vol. viii, page 173. 

(6) John Randolph Spears, "History 
of the Mississippi Valley," page 351; 
Fort Wayne Public Library. 

(7) In the meantime, every effort 
to secure a peace treaty with the 
savages had been made. Small bands 
had entered into satisfactory agree- 
ments with Major John F. Ham- 
tramck, at Vincennes; about fifty 
chiefs had signed a treaty at Phila- 
delphia, and later General Putnam 
succeeded in closing terms of peace 
with about thirty tribes at Vincennes. 
But at the largest gathering of sav- 
ages in the history of the west — 
during the council at the Maumee 
rapids — the savages rejected all pro- 
posals and their decision was made 
known to General Benjamin Lincoln, 
of Massachusetts, Beverly Randolph, 
of Virginia, and Timothy Pickering, 
of Pennsylvania, commissioners ap- 
pointed by Washington to visit the 
"west. As a climax, the savages re- 
ported to tlie commissioners that "if 
you seriously design to make a firm 
and lasting peace, you will immedi- 
ately remove all your people from 
our side of the [Ohio] river." 

(8) "American Pioneer," vol. i, page 
294. See Slocum's "The Ohio Coun- 
try," page 77. 

(9) Wayne's Report to Knox, July 
7, 1794. 

(10) John Randolph Spears, "His- 
tory of the Mississippi Valley," page 

(11) The parents of Captain Wells 
were pioneers in Kentucky. When 
the boy had reached the age of twelve 
years he was stolen by the Miamis 
and brought to the Maumee region, 
where he became a favorite of Little 
Turtle; later he married a daughter 
of the great chief. In 1792. he learned 
the whereabouts of his people, visited 
them witli reluctance, and Anally 
broke away from his Indian alliance 
and Joined Wayne's army. Previous 
to this move he had informed Little 
Turtle of his intentions and urged 
him to use his influence with the 
other chiefs for a peaceful treaty 
with Wayne. This appeal was favor- 
ably considered by Little Turtle, but, 
as will be seen, his counsel was un- 
heeded, and from tliat moment his 
power as a leader of the Miamis 
waned. Later, because of his great 
services to the government, Wells 
was given a grant of land whicli in- 
cludes those sections of the city of 
Fort Wayne now known as Blooming- 
dale and Spy Run. It was at the 
home of Captain Wells at Fort Wayne 
that Little Turtle died in 1812, and 
in this same year Wells lost his life 
In the Fort Dearborn massacre. The 
west has produced no more interest- 
ing character than Captain William 

Wells, the hero of many a pioneer 
episode. For many interesting side- 
lights on the life and character of 
Wells, the reader is referred to the 
following works and others in the 
Fort Wayne Public Library; "The 
Story of Old Fort Dearborn," by J. 
Seymour Currey; "History of the 
Maumee River Basin," by Dr. Charles 
E. Slocum; "The Winning of the 
West," by Theodore Roosevelt; "An- 
nals of the West," and Dunn's "True 
Indian Stories." 

(13) Quoted in the "Maumee River 
Basin," vol i, page 207. Newman was 
later captured. 

(12) In his daily Journal of the 
expedition, Lieutenant William Clark 
failed not to criticise every notable 
move made by General Wayne, of 
whom he spoke in the most uncompli- 
mentary terms. After finding fault 
with Wayne's refusal to adopt the 
plans suKKested to attack the Indians 
at the Augiaise river, Clark wrote: 
"This evening, as the camp was 
formed, we were alarmed by the dis- 
charge of several guns of volunteers 
who said [they had] seen and wound- 
ed an Indian; but he was not taken. 
Had this alarm been well founded, 
and the enemy on our heels, the old 
gentleman [General Wayne] would 
have been caught asleep, for he had 
already gone to bed to give ease to 
his infirmities, and was so fast in the 
arms of Morpheus as to give some 
trouble to wake him [to an] under- 
standing of the bustle." Concerning 
the battle of Fallen Timber, Clark 
analyzed the result as a piece of luck. 
After the arrival of the army at the 
site of Fort Wayne, he wrote; "I 
rejoice at the bad policy of our enemy. 
We owe for this successful campaign 
of '94, much — but to Fortune we owe 
all." (From a copy of the original, in 
the Burton Historical Collection. De- 

(14) American State Papers, Indian 
Affairs, vol. i, page 361. 

(15) See Slocum's "The Ohio Coun- 
try," page 109. 

(16) Losslng's "Pictorial Fieldbook 
of the War of 1812," page 54. Harri- 
son served as Wayne's aide-de-camp 
during the entire campaign, and was 
a signer of the Greenville treaty. 

(17) The savages gave several de- 
scriptive names to Wayne, including 
"The Wind," and "The Blacksnake." 
Major Hamtramck, in a letter to 
Wayne in 1795, says: "I asked them 
for an explanation of your name 
("The Wind"). They fold me you were 
exactly like a hurricane which drives 
and tears everything before it." The 
name "Dandy" Wayne was often used 
by his soldiers because of the style 
and neatness of his dress. 

(18) That the savages were playing 
for time is proven by a letter of Col- 
onel McKee to Colonel English. "The 
Indians • • » have returned an 
answer to General Wayne's speech." 
said he. "It is entirely calculated to 
gain a few days' time in hope that 
the Putiwatimies and Indians about 
Detroit may increase their strength." 
(Michigan Pioneer and Historical Col- 

(19) That the troops confidently ex- 
pected to be called upon to attack 
the British fort is shown by the fol- 
lowing record in the Journal of Lieu- 
tenant William Clark; "Remained In 




camp the whole day. all full with 
expectation and anxiety of storming 
of the British garrison, which was all 
that remained for us to do, for the 
savages were no more to be found. 
* * * His Excellency [General 

Wayne] declared if he had ten days' 
provisions he would assail it." 
(Michigan Pioneer and Historical Col- 

(20) Major Campbell's real state of 
mind is revealed by a note which he 
dispatched to Colonel English, In 
command at Detroit, directly after 
the first passage of notes between 
himself and Wayne. "I sincerely wish 
the governor [Simcoe] himself may 
soon arrive and take all responsi- 
bility upon him," he wrote. "I trust 
a reinforcement from you is not far 
off at present. • • • I have per- 
haps been more forebearing [toward 
Wayne] than an officer of higher 
rank would have been, but I con- 
sidered my situation a very delicate 
one, and if I have erred, it has been 
on the safe side. What Mr. Wayne's 
people mean by burning all the In- 
dian huts In the neighborhood and all 
the hay on Colonel McKee's Island to- 
day I cannot say. He reconnoitered 
the fort today in all parts • • • 
but he will never do it again." (Mich- 
igan Pioneer and Historical (Collec- 

(21) "If Wayne be permitted to 
establish himself at Detroit, it may 
occasion the loss of both Canadas," 
wrote Governor Simcoe to Lord Dor- 
chester. The latter asked the gov- 
ernor as to whether "by calling all 
the force in your power to assem- 
ble, you would be In condition to re- 
sist Wayne's attack, should he at- 
tempt by force to take possession of 
the country," to which Simcoe replied: 
"I think no force in this country 
could resist Wayne's direct attack." 
Simcoe believed at this time that 
Wayne would return and accomplish 
the destruction of the British forts 
on the Maumee and at Detroit. Dor- 
chester In a letter to Simcoe says: "I 
believe there are few Instances of an 
Invading army being suffered to pene- 
trate so far as General Wayne has 
done without some check, or to re- 
treat without being pursued." (Mich- 
igan Pioneer and Historical Collec- 

(22) McKee, reporting the loss of 
his property, in a letter to Joseph 
Chew, at Montreal, secretary of In- 
dian affairs, September 20, 1794, said: 
"All the store houses, my own house, 
with many things that could not be 
removed, were burnt. • « • At 
present, I am waiting until the In- 
dians, whose cornfields and villages 
are totally destroyed, shall determine 
where they and their families will set 
themselves down, it being a matter 
of the highest importance to the in- 
terest of Great Britain to prevent, if 
possible, their emigrating to the 
southern and western parts of the 
continent. They seemingly now have 
lost all hopes of the interference of 
[the British] government." In the 
bitterness of his situation, McKee de- 
clared the American losses at the 
battle of Fallen Timber to have been 
between 300 and 400, with but 19 sav- 
ages killed. He added the falsehood 
that "besides scalping and mutilating 
the Indians, who were killed in the 
action, they have opened the peaceful 
graves, exposed the bones of the con- 
sumed and consuming bodies, and, 
horrid to relate, have, with unparal- 
leled barbarity, driven stakes through 
them and left them, objects calling 
for more than human vengeance." 
(Michigan Pioneer and Historical Col- 

(23) Wayne's victory cost many De- 
troit citizens vast fortunes through 
the loss of property which had been 
ceded to them by the Indians on 
American soil. As an example, there 
is cited the instance of a letter writ- 
ten by Alexander Henry, at Montreal, 
addressed to John Askln, John Askin, 
Jr., P. McNeiff, John Askwlth and 
Israel Rowland, at Detroit, in October, 
1795. after the signing of the treaty 
of Greenville, which tells of the 
writer's visit to Alexander Hamil- 
ton, secretary of the treasury in 
Washington's cabinet, to plead for 
the restoration to his clients valuable 
lands which were being withheld from 
them. Hamilton sustained Wayne's 
decision that the lands belonged to 
the United States. "We have lost a 
fortune of at least one million dol- 
lars," said Henry in his letter. (From 
the original letter in the Askln 
Papers, Burton Historical Collection, 


The Building and Dedication of Fort Wayne. 

Wayne's Legion departs from the vicinity of the British fort — Incidents of 
the march to Fort Defiance — Illness of the troops — The final lap to the 
goal of their hopes — The army reaches the site of Fort Wayne — How the 
prospect impressed the soldiers — Wayne selects a location for the 
fort — Work on the buildings and the palisades is commenced — The 
"strike" of the volunteers — Wayne urges haste to avoid the coming cold 
— Courtmartial of offenders — Corporal Reading condemned to death — The 
spy in the tree-top — Unruly soldiers steal beef — Wayne well pleased with 
the fort — An account of the dedication — Colonel Hamtramck names the post 
"Fort Wayne" — Hamtramck is given command of the post — Destitute 
condition of the troops — Wayne's "shoe" order — Departs for Greenville — 
His letter to General Knox. 

THE FIRST great object of "Wayne's expedition — the defeat 
of the savages — was accomplished. The second — the establish- 
ment of Washington's long-dreamed-of fort at the head of 
the Maumee— was now to become a reality. The third — the 
winning of the various tribes of the Indians to a treaty of lasting 
peace — was reserved for the followdng year. 

Waving a farewell to the British garrison of Post Miami, the 
troops composing Wayne's legion departed from the scene of their 
triumph and looked to the westward as they took up the march 
toward the goal of their hopes, the place where the city of Fort 
Wayne now stands. 

The features of the progress of the triumphant army and an 
appreciation of the character of the men composing it are best gained 
from the narrative of one of the officers. Lieutenant Boyer, who 
made a record of the movement of the army from the time of its 
departure from Fort Greenville until its return to that post. Boyer 's 
Journal appeared in The American Pioneer, Vol. I, edited and 
published by John S. Williams (1842 and 1843). 

On the 15th of August the army reached the site of the present 
Napoleon, Ohio, where one savage was killed and two others 
wounded while attempting an attack upon the rear of the army. 
Many buildings and vast acreages of corn were destroyed by the 
troops as they continued their march toward Fort Defiance. Dr. 
Carmichael and Dr. Haywood were busy caring for the sick and 
wounded. Constant rain for several days made the progress of the 
army slow aud tedious. Settling themselves for a period at Fort 
Defiance, Brigadier General Todd's brigade served as escort to a 
large number of pack horses sent to Fort Recovery to secure sup- 
plies for the troops. Three men of the camp were killed or captured 
while foraging for vegetables. Large numbers of the soldiers were 
taken ill. "Provision is nearly exhausted," wrote Boyer in Sep- 
tember 4. "The whiskey has been out for some time, which makes 
the hours pass heavily. * * * Hard duty and scant allowance 





will cause an army to be low spirited, particularly the want of a 
little 'wet.' " 

On the 14th of September, the army took its departure from 
Fort Defiance, and followed the north bank of the Maumee a dis- 
tance of eleven miles. The following day found the troops camp- 

From the mo.=it reliable sources of information it appears certain that the 
original stocltade erected by General Wayne's troops in September and October, 
1794, occupied a site which Included a portion of lots 11, 12 and 13, Taber s 
addition to Fort Wayne, and that the new fort, erected in 1800 by Colonel 
Thomas Hunt and rebuilt by Majors Whistler and Vose. included lot 40 — the 
present Old Fort Park. (See Chapter XIX). 


ing on the river nearly opposite the present city of Antwerp, Ohio. 
The next evening brought the legion of W.ajme within the borders 
of the Allen county of today, and that night the army encamped 
near the east line of Milan township. 


Prom Private Bryant comes the story of the arrival of the 
legion upon the spot chosen by Washington as the site of the fort, 
the establishment of which was to mark the end of the Indian out- 
rages in the west. Says Bryant : 

"The road, or trace, was in a very bad condition, and we did 
not reach our point of destination until late in the evening. Being 
very tired, and having no night duty to perform, I turned in as soon 
as possible and slept soundly until the familiar tap of the reveille 
called us up, just as the bright sun, the first time for weeks, was 
breaking ou the horizon. After rubbing my eyes and regaining my 
faculties sufficiently to realize my whereabouts, I think I never saw 
a more beautiful spot and such a glorious sunrise. I was standing 
on that high point of land overlooking the valley on the opposite 
shore of the Maumee, where the river St. Mary's, the sheen of whose 
waters were seen at intervals through the autumn-tinted trees, and 
the limpid St. Joseph quietly wending its way from the north, united 
themselves in one common stream that calmly flowed beneath." 

Less sentimental are the observations of Lieutenant Boyer, who 
thus describes his first impression of the site of Fort Wayne : 

"The army halted on this groiuid at 5 o'clock P. M., being 47 
miles from Fort Defiance and 14 miles from our last encampment. 
There are nearly five hundred acres of cleared land lying in one 
body on the rivers St. Joseph, St. Mary's and Miami [Maumee] ; 
there are fine points of lands contiguous to these rivers, adjoining 
the cleared land. The rivers are navigable for small craft in the 
summer, and in the winter there is water sufficient for large boats, 
the land adjacent fertile and well-timbered, and from every appear- 
ance it has been one of the largest settlements made by the Indians 
in this country." 

Upon this ground the troops went into camp. 

"This day," writes Boyer on September 18, "the commander- 
in-chief reconnoitered the ground and determined upon the spot to 
build a fort." The chosen spot appears to have been a tract of 
ground represented today by lots 11, 12 and 13 Taber's addition. 
Lot 11 is the location of the new building of the Western Newspaper 
Union, at the northwest corner of East Berry and Clay streets. Cer- 
tain it is that the fort which succeeded the original structure occu- 
pied a site to the north of it and probably within a distance of three 
hundred feet, measuring the shortest space between the lines. 

Private Bryant, speaking of the location of his camp on the 
morning of September 17, adds: "On this point it was decided to 
place the fort, as it overlooked and commanded a vast scope of the 
country round about, having a beautiful green sward of about ten 
acres in extent, with a background of heavy timber." 

Concerning the activities of General Wayne, as soon as the site 
of the fort was determined upon, Lieutenant William Clark, in his 
journal, wrote on September 14: 




"The ground [has been] cleared for the garrison just below the 
confluence of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's. The situation is toler- 
ably elevated and has a ready command of the two rivers. I think 
it much to be lamented that the commander-in-chief is determined 


Probably the most Interesting and valuable Item in the exhibit of historic 
mementos in the relic room of the Allen county court house, Is the camp bed 
used by General Wayne during his western campaign. The bed, which is made of 
walnut and hinged in such manner as to permit It to be folded and placed in' 
a small box, has an Interesting history. After his Revolutionary war service, 
Wayne, who had used the bed during his campaigns, took it to his farm home 
near Waynesboro. In 1792, he brought it on his western expedition and used It 
until the time of his departure from Greenville where the famous treaty was 
effected. He then gave the bed to Major Ambrose Whitlock, who had served 
through Wayne's western campaign and had assisted in the building of the/ 
fort. After the death of Major Whitlock at Crawfordsville, Indiana, in 1S63, the 
bed remained in the home until some time after the death of the widow, 
Elizabeth Whitlock, when it came into the possession of the nephew of the 
widow, James W. Binford. then living at Paris, Illinois. In 1890, Mr. Binford 
removed with his daughters to Washington. D. C. Two years later, Mrs. Amy 
R. Seavey, of Fort Wayne, while in Washington, learned of the relic and 
visited the Binfords. This resulted in the loan of the bed to the local Sons of 
the American Revolution for exhibition purposes during the centennial cele- 
bration In Fort Wayne, in 1895. Again, in 1902, through the efforts of the mem-' 
bers of the Marv Penrose Wayne chapter of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution, the daughters of the late James W. Binford loaned the relic, with 
the understanding that It should remain on exhibition in Fort Wayne until 
such time as a proper place could be made for it in the National Museum In 
Washington. It Is considered a permanent feature of the Fort Wayne his- 
torical exhibit 


to make this fort a regular fortification, as a common picketed one 
would [be] equally as difficult against the savages." 

The actual work of construction, according to Boyer, was begun 
on September 2-4. The manner of the progress of the work is sug- 
gested by the words of BjTant and Boyer. The former observes: 
"We, the volunteers, were soon organized into squads, some with 
axes and others with spades, the axe-men to fell and hew the timber, 
and the spade men to dig the trench and fiU the parapet. We axe- 
men proceeded up the hill to cut the heavy timber standing in 

Boyer saj's: "This day the work commenced on the fort which 
I am apprehensive will take some time to complete." On October 3 
"every officer, non-commissioned officer and soldier belonging to 
the square" was engaged in "hauling trees on the hind wheels of 
wagons." The first day, the men got a gill of whiskey per man, 
which, Boyer observes, "appears to be all the compensation at this 
time in the power of the commander-in-chief to make the troops." 

An interesting incident of the building of Fort Wayne is related 
by Private Bryant : 

"It was on the morning of the first day we were at work felling 
the timber. • A squad near where I was at work were engaged in 
felling a very large and very taU oak standing near the outer edge 
of the opening, which had "been cut nearly through and tottering 
in mid-air, when a voice was heard overhead which somewhat 
startled the men at first; but on looking up, they beheld a 'red 
varmint' perched in the topmost branches. This fellow, no doubt, 
after finding he was caught, had made up his mind that it was 
death anyway, and concluded to take his chances and go with the 
tree. But as it began to tremble and shake, he got shaky himself, 
and, like Captain Scott's 'coon, had to come down and that in a 
hurry. The boys, as they watched him scramble down, ached to get 
a shot at him, but they dared not. He was a large, fine-looking 
Indian. In the belt around his naked waist was a knife and a toma- 
hawk. He appeared perfectly undaunted; in fact, assumed an air 
of defiance, and, when marched oS to headquarters, seemed well 
pleased that he had escaped being killed by the falling tree or the 
bullets of the soldiers. He was evidently a spy and had climbed 
to the top of the tree to see what was going on in camp, little dream- 
ing that his adventure would result as it did. When the tree fell, a 
buckskin pouch was found filled with parched corn and jerked 
venison. He was held a prisoner for some weeks, and one morning 
it was announced that he was non est. How he escaped was a 
mystery that was never solved." 

That the labor was hard during the severest of the cold weather 
is shown by Lieutenant Boyer 's observation, on October 4, that 
"the fatigues go on with velocity, considering the rations the troops 
are obliged to live on." The following day, Boyer writes that 
everything is quiet, "and nothing bi;t harmony and peace, which 
is something uncommon." But trouble was soon to break in camp. 
Two days later, the volunteers, engaged in work on the fort, went 
on "strike" and refused to proceed Avith their labor. "They have 
stolen and killed seventeen beeves in the course of these two days 




past," observes the lieutenant, who adds that the volunteers finally 
agreed to devote their energies to the construction of a blockhouse. 
Religious services in camp vrere conducted by the chaplain, 
Rev. Mr. Jones, who appears to have been the first Protestant 
minister to visit the site of Fort Wayne. Lieutenant William Clark's 
references to the work of the chaplain are not always of the most 
complimentary character. Writing under the date of Sunday, Sep- 
tember 28, the lieutenant observes: "Agreeable to the order yes- 


As far as the writer has been able to learn, the original daguerreotype from 
which the above pen drawing was made is the only existing photographic pic- 
ture of any of the buildings which formed a part of old Fort Wayne. The 
daguerreotype Is owned by Mrs. Adam Link, of Fort Wayne, who says of It: 

"The picture was made by Charles Stevens, of Kennebunk Port, Maine, who 
was here as the guest of his cousin. Mrs. O. L. Starkey, my mother, who was 
then Miss Hannah Fairfield. On the day the picture was made, 'Charley' Mun- 
Bon (later prominent in the affairs of the county, but then a mere lad) was 
driving his cow to the pasture In 'the old apple orchard," in the present Lake- 
Bide. My mother and several others joined him for a walk. When they reached 
the ruined blockhouse, Mr. Stevens made the picture. The man at the top Is 
John Fairfield, my uncle. The others, from left to right, are Amanda Hender- 
son (Mrs. Bloomhuff) Addle Fairfield (Mrs. H. .T. Ash). Priscilla Fairfield (Mrs. 
A. S. Hall), Hannah Fairfield (Mrs. O. L. Starkey), and 'Charley' Munson." 

Miss Lizzie Johnson Says: "I am certain this building was torn down in 
1852. On returning from a vacation in the summer of that year, we found 
everybody saying: 'They've torn down the old fort.' " 

B. G. Anderson says of this building: "When we children came to Fort 
Wayne In 1846, with my father, Calvin Anderson, first landlord of the Hedekin 
house, this log building was still in good repair and was occupied by two Irish 
families. The Carroll family and Mr. Donovon, with his children. Tim, Mich 
and Ellen, were the last to make their homes In the historic structure. The 
building faced the east, overlooking the Maumee." 

John H. Jacobs, of Spy Run avenue, also remembers this building well, as It 
was standing when he came to Fort Wayne. At the present time, there Is a 
general feeling of deep regret that the fort was allowed to go into decay. 
The older residents explain the matter by the statement that the course of 
the Wabash and Erie canal required the destruction of one of the blockhouses 
and a palisade section, and that In the later years the ruined, dilapidated build- 
ings became the rendezvous of undesirable citizens. The last building, shown 
in the Illustration, was torn down by John Fairfield In 1852. Some of the wood 
was made into walking sticks which are preserved as relics. 


terday, the [troops] were marched in order between the fort and 
the blockhouse, and there received a short sermon by our chaplain. 
The sublimity of his reasoning did not penetrate deep into the minds 
of our troops, as it wanted some connections." That the lieutenant, 
whose keen observation brought him prominently to the attention of 
the nation as a leader of the Lewis and Clark expedition of later 
years, was not wholly oblivious to the efforts of the chaplain, is 
shovm by his quotation of the minister's text of Sunday, September 
21: "If the Lord be for us, who can be against us?" This is 
probably the first recorded word of scripture spoken on the site 
of Fort "Wayne. 

During these days, many problems appeared to worry General 
Wayne. Provisions were scarce, and prices high. "Brown sugar, 
one dollar; chocolate, one ditto; butter, three-fourths; mutton, one- 
fourth ; salt, one dollar per quart ; tobacco, one doUar per pound ; 
whiskey, six and eight dollars per quart," wrote Lieutenant Clark, 
while Lieutenant Boyer makes this observation : "A keg of whiskey 
containing ten gallons was purchased this day for eighty dollars; 
al sheep for ten dollars. Three dollars was offered for one pint of 
salt, but it could not be obtained for less than six." 

Captains Springer, Brock and Gibson made successful trips to 
Greenville to secure food and supplies, but it was found impossible 
to meet the needs of the army. Wayne urged every possible element 
of co-operation and loyalty, from the beginning, in order to complete 
the fort before cold weather should add to the heaviness of the 
undertaking. Said he, in the orders of October 2: 

"The lateness of the Season and a Variety of other Pressing 
Circumstances, render it indispensibly Necessary that every Officer 
& Soldier not actually on Guard or other Duty, should turn out as a 
General Fatigue in order to complete the Fortification with all 
possible dispatch — Mr. Thorp will cause Guiding Poles to be put to 
the hind wheels of all Waggons in Camp this Afternoon, and repair 
all Axes and intrenching tools that may require repairs immediately 
— Every Man on fatigvie is to receive one Gill of Whiskey per Day 
until further Orders."' 

That the conduct of the volunteers was a source of deep concern 
to Wayne appears in Boyer 's narrative of the 1st and 2d of October. 
He writes : 

"The volunteers appeared to be uneasy and have refused to do 
duty. They are ordered by the commander-in-chief to march to- 
morrow for Greenville to assist the pack-horses, which I am told 
they are determined not to do. * * * This morning, the volun- 
teers refused to go on command, and demanded of General Scott to 
conduct them home ; he ordered them to start with General Barber, 
and if they made the smallest delay they would lose all their pay 
and be reported to the war office as revolters. This had the desired 
effect, and they went off not in good humor." 


Trouble between the men was the occasion of several trials by 
courtmartial, while the fort was building. During the first week, 
Wayne, annoyed by the practice of the men discharging their fire- 
arms in the neighborhood of the fort, issued this forceful order : 


"Any Non Commission 'd Officer or Soldier, or follower of the 
Army who shall be Detected in fireing in the Vicinity and hearing 
of the Camp • • • (unless at an Enemy) shall immediately 
receive 50 Lashes for a breach of the Order — Should any Com- 
mission 'd Officer be so lost to Discipline as to Violate the Same, he 
shall he immediately arrested and tried for giveing a false alarm." 

The lawlessness of the troops is revealed also in Wayne's order 
of October 25, after the fort had been dedicated : 

"The alarming and Villainous excess to which Marauding, 
Plundering and Stealing have been recently carried on by the un- 

y~^£y^ — 

C^^^^^^^^ ^;:2^-^^^ ^/C,^^ ^yi^^^'^ 

Two years and nine months before Wayne built his fort at the head of 
the Maumee Major John Francis Hamtramck was assigned to the charge of 
affairs at Vlncennes. The above fragment of a letter from Hamtramck was 
addressed to Secretary of War Henry Knox. The original letter is in the war 
department at Washington. 

principled part of the Soldiery belonging to the Legion, is such as to 
require the most exemplary Punishment — The Commander in Chief 
therefore offers a Reward of Twenty-five Dollars to any Person or 
Persons who will discover the Principal or Principals concerned in 
killing any of the Cattle or Sheep belonging to the Publick, or to the 
Contractor (without proper Authority)." 

Matters finally reached such a state that Wajme was compelled 
to acquiesce in the death sentence pronounced by the judges who 
presided over the courtmartial of a commissioned officer. Already 
Captain Joseph Brock had been tried on charges preferred by 
Captain Benham; Cornet Blue, accused by Ensign Johnson, came 
before the court; Robert Bowles, arrested for misconduct, made a 
public apology to Contractor Sloan; James Murrow, master ar- 
mourer, was sentenced to receive fifty lashes as a result of convic- 
tion on charges brought by Captain Brock, and was obliged to ask 
the pardon of Brock and Sergeant Porter; Private Charles Hyde 
was acquitted of charges preferred by Major Hughes; Private 



Michael Burns received one hundred lashes for insulting Sergeant 
Reed, and Private David Johnson was given seventy-five lashes for 
helping to steal a cow. 

But the most severe blow fell upon Corporal James Reading. 
With Privates John Pay Miller, John Hassell and Elivine CroweU, 
he was convicted of complicity in the theft of a cow. Miller, HasseU 
and Crowell were each given a heavy fine and one hundred lashes, 
while Reading was condemned by Wayne to be "hanged by the 
neck until dead" — and thus he became the first man to receive a 
legal death sentence at Port Wayne. This sentence was executed at 
Greenville on Sunday morning, November 30, 1794, "in front of the 
Legion, ' ' at which time John Keating also suffered the death penalty 
by shooting. 

During September, the troops engaged in constructing a "sloop" 
or "bateau," designed for use in transporting goods between Port 
Wayne and Fort Defiance, over the Maumee. ' ' The Ottaway sloop, 
loaded and set out this evening for Defiance," wrote Lieutenant 
Clark in his journal, on the 8th of October. "She had not proceeded 


The wrought iron andirons, evidently 
the product of crude workmanship of the 
old fort blacksmith of an early day, are 
owned by the Baird brothers, of Eel 
River township, Allen county. They 
were found by Michael Horn during 
some work of excavation on the old fort 
site and given by his son Michael to 
Robert B. Balrd. 

The shaded portion of the map shows 
the area of the original Wayne county ot 
the Northwest territory. 

one mile before she ran on a rock and capsized, losing a greater 
part of her load. She was again righted and proceeded on." An- 
other boat of the flat-bottom style was launched on the Maumee 
October 17. 

Meanwhile, the work on the fort was pushed with all possible 
speed. Wayne spent some of his time in inspecting the neighbor- 
hood. That he was interested in ascertaining the location of the old 
French forts — now long since gone — is suggested by his speech made 
to Little Turtle and his allies at Greenville in the following year, 
in which he told of "tracing the lines of two forts at that point." 

Wayne appears to have been well pleased with the new fort. In 
a letter of September 27, addressed to Secretary Knox, he said: 
"I have been induced td bestow much labor upon two forts [Fort 



Defiance and Fort Wayne] of which the enclosed are draughts." 
He added : "I am free to pronounce them the most respectable now 
in the occupancy of the United States even in their present situa- 
tion, which is not quite perfect as yet." 


Finally came the momentous 22d of October, the day of the 
dedication of Fort "Wayne, on the fourth anniversary of the battle 
at Harmar's Ford. The buildings were not yet finished, although, 
says Boyer, "all of the soldiers' huts are completed, except covering, 
and the weather is favorable for that work." 

From Private Bryant, already quoted, comes an account of the 
dedicatory ceremony. Says he : 

"The day the fortification was completed, a beautiful flagstaff 
was erected which we got into position as the sun was declining 
beneath the golden horizon. Colonel Hamtramck then formed the 
entire forces of the garrison into line, and, while the drums and 
fifes struck up our favorite tune, a tune that had inspired the soldiers 
on many a hard-fought battle of the Revolution — 

The white cockade and the peacock feather, 
The jVmerican boys will live forever; 
The drums shall beat and the fife shall play 
Over the hills and far away, 

General "Wayne and staff rode up to the center of the line, taking a 
position at the foot of the flagstaff. He made us a speech in which 
he highly complimented the volunteers with whom he was soon to 
part, and thanked us for the valuable services rendered our country 
on the battlefields, and in the erection of this fortification. He then 
ordered the flag to be run up, and, as its broad stripes and stars 
floated in the twilight breeze, and for the first time over the strong- 
hold of our enemies, we made the welkin ring with loud and pro- 
longed cheers, which were succeeded by the deafening roar of 
cannon that aroused old Echo from his age of slumber. The fort 
was then, by Colonel Hamtramck, named "Wayne, after our noble 
commander-in-chief. That night we got something to wet our 
throats which, on account of our great cheering, had become very 

The question as to whether the memory of Bryant was faulty 
or some other disturbing element enters into his description of the 
event is raised by a reading of the records of the dedication as left 
by Lieutenants Boyer and "William Clark, in their respective jour- 
nals, and the preliminary announcement of the plans as given in 
"Wayne's orderly book. 

"Wayne, on the day preceding the dedication, announced that the 
ceremony would take place at 7 o'clock on the morning of October 
22. Boyer says, under the latter date: "This morning at 7 o'clock 
• * • after firing fifteen rounds of cannon. Colonel Hamtramck 
gave it the name of Fort "Wayne." Lieutenant Clark records that 
the event took place at 8 o'clock in the morning and that "Colonel 
Hamtramck took charge of the fort, after naming it after His 
Excellency, firing fifteen rounds and giving three cheers. ' ' 



It appears certain, thei-efore, that the ceremony took place near 
the hour of 7 or 8 o'clock in the morning rather than during the 
hour when the flag floated "in the twilight breeze." Possibly, 
however, Private Bryant has been misquoted. 

The ceremony of dedication was concluded with the formal 
placing of the command in the hands of Major (later Colonel) 
John Francis Hamtramck, a man of high character and military 
power — a leader whose followers confided in him during life, and 
upon whose death these fellow-soldiers engraved upon his tombstone 
one of the most remarkable tributes ever paid to a military leader. 

Colonel Hamtramck had served with honor in the Revolution. 
At the time General Josiah Harmar was dispatched to the region 


The upper picture is that of an ax, 
carried on General Wayne's western 
expedition. The lower sketch shows a 
piece of the casket in which the general 
was first buried at Erie, Pa. Both are 
to be seen in the relic room of the 
court house. 


The original design, in the posses- 
sion of Hon. William Wayne, of Paoll, 
Chester county, Pennsylvania, was 
loaned to the owners of the Anthony 
Hotel in Fort Wayne to guide them In 
the use of the design in many forms 
about the modern hostelry. 

of the lower Ohio, to succeed George Rogers Clark, whose later 
conduct displeased the Virginia authorities, Hamtramck became an 
active participant in his campaigns. In the region of Vincennes he 
had been attacked by a body of savages, in 1787. He built Port 
Knox (on the Wabash above Vincennes). It was he who sent Antoine 
Gamelin on his mission of peace to the savages in 1798, and carried 
an expedition the Indians of the lower Wabash. Following 
the St. Clair campaign, he was active in attempts to secure peace 
treaties with the Indians, and then served with credit under Wayne. 

Under his command at Port Wayne came the companies of 
Captains Kingsbury, Greaton, Spark, Reed and Preston, and the 
artillery company of Captain Porter. 

The destitute condition of the troops on the day of the dedica- 
tion is brought forcibly to mind in Wayne 's order concerning shoes 
issued to the troops on the following day and just preceding the 
march to Greenville. The order reads: "A return for Shoes Actu- 
ally Wanted in the respective Sub Legions, under Marching orders 

1794 rpjjg BUILDING OF FORT WAYNE 149 

is to be made this Afternoon at 5 'Clock, by the Pay Masters. 
• • • The number on hand being small, none but those that are 
Actually barefoot can be supplied at present." 

General Wayne and the main portion of the army marched 
away from Fort Wayne on the 28th of October, and reached their 
former camping place at Greenville after an absence from the spot 
of ninety-three days. Wayne immediately reported conditions to 
Secretary Knox and added that "all this labor, and expense of blood 
and treasure will be rendered abortive and of none effect, unless 
speedy and efficient measures are adopted by the national legislature 
to raise troops to garrison these posts. "^ 

Here Wayne waited for the chiefs of the scattered tribes to 
come and accept the terms of peace which Washington authorized 
him to offer them.^ 


(1) Brigadier General Philip Reade. To Joseph Chew, at Montreal, secretary 
U. S. A., retired, who has written the of Indian affairs, he reported October 
biographies of three hundred and nine- 22 — the day on whicli Fort Wayne was 
teen officers of Wayne's Legion, states dedicated — writing from Niagara; "I 
that between the years 1792 and i797, am just returned from the Miamls 
eight of Wayne's officers were mur- [.Maumee] and Detroit, and am sorry 
dered by hostile Indians, four were to say that the Indians in that quarter 
killed in duels, thirteen were dismissed are much in confusion, owing to their 
or cashiered, sixteen died In service, late bad success and in bad temper by 
two committed suicide, and flfty-two not receiving any assistance from the 
resigned; total, one hundred. English. I really believe if I had not 

(2) Captain Joseph Brandt, the groat gone up, most of them would have 
Indian chieftain of the east, hastened dispersed and gone to the Mississippi." 
to the west directly after Wayne's vie- (Michigan Pioneer and Historical Col- 
tory to attempt to assist the savages lection.) 

In deciding upon their future course. 

CHAPTER XV— 1794-1805. 
The Fort in the Wilderness. 

Colonel Hamtramck and the incorrigible troops at Fort Wayne — The chiefs 
sue for peace — A winter of suffering — Wayne prepares for the treaty 
council — Little Turtle pleads tor the retention of the site of Fort Wayne 
and the Maumee-Wabash portage — Wayne's diplomatic refusal — The 
treaty signed — Wayne's departure — Visits the president — Sent to Detroit 
— His death— Starving Indians at Fort Wayne — Hamtramck goes to De- 
troit — Major Thomas Pasteur — Colonel Hunt commands Fort Wayne — 
Birth of John Elliott Hunt — Marriage of Miss Ruthie Hunt and Dr. Abra- 
ham Edwards — Colonel Hunt transferred to Detroit — Major Henry Bur- 
beck, Major Zebulon Pike and Captain John Whipple in command of Fort 
Wayne — Treaty of 1803 — Governor Harrison resents the activities of 
Captain William Wells— Would remove Wells from the Indian service — 
Colonel John Johnston, Indian agent— Little Turtle and Wells visit eastern 
cities— Quakers come to teach the Indians the art of agriculture — Fort 
Dearborn established by Major John Whistler. 

COLONEL HA^ITRAMCTv, on assuming command of Fort 
Wayne, appears to have "had his hands full." On Decem- 
ber 5, 1794, he wrote to General Wayne at Greenville a sug- 
gestion of his troubles. Said he : 

" It is with a great degree of mortification that I am obliged to 
inform your excellency of the great propensity many of the soldiers 
have for larceny. I have flogged them until I am tired. The eco- 
nomic allowances of one hundred lashes allowed by government, 
does not appear a sufficient inducement for a rascal to play the part 
of an honest man. I have now a number in confinement and in irons 
for having stolen four quarters of beef on the night of the 3d 
instant. I could wish them to be tried by a general courtmartial, in 
order to make an example of some of them. I shall keep them 
confined until the pleasure of your excellency is known." 

As late as the middle of March, 1795, the troubles continued. "I 
had very great hopes that the man who deserted when on his post 
would have been made an example of," he wrote, on St. Patrick's 
day, "but weakness too often appears in the shape of leniety, for 
he was only sentenced to receive one hundred lashes, to be branded, 
and drummed out. This man, from liis past conduct, was perfectly 
entitled to the gallows." 

However, many other encouraging reports passed from Ham- 
tramck to Wayne during these months of waiting for the chiefs to 
assemble at Greenville. Nearly all of these leaders of the tribes 
came first to Port Wayne to interview the commandant. Extracts 
from Hamtramck 's letters deal with many whose names have already 
appeared in our narrative and who figure prominently in the follow- 
ing chapters. Referring to the visits of leading chiefs of the Chip- 
pewas, Ottawas, Sacs, Shawnees and Miamis, he said: "I have 
shown them the necessity of withdrawing themselves from the head- 
quarters of corruption [the British post at Detroit] and invited them 





to come and take possession of their former habitation, which they 
have promised to do." Riehardville, he reported, had decided to 
establish a village on the Salamonie river and would "open the 
navigation of the Wabash to the flag of the United States." 

LeGris, who, as we have seen, was the village chief of Miami 
Town, in the Spy Run district of the present city of Fort Wayne, 
was one of the last to respond to the general invitation to the savages 
to meet the commandant. "LeGris, the village chief of the Miami 
nation, and one of the commanding trumps in McKee's game, has 
at last come in," wrote Hamtramck on March 27, 1795. "He stood 
out for a long time, but • * • with [Autoine] Lasselle, he has 
surrendered and I believe fully converted. * • • jje was f'^ur 
days with me, during which time I had an opportunity of exam -^ng 
him with great attention. He is a sensible old fellow, and no ways 


The drawings of buttons found on the site of the old stockade of Fort Wayne 
by those who became tenants of the buildings were made from originals owned 
by L. W. Hills and R. B. Rossington, of Fort Wayne, and by R. S. Robertson, 
Jr., of Paducah, Kentucky, to whom a large collection of specimens was given by 
his father, the late Colonel R. S. Robertson. The three collections contain 
buttons worn by soldiers of the First, Second, Third, Fifth, Sixth, Eighth. Ninth, 
Tenth, Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fifteenth regiments of infantry, and a rifle 
regiment. "Those who wore them," wrote Colonel Robertson, "have long since 
departed, leaving no other record of the pioneer heroes who opened, and held 
open, the 'glorious gateway of the west' till the army of civilization could enter 
and take possession and reap the fruits of their heroic daring." 


ignorant of the cause of the war, for which he blames the Americans, 
saying that they were too extravagant in their demands in their 
first treaties." 


The winter of 1794 and 1795 was a time of intense suffering 
among the Indians remaining in the Maumee valley because of the 
utter destruction of the crops by the invading American army and 
the failure of the British to meet the situation. This condition con- 
tributed greatly to the decision of the chiefs to answer the call of 
Wayne to meet him at Greenville to enter upon terms of peace. In 
preparation for the coming of the heads of the tribes, Wayne cleared 
a large space of ground and supplied a vast amount of clothing and 
other supplies for the savages to meet their physical wants and 
impress them with the government's kindly intentions. In small 
bands, the Indians began to assemble early in June, 1795, and the 
genei'al council was opened on the 16th. Many of the chiefs, how- 

"^/^"^^ '^"^^^^ '^"^"'^^i z^^,.-— <»^Xa^*— , A ci a^.,,^^; CK, 

LM- erf '^ /Ui£^, <>tr^7-ht-^'£'y^ -&i-fi: c^ ~2S6 '''«-'^*« ^«-<^^ 
^ 2..v*^ -Tv...^ t-^^ ^*'^^^-' 7¥uL^ cr^<^. odu^ CUi..^ l<r^^ljU 

The manuscript from which the above fac simile is a portion was written 
bv Lemuel G. Olmstead, of Fort Edward, New Yorlt, to J. A. Rice, of Chicago, 
father of Wallace Rice, author of the book of the Fort Wayne Pageant of 1916. 
Wallace Rice presented the manuscript to the Mary Penrose Wayne chapter of 
the D. A. R. The manuscript describes Mr. Olmstead's visit to Wayne's old 
home in Pennsylvania and tells of the circum.stances of the placing of portions 
of the remains of General Wayne in two widely separated graves. 


ever, were tardy in arriving ; these latter included Little Turtle and 
LeGris, who, with seventeen other Miamis, did not reach Greenville 
until June 23. The presence of Little Turtle brought face to face 
two great diplomatists — this keen thinker of the savages and General 
Wayne — each contending for every point in the debate which should 
give his people a superior advantage. 

The conference did not close until August 7, the prolongation 
resulting from the interposition of obstacles by Little Turtle, whose 
main contention was for the possession of the plot of ground at the 
confluence of the St. Mary's and the St. Joseph rivers, where Port 
Wayne stands, "that glorious gate through which all the words of 
our chiefs had to pass, from the north to the south and from the 
east to the west." 

For one other thing did Little Turtle plead — a joint ownership 
of the famous Maumee-Wabash portage. "It was always ours," he 
declared. "This carrying place has heretofore proved, in a great 
degree, the subsistence of your younger brothers. That place has 
brought to us in the course of one day, the amount of one hundred 
dollars. Let us both own this place, and enjoy in common the 
advantage it affords." 

General Wayne replied : 

"I find there is some objection to the reservation [by the United 
States] at Fort Wayne. The Little Turtle observes he never heard of 
any cessions made at that place to the French. I have traced the 
lines of two forts at that point. One stood at the junction of the 
St. Joseph with the St. Mary's, and it is ever an established rule, 
among Europeans, to reserve as much ground around their forts 
as their cannon can command. This is a rule as well known as any 
other fact. 

"Objection has also been made respecting the portage between 
Fort Wa.vne and the Little River; and the reasons produced are that 
that road has been to the Miamis a source of wealth ; that it has 
heretofore produced them one hundred dollars a day. It may be 
SO; but let us inquire who, in fact, paid this heavy contribution. It 
is true the traders bore it in the first instance, but they laid it on 
their goods, and the Indians of the Wabash really, and finally, paid 
it ; therefore, it is The Little Beaver, The Soldier, and The Sun and 
their tribes who have actually been so taxed." 

After some further parley, Little Turtle expressed himself as 
satisfied with its terms and the document was signed by 1,130 In- 
dians, in addition to the American representatives present. The 
treaty provided for immediate delivery to the Indians of goods to 
the value of $20,000, and the promise of $9,500 worth of goods yearly, 
"forever hereafter." It also fixed the boundary lines between the 
Indian lands and those of the United States ; this line began at the 
mouth of the Cuyahoga river, extended up that stream to the portage 
crossing to the Tuscarora, down that stream to Fort Laurens in 
Ohio, near Bolivar ; thence westerly to a branch of the Miami at the 
head of the portage to the St. Mary's; thence to Fort Recovery, and 
thence to a point on the Ohio river, opposite the mouth of the 
Kentucky river. Fort Wayne was in the midst of the area of the 
Indian lands, but the treaty de.signated as American territory "a 
piece" six miles square' at or near the confluence of the St. Mary's, 


St. Joseph and the Maiimee rivers as belonging to the United States. 
The city of Fort Wayne now stands within this reserved area. Simi- 
lar tracts surrounding Defiance, Toledo, Fremont, Detroit, St. 
Mary's, Sandusky, Mackinac, Chicago, Peoria and Vincennes were 
reserved to the United States. 

His great work fully accomplished, Wayne transferred the 
command of his troops to General James Wilkinson, and bade fare- 
well to his associates and departed for the east where he made a 
brief visit to his old home in Radnor, Pennsylvania. 

Everywhere, the people turned out en masse to give him wel- 
come. Four miles from Philadelphia he was met by three troops of 
Philadelphia light horse. A cannon salute, the ringing of bells, a 
great fireworks display and other demon.strations of gladness char- 
acterized the reception of the returned warrior. 

President Washington, in a message to congress, referred in 
fitting terms to the achievements of Wayne and to the vast conse- 
quences likely to follow his victory. However, his rest from the 
active service of his country was of short duration. Because of a 
division in the national congress during the consideration of the Jay 
treaty, the British proceeded with new plans to form an alliance 
with the Indians for a renewed invasion of the northwest. However, 
the appropriation for carrying the treaty into effect was finally 
passed by congress and President Washington chose Wayne as the 
government representative to visit the posts of Detroit, Niagara, 
Oswego and Miami, and attend to their transfer from British to 
American control. At Detroit, Wayne was received by noisy demon- 
strations by his former foes, the Indians ; he remained at the post for 
more than two months. On the 17th of November he sailed from 
Detroit for Presque Isle, site of the present city of Erie, Pennsyl- 
vania, and when within a short distance of his destination he was 
suddenly seized with an attack of gout. For several weeks after 
reaching Presque Isle the general suffered intolerable agony. He 
died December 15, 1796, and his remains were interred in military 
ground of his own choosing. 


Colonel Hamtramck remained in command of Fort Wayne until 
June, 1796. Conditions at Fort Wayne previous to his transfer are 
pictured in a series of extracts from his letters to Generals Wayne 
and Wilkinson at Greenville. 

The destruction by the Americans of the food supply of the 
Indians created the serious problem of keeping many of the savages 
at the head of the Maumee from starving to death. "The issues 
[of supplies] to the Indians would be very inconsiderable," he 
wrote on December 13, 1795, "if it was not for about ninety old 
women and children with some very old men. * * * I have 
repeatedly tried to get clear of them, but without success." A 
month later, Hamtramck reported that he had notified the dependent 
savages that he could no longer supply them with food, because of 
its scarcity, but the warmth of his heart is shown by the added 
comment that "if other supplies could be got by land, I consider it 
politic to feed these poor creatures, who will suffer very much for 
want of subsistence." By the 10th of February, 1795, the condi- 


tions were so bad that he was "compelled to give to them or see 
them die; it was impossible to refuse." 

The scarcity of wampum was the subject of another communica- 
tion from Colonel Hamtramck, who found that the Indian substitute 
for money was necessary to the transaction of business with the 
red men. "I am out of wampum," wrote Hamtramck to General 
Wilkinson. "I will be much obliged to you to send me some; for 
speaking to an Indian without it is like consulting a lawyer without 
a fee." 

Wampum (also writen wampom, wam pame, wompam and 
wompi) was used as money and for ornament by the Indians. It 
was made of small shell beads, pierced and strung, or woven into 
belts. The shell was cut away, leaving only a small cylinder, shaped 
like a bugle. 

At this time. Port Wayne was made the headquarters for the 
group of American posts in the west — Defiance, Sandusky, Adams, 
Recovery, Jefferson, Loramie, Head of the Auglaise and Michili- 
mackinac. Colonel Hamtramck, with a detachment from Fort 
Wayne, moved down the Maumee in March, 1796, to counteract a 
demonstration by the British, intended to arouse the savages to 
revolt, and while encamped on the river, he received a message from 
General Wilkinson directing him to receive the transfer of the 
British Post Miami and then to proceed to Detroit to take command 
of the former British post — Fort Lernoult. Hamtramck arrived at 
Detroit July 13th, accompanied by Captain William Wells. Then 
occurred the relinquishment of the last British post on American 
soil. "Thus was accomplished," observes Dr. Slocum, "after a 
further struggle of thirteen years by the young republic, with the 
loss of much blood, what Great Britain should have at once sur- 
rendered at the close of the Revolutionary war, in 1783, in accord- 
ance with the treaty of Paris." 


Upon the departure of Colonel Hamtramck, Fort Wayne was 
placed under command of Major Thomas Pasteur, also a seasoned 
veteran of the Revolutionary campaign. His services extended over 
a period of two years. 

Major Pasteur was a native of North Carolina. His services in 
the Revolutionary war began as an ensign in the Fourth regiment 
of infantry from his state. His advancement through successive 
official positions placed him in the captaincy of a company of the 
First United States infantry in 1792, when Wayne's army was form- 
ing to invade the west. On the 4th of September, he was assigned 
to the First sub-legion of Wayne's army. At the close of Wayne's 
campaign, Pasteur was placed in command of Fort Knox in Ohio. 
On the 1st of November, 1796, at the time of his assignment to Port 
Wayne, he had been entrusted with the command of the First regi- 
ment of United States infantry. In 1803, Pasteur was made major 
of the Second regiment of infantry. His death occurred in 1806. 
(See Heitman's Historical Register, 1903 Edition, Vol. I). 

The period of Pasteur's administration of affairs at Fort Wayne 



was without marked change over conditions at the close of Ham- 
tramck's command. The assignment of Colonel Thomas Hunt to 
Fort Wayne as the successor of Major Pasteur — his service begin- 
ning in May, 1798 — gives to the story a welcome element of the 
more refined social life of the east, and, incidentally, the circum- 
stance provides a number of romantic stories which cluster about 
the memory of the fort in the wilderness. 

Colonel Hunt had served with distinction in the Revolution. 
Bom in Massachusetts, he became a member of Captain Craft's com- 
pany of "minute men" at Lexington and Concord, in April, 1775. 
Later, he participated in the battles of Bunker Hill and Stony Point. 
Successive advancements found him in service as a major with 
Wayne in 1793. Following the western campaign, and the building 
of Fort Waj-ne, he went to Detroit and assisted Wayne in the trans- 
fer of the British post to the Americans. He was then sent to com- 
mand Fort Defiance, and, later. Fort Wajoie. Following his service 
here, extending from 1798 to 1800, he was given the command of the 




posts at Detroit, Fort Defiance, Fort Industry and Fort Mackinac. 
He was a member of the Order of the Cincinnati, composed of Amer- 
ican and French officers at the cantonments of the Continental army 
at the close of the Revolution in 1783. 

In 1797, just previous to the assuming of the command of Fort 
Wayne, the family of Major Hunt came from their Boston home to 
Detroit. On the 11th of April, in the following year, occurred the 


Through the co-operative efforts of the Burton Historical Collection of the 
Detroit Public Library and J. Franklin Jameson, director of the Carnegie 
Institution of Washington, the author was enabled, in 1915, to find and identify 
a drawing made in August, 1816, by Major John Whistler, commandant of Fort 
Wayne. Major Whistler had rebuilt the fort during 1815 and 1816. The drawing 
had been sent to General A. S, Macomb, at Detroit, who forwarded it to the 
war department. The drawing shows the ground floor plan of the fort, together 
with the inside elevation of each building, as well as the elevation of each 
building outside the pickets. The outside lines indicate the location of the 
palisades. The present Old Fort Park area was located within the square shown 
in the drawing. The drawing of Whistler doubtless Is the only existing original 
draft of old Fort Wayne. A drawing by General Wayne, in the war department, 
was destroyed when the British captured the city of Washington in 1814. 


birth, at Fort Wayne, of a son, John Elliott Hunt — the first child 
born within the stockade of old Fort Wayne. This son rose to 
prominence in the military and political affairs of Ohio dirring a 
long and useful life. His earlier years were passed with his elder 
brother, Henry Hunt, a Detroit merchant, after which he engaged 
in business at Maumee City, Ohio. He was in Detroit at the time 
of Hull's surrender of that post to the British in 1812 and "a 
witness to that humiliating spectacle." He was married at the home 
of General Lewis Cass, in Detroit, to Miss Sophie Spencer, daughter 
of a Connecticut physician. As a leader in many public enterprises, 
a railroad promoter, state senator, treasurer of Lucas county, Ohio, 
and postmaster at Detroit, he exerted a wide influence. 

The name of Ruth Fessenden Hunt, daughter of Colonel Hunt, 
comes into the narrative naturally at this point, though the occasion 
which suggests it is given a place out of its order in point of time. 
She was Fort <Vayne's first American bride, although, of course, 
many wedding ceremonies had been solemnized in the early French 
villages which occupied the site. This interesting event occurred in 
1805 — indeed, after the term of service of Major Hunt at Fort Wayne 
had ceased. It was while in command of Detroit that Colonel Hunt 
received orders to transfer his command to Bellefontaine, near St. 
Louis, Missouri. En route to Fort Wayne at the same time was Dr. 
Abraham Edwards, who had been assigned to the post as surgeon. 
Upon the arrival of the Hunts and Dr. Edwards, the engagement 
was announced, and the ceremony was performed without delay by 
Captain William Wells, serving as a justice of the peace. Details 
of the event are lacking, but there remains in the possession of the 
relatives of Dr. Edwards (passing through the hands of a son, A. M. 
Edwards, of Sheboygan, Michigan) this certificate in the handwrit- 
ing of Captain Wells : 

"Fort WajTie, 4th June, 1805. I do hereby certify that I joined 
Dr. Abraham Edwards and Ruthie Hunt in the Holy Bonds of 
Matrimony on the 3rd instant, according to law. Given under by 
hand and seal the day and year above written. 


Dr. Edwards, who served for five years as the post surgeon, was 
born at Springfield, New Jersey, in 1781. In 1804, President Jeffer- 
son appointed him a garrison surgeon and Secretary of War Dear- 
born sent him to Fort Wayne, by way of Detroit, where he met his 
future wife. Three of the eldest children of Dr. and Mrs. Edwards 
— Thomas, Alexander and Henry — -were born at Fort Wayne. In 
1810, on account of the illness of Mrs. Edwards, the family removed 
to Dayton, Ohio. Dr. Edwards was chosen as a member of the Ohio 
legislature, gave good service as a captain under Harrison in the 
war of 1812, served as a witness in the courtmartial of General 
William Hull, and was appointed department quartermaster-deputy 
at Pittsburg, with the rank of major. In 1815, he removed to De- 
troit, where he was appointed first aide to General Lewis Cass, with 
the rank of colonel. He was the president of the first legislative 
council of Michigan territory, register of the land office, Indian 
agent and a presidential elector who voted for Franklin Pierce. 

Our narrative has carried us beyond the period of the story of 
Colonel Hunt's administration of affairs at Fort Wayne. That his 


service here did not escape the criticism of his superiors appears 
from a communication sent to him by Secretary of War Dearborn, in 
which he said : 

"The reasons you offer for sending an express to Detroit are 
not sufficiently explicit. * * * i have too much reason for be- 
lieving that you are not as attentive to the rules and regulations 
relating to the expenses at the different posts as might be expected 
from an officer of your rank and experience. It seems to have become 
fashionable for officers to be much less attentive to minute parts of 
their duty than to other considerations which relate more to private 
convenience than to the good of the service." 


Nevertheless, it is apparent that Colonel Hunt devoted his 
energies to the betterment of conditions at Fort Wayne, for it was 
he who undertook the responsible task of building a new fort, to 
take the place of the original, hastily-constructed blockhouses and 
pickets erected by General Wayne's troops six years before. It is 
believed that Colonel Hunt finished his fort in 1800, shortly before 
his departure. 

A portion of Chapter XIX is devoted to a discussion of the loca- 
tion of Wayne's original fort and the later forts built by Colonel 
Hunt and Major Whistler; so the question at this point needs but 
the statement that the original fort of Wayne is believed to have 
occupied a site which enclosed the lot at the northwest corner of 
the present East Berry and Clay streets, while Colonel Hunt built 
the new fort a short distance to the northward, enclosing the area 
of the present Old Fort Park. 

The last visit of Colonel Hunt to Port Wayne was in 1805, when 
the family stopped for a week's rest while on the way from Detroit 
to Bellefontaine. En route to their new home, the Hunts were the 
guests, at Vincennes, of Governor WiUiam Henry Harrison. 

Colonel Henry Burbeck became the commandant of Fort Wayne 
in the spring of 1803, but his administration was cut short by the 
anouncement of the death of Colonel Hamtramck, at Detroit, and 
his transfer to that place to have charge of the department of the 
lakes. Colonel Burbeck was a native of Boston, born June 8, 1754, 
and had served through the Revolutionary war. He was a son of 
Colonel William Burbeck, also a veteran of the war for independence. 
Beginning as a lieutenant in Gridley's regiment of Massachusetts 
artillery, which was mustered into service May 19, 1775, successive 
advancements found Henry Burbeck as the second of the nation's 
chief of artillery (succeeding Henry Knox), serving in Wajoie's 
western campaign. It was he who built Fort Recovery, in Ohio. 
After the battle of Fallen Timber, Burbeck was placed in command 
of Michilimackinac, where he remained from September, 1796, to 
November, 1799. He returned to the east in July, 1800, and assisted 
in the establishment of West Point Military academy. In the spring 
of 1803, he was sent to the west and was placed in command of Fort 
Wayne. Later in his career, Burbeck was brevetted brigadier- 
general. His death occurred at New London, Connecticut, October 2, 



The death of Colonel Hamtramek was the occasion of several 
shiftings of commands of the western posts. Secretary of War Henry 
Dearborn, on May 24, addressing Colonel Burbeck, said: 




^^Iiuj3 -M.«IL 'S" 


^3i:IU g ■j\\ , li ^ 


This map, which was found In 1915 in the war department archives, while 
J. Franklin Jameson, director of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, was 
assisting the author In securing Important data, and where It had lain for one 
hundred and twelve years, was made by Thomas Freeman, a government 
engineer, in June, 1803. This was the first government survey of the region 
about Wayne's fort. From a notation on the map the following quotation Is 
made: "The black and shaded lines of the reservations have been run and 
marked. Posts have been set in the ground 100 perches apart, on the east and 
west lines, and numerically numbered, as appears on the plan. The tree nearest 
each post has been lettered U. S. and numbered with the number of the post 
near which It stands. » • * The mile square including Fort Wayne and 
the confluence of the Rivers St. Mary and St. Joseph Is the Military Reservation." 

"The death of Colonel Hamtramck, in addition to the loss of 
such an experienced and valuable oiScer, has so materially interfered 
with the arrangement of that department as to render your presence 



at Detroit necessary. You will, therefore, be pleased to repair to 
Detroit and take command of the Department of the Lakes. Colonel 
[Thomas] Hunt will remain at Miehilimackinac until further orders. 
Major [Zebulon] Pike should, on your arrival, repair to Fort 

On the following day, Secretary Dearborn wrote a letter to 
Major Pike in which he said: 

"I have proposed that on the arrival of Colonel Burbeck, you 

This valuable relic is owned by Dr. P. 
G. Moore, of Wabash, Indiana, who 
loaned the photograph from which the 
drawing was made. Dr. Moore says: 
"The flag was presented by General 
Wayne to Chief She-moc-o-nish. of 
Thornton, Indiana, after the close of the 
Indian war in 1795, by order of Gen- 
eral Washington, with the following 
suggestion: 'Keep this flag in sight, 
and, as often as you see it, remember 
we are friends. I first saw the flag 
In 186S, when it was in the possession 
of Mrs. Dixon, an old Indian woman of 
Miami county, Indiana, a granddaughter 
of She-moc-o-nish by his second wife, 
who was a member of the Wea tribe. 
I became its possessor in 1S84, after 
her death. I obtained its history from 
Kil-so-quah, then living near Roanoke, 
Indiana, at the age of 103 years. She 
also was a granddaughter of She-moc- 
o-nish and of Little Turtle on the pater, 
nal side. She told me she kept the flag a 
good many years, when it fell into the 
hands of the Dixon woman. At my first 
interview she said the flag had been 
burned in a tepee, but when I showed 
it to her she recognized it quickly and 
said that the Weas had told her of Its 
destruction in order to keep it among 
members of the tribe. The flag is three 
feet and eight inches by five feet and ten 
Inches in size. It is in a good state of 
preservation and the colors are bright." 


.lacob Piatt Dunn, of Indianapolis, who 
has spent many years as a student of 
the aborigines, pronounces the Miami 
chief to have been "the greatest Indian 
the world has known." Little Turtle 
spent much of his time on the site of 
the present city, during which period he 
became the only Indian leader to defeat 
an army of the United States led by a 
commander-in-chief. He was the first 
of the .savage leaders to recognize the 
necessity of submission to the power 
of the whites. He became not only a 
firm friend of the United States, but, by 
repeated visits to the national seat of 
government, he secured for his people 
many reforms to lift them from the 
degradation brought through the use of 
intoxicating liquors and demoralizing 
habits, and sought to teach the great 
lessons of industry and upright living. 
He died at Fort Wayne in 1812, two 
weeks before his illustrious son-in- 
law. Captain William Wells, was killed 
in the Fort Dearborn massacre. The 
portrait is after a copy of the painting 
from life by Stuart, the painter of the 
Washington portrait. The portrait was 
made during one of several visits of 
Little Turtle to eastern cities. The 
original painting was destroyed by fire 
when the British attacked the city of 
Washington in 1814. 


should repair to Fort Wayne and command at that post, where you 
will have leisure to attend to your health and will receive the emolu- 
ment attached to the command of a separate post." 

The original letters from Secretary Dearborn are in the War 
Department at Washington. The quotations are from photostatic 
copies in the Burton Historical Collection at Detroit. 

Major Zebulon Pike was the father of Zebulon M. Pike, who 
earned fame as the explorer of the region now comprising the states 
of the southwestern portion of the union. He was born in New 
Jersey, in 1751. He entered the service of the Revolution as a 
corporal and served to the end of the war. He was promoted 
to the rank of major in 1800. In the organization of the peace 
establishment in 1802, Major Pike was assigned to the First regiment 
of infantry, under the command of Colonel Hamtramck. He was 
brevetted lieutenant-colonel in the regular army July 10, 1812. 
While his son, Zebulon M. Pike, was a child, he removed with his 
family to Bucks county, Pennsylvania, and thence in a few years to 
Easton, Pennsylvania. He returned to the west, however, and his 
death occurred at Lawrenceburg, Indiana, in 1834. 

Major Pike came to assume the command of Fort Wajme in 
June, 1803. He retained the office less than one year. His successor 
was Jlajor John Whipple of the First United States infantry, who 
had served in the Revolution and with Wayne on his western cam- 
paign. The wife of Major Whipple was Archange Pelletier, grand- 
daughter of Jean Baptiste Pelletier, of the famous family of which 
Francois Pelletier was the head. Francois preceded Cadillac to 
Detroit by two years, reaching that point in 1669. The present-day 
Peltier family, with representatives in Fort Wayne, is descended 
from this ancient French stock. 

During the period of the administrations of Hamtramck, Pas- 
teur, Hunt, Burbeck, Pike and Whipple, the national administration 
gave serious consideration to the problem of adopting a fitting form 
of government of the great western frontier. The British, after 
their abandonment of Detroit, had erected a strong post on the 
Canadian side of the Detroit river, at Maiden (the present Amherst- 
burg), from which point disturbing elements were constantly at 
work among the Indians to interfere with the constructive eiJorts of 
the American government. 

In August, 1796, Winthrop Sargent, secretary of the Northwest 
Territory, proclaimed the organization of Wayne county, with Fort 
Wayne on its southern boundary, a line drawn between the Cuya- 
hoga river and the lower point of Lake Michigan. This original 
Wayne county was divided into four townships, bearing the names 
of Detroit, Mackinaw, Sargent and Hamtramck, with the region of 
Fort Wayne and the Maumee valley included in the latter. In 
October, 1799, William Henry Harrison, then serving as secretary 
of the Northwest Territory, was elected to represent the great west 
in the national congress. This body, on the 7th of May, 1800, created 
the Territory of Indiana, composed of all that part of the territory 
of the United States west of a line beginning at the Ohio river oppo- 
site the mouth of the Kentucky river and running northward to the 
straits of Mackinac. By this change. Fort Wayne was removed from 
the original Wayne county. 


In December, 1801, the war department in an official recom- 
mendation relative to the maintenance of the government posts, 
stated that Fort "Wayne contained one company of infantry. In 
March, 1802, an Act of Congress refers to Fort WajTie as "a frontier 
post with garrison of sixty-four men." In the following year, the 
post had a garrison of fifty-one men, namely, one captain, one sur- 
geon 's mate, one first lieutenant, one second lieutenant, one ensign, 
four sergeants, four corporals, three musicians, and thirty-five pri- 
vates. (See American State Papers, Military Affairs, Vol. I, pages 
156, 175, 786). 

The name of William Henry Harrison, soon to figure strongly 
in the narrative of Fort Wayne, comes into the story with the ac- 
count of Wayne 's campaign. Then, after his appointment as secre- 
tary of the Northwest Territory, we find him, in 1799, resigning this 
position to take a seat in congress as a representative of this vast 
district northwest of the Ohio. On the 4th of July, 1800, the terri- 
tory of Indiana came into existence, with Harrison as its governor, 
and Vincennes its capital. 


Harrison, on assuming his office, proceeded promptly to enter 
into treaty agreements with the Indians for the purchase of their 
large tracts of land in what are now the States of Indiana, Michigan 
and Illinois. On the 7th of June, 1803, he completed, at Fort 
Wayne, a treaty with the Eel River, Kaskaskia, Kickapoo, Miami, 
Delaware and Piankeshaw tribes for the attainment of a large tract 
about Vincennes which already had been purchased from other 
tribes. He also secured from the Delawares their lands between 
the Wabash and Ohio rivers, and from the Piankeshaws their claims 
to tracts deeded to the United States by the Kaskaskias in the pre- 
ceding year. This latter treaty was the source of a good deal of 
worry and controversy. 

The cause of Harrison's disturbed condition of mind appears to 
have been the powerful opposition of Captain William Wells, and 
his father-in-law. Chief Little Turtle of the Miamis. Wells had 
received the appointment of Indian agent and was stationed at 
Fort Wayne at the time Harrison concluded these important treat- 
ies. His attitude toward Harrison was such as to cause that officer 
to write to Secretary of War Dearborn, March 3, 1805 : 

"Those [Indians] who have expressed discontent have been 
instigated thereto entirely by the Turtle. Whether the opposition 
to those treaties originated with himself or with Mr. Wells I cannot 
determine, but that the opinions of one are the opinions of the 
other I have long known. * » « When Wells speaks of the Miami 
nation being of this or that opinion, he maist be imderstood as mean- 
ing no more than the Turtle and himself. Nine-tenths of that tribe, 
who acknowledge Richardville and Pecanne as their chiefs (but 
who are really governed by an artful fellow caUed the Owl, or Long 
Beard, whom you once saw at the seat of government) utterly abhor 
both Wells and the Turtle." 

A short time afterward. Governor Harrison wrote: 

"I am convinced that this man [Wells] will not rest until he 





has persuaded the Indians that their very existence depends upon 
the rescinding [of] the treaty of the Delawares and the Pianke- 
shaws. My knowledge of his character induces me to believe he 
will go to any length to carry a favorite point, and mischief may 
come from his knowledge of the Indians, his cunning and his perse- 
verance. If I had not informed you that I should wait here your 
further orders, I would set out tomorrow [from Vincennes] for Fort 

The governor decided not to make the move, however, explain- 
ing to the secretary of war that it "would be a sacrifice of that 

d^^U^a^ M:' 

Captain WeUs was one of the most re- 
markable men connected with the his- 
tory of Fort Wayne and the entire fron- 
tier. In recognition of his services to 
his country, congress gave him the right 
to pre-empt the lands which now com- 
prise the districts in Fort W^ayne known 
as Bloomingdale and Spy Run — "the 
Wells Pre-emption.*' His tragic death in 
the Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812 
brought to an end a life which did much 
to shape the history of the middle west. 

From the many signatures attached to 
the treaty of Greenville, which marked 
the close of the Indian wars In 1795, 
Iiave been selected those best known to 
the present generation. The productions 
are from the fac similes accompanying 
an article by Fraser E. Wilson In the 
■'Ohio Archaeological and Historical So- 
ciety Publications" (vol. xiii). Mr. Wil- 
son's article throws many interesting 
sidelights on the character of Little 

dignity and authority which it is necessary to observe in aU our 
transactions with the Indians." 

The bitterness of the sentiment of Harrison against WeUs at 
this time is further shown in a communication to Secretary Dear- 
born in July, 1805, in which he said : 

"I think measures should be taken to control his vicious inclina- 
tions or to remove him from the Indian country. I had determined 
to inform him of the suspicions which had arisen against him, and 
to order him, to come to this place [Vincennes] for the purpose of 
explaining his conduct, but thought it best to delay it until I could 
receive your instructions. If an inquiry should be made into his 
conduct, I must beg leave to recommend that General Wilkinson 
may assist at it. It will be very little trouble for the general to 
come over to this place for a few days, and I am satisfied the trip 
would not be disagreeable to him." 

In June, 1805, Harrison sent to Fort Wayne Colonel John 
Gibson, secretary to Governor Harrison, and Colonel Francis Vigo, 


■who, on their arrival, visited the fort which they found in temporary 
command of Lieutenant Brownson. Writing to General Harrison, 
they reported: 

' ' We beg to add as our opinion that no noise or clamor respect- 
ing the treaty last summer with the Delawares at this place would 
have been made had it not been occasioned by the Little Turtle and 
Wells, the latter of whom seems more attentive to the Indians than 
the people of the United States." 

Wells, viewing the visit of Gibson and Vigo with evident sus- 
picion, addressed a letter to the former in which he demanded his 

Although Little Turtle declined the invitation to go to Vin- 
cennes on the ground of his dissatisfaction with the terms of the 
treaty, and Richardville pleaded a business engagement which 
would take him in another direction, Wells and Little Turtle visited 
Governor Hari-ison at Vincennes in August of the same year. ' ' Both 
are here," wrote Harrison to Dearborn, ''and I have received from 
each a positive assurance of a friendly disposition as well toward 
the government as myself individually. With Captain Wells, I 
have had an explanation, and have agreed to a general amnesty 
and act of oblivion for the past." 

Notwithstanding this seemingly peaceful settlement of the diffi- 
culty, the official relationship between Wells and the governor failed 
to improve, and we find Harrison as late as April 23, 1811, writing 
to Secretary of War Eustis : 

"Could I be allowed to dispose of Wells as I thought proper, 
my first wish would be to place him in the interiour of our settle- 
ment where he would never see and scarcely hear of an Indian. 
But as this is impossible, from his being located in such a manner 
at Fort Wayne that he cannot be removed without a very consider- 
able expense, my next wish is to get him such an appointment as he 
could consider an object, where he might be used to advantage, but, 
at the same time, so limited as to prevent his doing mischief. * * * 
There should be no principal agent [at Fort Wayne] ; Wells should 
be sub-agent for the Miamies and Eel River tribes, or, if it is 
thought improper, give him the title of interpreter, Mr. [John] 
Shaw, sub-agent for the Putawatimies, and Conner for the Dela- 
wares. The salary of each to be $550 or $600. * * * Wells would 
gladly accept of such an appointment, and Shaw and Conner have 
served so faithfully that they deserve some little advance." 

A further study of the war records for these years reveals that 
in 1812, the year of Captain Wells's death. Wells purposed to leave 
the Indian service and return to his former home in Kentucky. By 
this time, General Harrison's attitude toward him appears to have 
undergone a revision, for we find him writing as follows to Secretary 
of War Eustis : 

"Having been informed by Colonel Guiger, Captain WeUs's 
father-in-law, that he [Wells] intended to resign his appointment, 
and believing that in the present critical state of our Indian affairs 
the public service would be benefitted by his remaining some time 
longer at Fort Wayne, * * * I wrote to Major Stickney and 
informed him that he must consider Wells under his immediate 
orders. • * # Hated and feared as he is by the surrounding 


Indians, he is, nevertheless, able, from his influence over a few chiefs 
of great ability, to effect more than any other person." 

Harrison's reference to Colonel Guiger as the father-in-law of 
Captain Wells appears to clear up a point with reference to Wells's 
marriage affiliations. One purported authority states that the cap- 
tain was married three times. His first wife was the daughter of 
Little Turtle, the second a woman of the Wea tribe of Indians, and 
the third the daughter of Colonel Guiger, who had served as a 
captain in the battle of Tippecanoe. The late John W. Dawson, a 
schoolmate of Jack Hackley, grandson of Captain Wells, states in 
his "Charcoal Sketches," that "Captain Wells, on his exodus and 
return from Kentucky, married a white lady, the issue of which 
marriage, as far as I can learn, was Yelberton P. Wells." He states, 
further, that the widow of Wells, who sought refuge in the fort at 
the time of the siege in 1812, was a white woman. 


Meanwhile, and previous to Wells's appointment as agent at 
Fort Wayne, that important office was filled by Colonel John John- 
ston, who received his commission from President John Adams. 

Colonel Johnston's interesting experiences had fitted him well 
for the post of Indian agent. Born in County Donegal, Ireland, 
in 1775, he came alone to America at the age of eleven. The family 
settled at Philadelphia, and, shortly afterward, the boy secured em- 
ployment in the war department. Later, he was employed in the 
mercantile establishment of Judge John Creigh, at Carlisle, Penn- 
sylvania, where Wayne's army was largely recruited. Employed 
by Samuel Creigh as the driver of a supply wagon, Johnston fol- 
lowed Wayne's army to Fort Washington (Cincinnati), when he was 
seventeen years of age, and later made several trips between Fort 
Washington and Greenville during the encampment of Wayne at 
the latter point. He tlien returned to the east and entered the 
employ of an uncle at Bourbon Court House. Here he became a 
warm friend of Daniel Boone. He served as the secretary of a 
Masonic Lodge in Washington, D. C, and participated in the funeral 
services over the remains of George Washington. Johnston was 
appointed to the post of Fort Wayne in the spring of 1802, but he 
did not purpose to come to the wilderness alone. He had fallen in 
love with a Quaker girl. Miss Rachel Robinson, with whom he eloped 
in July, and the bride accompanied him on horseback to the wilder- 
ness. For fifty-eight years, this pioneer bride continued as the help- 
meet of Col. Johnston; she was the mother of fifteen children. In 
1811, Col. Johnston removed to Piqua, Ohio, where, during the war 
of 1812, he was of great service to his country in protecting the 
neutral tribes and guarding the interests of the American troops. 
Col. Johnston became an early trustee of the township in which he 
lived, and was identified with the first school at Upper Piqua, as 
well as with its first churches and other enterprises. As a canal 
commissioner and road builder he served well his community. He 
died in Washington City in 1861, having gone to the seat of govern- 
ment on business connected with some old Indian claims. (From 
•the manuscript biography prepared by J. A. Raynor, Piqua, Ohio.) 

"In his "American Notes," Charles Dickens, the English nov- 


elist, relating his experiences during a brief stop at Upper Sandusky, 
Ohio, in 1842, says that "among the company at breakfast was a 
mild old gentleman who had been for many years employed by the 
United States government in conducting negotiations with the In- 
dians." The "mild old gentleman" was Colonel John Johnston, 
the former agent at Fort Wayne. 

During the early portion of Colonel Johnston 's service, outward 
quiet and apparent friendliness on the part of the savages shielded 
a growing unrest and hatred of the whites. One man among them 
had, however, "buried the hatchet" forever. This was Chief Little 
Turtle. At this time and, indeed, to the close of his life, he dedicated 
his energies to the betterment of the conditions which surrounded 
his people. 


The chief believed his work could be accomplished more fully 
if he made a close study of the whites in their cities of the east; 
and so, accompanied by Captain Wells, he mounted a horse and 
rode to Philadelphia, arriving there in the spring of 1797. Here, 
Little Turtle learned of the benefits of vaccination to render his 
people immune from the ravages of smallpox, and here, too, he met 
the noted French traveler and philosopher. Count de Constantin 
Francois Chassebceuf Volney, who became so deeply interested in the 
Miami chief that he made him the subject of extended treatment in 
a volume devoted to his American travels. Volney inquired of 
Little Turtle his reasons for declining to accept the invitation of 
the Friends to make his home permanently in Philadelphia. Says 
Volney : 

"He made a considerable pause, agreeable to the Indian habit 
of deliberation and reserve. After some mediation, walking about 
the while and plucking out his beard, he replied: 'Yes, I am pretty 
well accustomed to what I find here. I think this dress [he had 
donned the white man's clothing] warm and comfortable. These 
houses are good to keep, out wind and rain, and they have every- 
thing convenient. This market — we overlooked Market street — 
gives us everything we want, without the trouble of hunting in the 
woods. All things considered, you are better off than we ; but here 
I am deaf and dumb. I do not speak your language. When I walk 
the streets, I see everybody busy at something; one makes shoes, 
another hats, a third sells cloth, and all live by their work. I say 
to myself. Which of these things can I do 1 Not one. I can make 
a bow, catch fish, kill a deer, and go to war, but none of these things 
are done here. To learn what you do would ask much time, be very 
difficult and uncertain of success ; and, meanwhile, old age hurries 
on. Were I to stay with the whites, I should be an idle piece of 
furniture, useless to myself, useless to you and to my nation. What 
must be done with useless lumber? I must go back.' " 

Volney quotes William Wells as saying : 

"Little Turtle has good reasons for what he says. If he delayed 
returning, he would lose all credit with his countrymen. Already, 
it requires some address to retain their esteem. At home, he must 
resume their dress and habits and be careful of praising those he 
has left, for fear of wounding their pride, which is extreme. Among 




them, the jealousy of every member of the clan makes the station of 
chief as perilous and tottering as that of a leader in a democratic 
state, for theirs in fact is a wild and lawless democracy. This man 
has at home good clothes, tea and coffee. He has a cow, and his 
wife makes butter. But he must not indulge himself in these things, 
but reserve them for the whites. His first cow was killed by night, 
and he was obliged to feign ignorance of the man who did it and to 
report that she died of herself." 

From Philadelphia, Little Turtle and Captain "Wells went to 
Baltimore, where they were received with kindliness at the yearly 
conference of the Society of Friends. Called upon to address the 
assembly, Little Turtle, through Captain Wells as interpreter, made 
an appeal to the church to use its influence to stop the shipment of 
liquors into the Indian country and to encourage the red men to the 
cultivation of the soil. That the request bore fruit will be seen in the 
address of a memorial to congress and the sending of the delegates 
to Fort Wayne in 1804. 


Captain Wells, son-ln-Iaw of Little 
Turtle, was doubtless one of the keen- 
est politicians of the frontier. In his 
efforts to guard the Interests of the sav- 
age tribes he excited the antagonism of 
General Harrison, but he gained the good 
opinion of the powers at tlie seat of gov- 
ernment. (Burton Historical Collection, 


Colonel Johnston was the Indian agent 
at Fort ■Wayne from 1800 to 1811, The 
signature Is from a document In the Bur- 
ton Historical Collection, Detroit, 



i :;:;; 

kIh^S^'^'^^^^ ' -''S 



Hb'^^' ' i«H 







Colonel Johnston, appointed in 1800 by 
President John Adams as the first gov- 
ernment agent of Indian affairs at Fort 
Wayne, was one of the most important 
figures of his time in the west. He had 
served with Wayne and had been a clerk 
In the war department before entering 
upon his thirty-one years of service In 
the department of Indian affairs. He 
was a paymaster and a quartermaster 
during the war of 1812. Eleven years 
of his life were spent as canal commis- 
sioner of Ohio, During the siege of 
Fort Wayne the women of the fort were 
taken to PIqua, Ohio, and placed In 
charge of Colonel Johnston. His broth- 
er Stephen was killed during the siege. 
He died in W^ashlngton, D. C, during a 
business visit. The portrait Is from 
Lossing's "Fieldbook of the War of 
1812," reproduced by permission of Har- 
per and Brothers, New York. The book 
has been out of print for many years. 
The tort Wayne Public Library recenily 
purchased a copy. 


Later, in "Washington, the chief visited President Thomaa 
Jefferson and made an appeal to the executive which brought from 
him an address to the legislatures of Ohio and Kentucky embodying 
the plea of the Miami chief in the suppression of the liquor traffic. 
The president also addressed a special message to congress, asking 
that body to authorize the president "to take such measures from 
time to time as may appear to him expedient." 

On one occasion, George Washington presented to Little 
Turtle a handsome sword — the same which is believed to have been 
found when the supposed grave of the chief recently was opened in 
Fort Wayne. Earlier than this, in December, 1796, Washington 
had sent to Little Turtle, by the hand of CaptaiQ Wells, other ex- 
pressions of his friendliness following the Indian wars. Through 
the kindness of Jacob M. Stouder, of Fort Wayne, who secured a 
copy of the letter accompanying the gifts, the following message is 
quoted : 

"Message to Mi-Che-Ki-Nah-Quah, or Little Turtle, sent by William 
Wells, Indian Interpreter: 
"Brother: The President, your father, has desired me to write 
to you and tell you that he takes you by the hand in friendship, 
as a proof of which he sends you a Dress Coat, a Rifle, a Saddle and 
Bridle, such as he gave to the Chiefs and Warriors, your Brothers, 
who have been here to visit him. He has also instructed me to 
enclose you a further and more lasting testimonial of his affection, 
which he flatters himself will convince you how he loves you. It is a 
paper which will insure you a faithful return of the friendship of 
his distant Warriors. What he asks from you is fidelity to your 
promises given in the Treaty, your endeavor to prevent your young 
men from doing injury to the frontier Settlers or their property, and 
your friendship to him and his Warriors and the United States. 

"Given at the War-Office of the United States on the 10th day 
of December, 1796. 

" (Signed) JAMES M. HENRY. 
"Copy (for GEN'L WILKINSON) 
"John Stagg.Jun'r, Chief Clk., W. 0." 
While he was in Washington, Little Turtle was induced by the 
celebrated artist, Stuart, to sit for a portrait. The picture was 
placed in the capitol building where, in 1814, it was destroyed by 
fire. Here, too, Little Turtle met the Polish patriot, Kosciusko. 

Upon his return to the west, the Miami chief appeared before 
the legislatures of Ohio and Kentucky and made a renewed appeal 
for the co-operation of those bodies in the suppression of the sale 
of whiskey to the Indians and for the promotion of a deeper interest 
in agriculture. He declared : 

"We had better be at war with the white people. This liquor 
that they introduce into our country is more to be feared than the 
tomahawk. There are more of us dead since the treaty of Greenville 
than we lost by the wars before, and it is owing to the introduction 
of this liquor among us." 

Likewise, Major B. F. Stickney, later serving as Indian agent 
at Fort Wayne, said : 

"The insatiable thirst for intoxicating liquors appears to be 
bom with all the yellow-skinned inhabitants of America; and the 


thirst for gain of the citizens of the United States appears to be 
capable of eluding all the vigilance of the government to stop the 
distribution of liquor among them. * * * The Indians will travel 
anv distance to obtain it. It appears to be valued higher than life 

The stand taken by Little Turtle won the admiration of the 
better element of the whites, but it lost him forever the old-time 
prestige with his people. General Harrison, writing two years after 
the death of the chief, asserts that his loss of standing with the 
tribes was due to the efforts to induce the red men to lay aside 
the tomahawk and scalping knife and take up the peaceful tools 
of the agriculturist. "It was the rock upon which the popularity 
of Tecumseh was founded," said he, "and that upon which the 
influence of Little Turtle was wrecked." 

"This Turtle," wrote Colonel John Johnston, in 1810, "is con- 
temptible beyond description in the eyes of the Indians." 

The truth of these assertions is made plain in the report of the 
visit of the devout Quakers Avho, in response to the appeal of Little 
Turtle, came to Fort Wayne in 1804 to attempt to introduce the 
best methods of agriculture among the Indians. From the official 
report of Gerard T. Hopkins to his church, the story as here reviewed 
is obtained. Mr. Hopkins \vas accompanied liy George Ellieott, also 
of the Society of Friends, and Philip Dennis, a practical farmer 
who was engaged to serve as instnictor. Dennis's efforts provided 
what was probably the first school of agriculture in the west. 

Mr. Hopkins .states that when the three horsemen drew up to 
the outer gates of the palisades of Fort Wayne, they were com- 
manded by the sentinel to halt. Satisfactory credentials were pro- 
duced, and they were conducted to Captain (later Major) Whipple, 
commandant of the fort, who "behaved with a freedom and gentility 
of a well-bred man." The fort, as described by the visitors, "was 
large and substantial, * * • commanding a beautiful view of the 
rivers, as also of an extent of about four square miles of cleared 
land, much of which was cleared by the army of the United States." 

It is worthy of note that these clear-minded Quakers, after 
traversing the region between the Maumee and the Wabash rivers, 
recorded their belief that a canal connecting the waters could be 
constructed with but little effort. 

The visitors from the east were surprised, according to the 
record of their adventures, to observe that no attention was given, 
either in the fort or the Indian village, to the proper observance 
of the Sabbath day. The account records that Little Turtle, "with 
a countenance placid beyond description, took us by the hand with 
cordiality, and expressed himself in terms of great gladness at meet- 
ing with us. About 2 o'clock we dined. At the head of the table 
sat the interpreter's [Captain William Wells] wife, who is a modest, 
well-looking Indian woman, the daughter of a distinguished chief. 
She had prepared for us a large, well-roasted wild turkey and also a 
wild turkey boiled, and for these she provided a large supply of cran- 
berry sauce. The Little Turtle sat at the table with us, and with 
much sociability we all partook of an excellent dinner. ' ' In response 
to the request of the visitors that a large number of members of the 
tribe be gathered to receive instructions in agriculture, the chiefs 


asked for eight days' time to gather "a considerable number of their 
indolent people, who were too lazy to hunt or make sugar, but such 
they did not wish us to see." 

The attempt to educate the Indians to till the soil was under- 
taken at a point on the Wabash river about thirty-two miles south- 
west of Port Wayne, and Dennis was left to conduct the work of 
instruction. After the departure of the Friends, he continued his 
efforts but "only one, or at the most two, of the Indians could be 
induced to aid him. As long as the novelty of the work lasted and 
they could share in his food, a few Miamis lingered around in the 
shade or branches of trees, but would not work." In discouragement 
Dennis returned to Maryland. The Friends departed from Fort 
Wayne by way of the Maumee. Their pirogue was propelled by 
Corporal King and a private from Fort Wayne. 


The savages were in no mood to give their attention to the 
tilling of the soil. Trouble of a subdued character, breaking out 
here and there in threatening form, portended serious conflicts for 
the future. The government, viewing the situation in its true aspect, 
had decided, in 1803, to establish a fort on the shore of Lake Michi- 
gan — the spot referred to in the Greenville treaty as "Chicajo" — 
and now the site of one of the world's foremost cities. Li order to 
pave the way, Captain William Wells was dispatched from Fort 
Wayne to discuss with the Indians the government's intentions. 

"The complaints or uneasiness of the Indians relative to the post 
at Chicago will, I hope, be removed by Mr. Wells, who was ordered 
there for the purpose early last spring," wrote Secretary of War 
Dearborn to the commandant at Detroit, ' ' but, unfortunately, the let- 
ter did not reach him until about two months after he should have 
received it, but he set out immediately after receiving the letter, 
and will undoubtedly be able to convince the Indians not only of 
our right to make the establishment, but of its being useful to them." 

To Major John Whistler was entrusted the arduous task of 
establishing this fort, which was named Dearborn in honor of the 
secretary of war. Whistler formerly was stationed at Fort Wayne 
on special duty, and he was later to return as its commandant. In 
a small schooner, conveying part of the building material, Major 
Whistler made the trip from Detroit to the site of Chicago, by way 
of the Straits of Mackinaw, accompanied by his vnfe, his son. Lieu- 
tenant William Whistler, and bride, and a younger son, George 
Washington Whistler. Troops marching overland from Detroit to 
the site of Chicago arrived at their destination at almost the same 
time that Whistler's schooner reached the end of its journey. After 
the erection of the stockade and blockhouses. Whistler became the 
commandant. "In building Fort Dearborn," writes B. J. Lossing 
in his "Pictorial Fieldbook of the War of 1812," "Major Whistler 
worked so economically that the fort did not cost the government 
over fifty dollars. For a while the garrison could get no corn and 
Whistler and his men subsisted on acorns." 

At Fort Wayne the government proceeded with its every obli- 
gation to the Indians. In 1804, meeting a request of the near-by 




tribes, a commodious council house was built near the fort, to be 
used in the holding of conferences with the chiefs. 

This first council house was erected by the troops of the garrison 
on the lots on the present East Main street, adjoining Engine House 
No. 1 on the east. Afterward, upon this site, Michael Hedekin built 
a residence, later occupied by Congressman James M. Robinson. In 
addition to the council house, a storehouse of two stories was erected 
adjoining it. Both buildings were burned during the siege of the 
fort eight years later. At this time, also, Major Whipple caused 
extensive improvements in the fort structure to be made. 


(1) James Freeman, an engineer sent 
In 1803 by the war department, sur- 
veyed this six-mile tract and also the 
two-mile-square tract which Includes 
the landing place on the Little River 
end of the portage. A copy of this 
map, unearthed in the war department 
In 1916, Is In the possession of the 
writer. It shows In accurate detail 
the entire route of the famous Maumee- 
Wabash portage. 

(2) The following notes concerning 
the members of the family ef Colonel 
Thomas Hunt are of interest: Ruth 
married Dr. Abraham Edwards at Fort 
Wayne In 1805. Henry Jackson Hunt 
was born at Watertown, Massachusetts, 
in 1788, and accompanied his father to 
Fort Wayne and Detroit. Thomas Hunt, 
Jr., died in infancy. George Hunt was 
born at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 
1789; he was with the family when 
the father proceeded from Mackinac to 
Bellefontaine, Missouri. Abigail Hunt, 
born at Watertown, Massachusetts, In 
1797, was an Infant when Colonel Hunt 
was ordered to Fort Wayne; she be- 
came the wife of Josiah Snelllng. John 
Elliott Hunt was born at Fort Wayne 
in 1798. Samuel Wellington Hunt wa-s 
born at Fort Wayne In 1799. Wil- 
liam Brown Hunt was born at 
Detroit In 1800. The birth of Charles 
Cotesworth Plnckney Hunt occur- 
r«d at Detroit March 29, 1802, while 

the father was commandant of the post 
there. Mary LeBaron Hunt was born 
at Mackinac Island In 1803, while the 
father had charge of the post there, 
and Eliza Mitchell Hunt was bom at 
Detroit December 18, 1804, while thfl 
father was still at Mackinac. (From a 
Scrap Book, in the Burton Historical 
Collection at Detroit). On August 18, 
1808, at the age of fifty-four years. 
Colonel Hunt died at Bellefontaine. The 
following December, his widow, Eunice 
Hunt, filed a petition for relief from 
the United States government, she hav- 
ing been left a widow "with a numer- 
ous family of infant children." This 
petition was accompanied by another 
signed by Meriwether Lewis (who was 
with Wayne in his campaign and who 
became famous as one of the leaders In 
the Lewis and Clark expedition to the 
northwest) and other •'inhabitants of 
the town of St. Louis, Territory of 
Louisiana," urging Its favorable recep- 
tion. As Colonel Hunt had not been 
invalided or killed in battle, and as 
Congress did not wish to establish a 
precedent, Mrs. Hunt was given leave 
to withdraw her petition. She died six 
months after her husband's demise. 
The cause of death Is given as "literally 
of a broken heart." The children of 
Colonel and Mrs. Hunt were reared by 
relatives In various parts of the 

CHAPTER XVI— 1806-1812. 
The Quiet Before the Savage Storm. 

Tec:iTTiS£h and -xre Prrphe:" rnj:e Oie sarages Ir a ccr^p'-racv u) destroy 
tie settlers — Cat :.=.''' ^^".1= 7et-:r:.= c-:rl:t;::t5 at Fcrt Waytie — ^Baptiste 

VTayxe — :' : . ^ - ■; ii "A'ells — L>:etji€cant Osrrander's 

letter — Ciirre;; r-J= : tts^-: Spy Run and BloaaiiiieSale 

districts — rLarriicii s li.. trii-j it Fen Wayne — La^otaiaat **>»ii«»t»i 
WMsiler — Colmel Johnston's trocbles — Captain James Rhea in cmmnaad 
of Fort Wayne — His weakness of character — CeldHatioD of the 4th of 
Jnly. ISll — The "Wg e!m" — ^The battle of Tippecanoe — Savages deceire 
ColMjel Jcdinston — ^He is succeeded by Major Stiekn^ — War against E^- 
land is detdared — Bhea foresees Indian war — ^Ilie death of Little Turtle — 
The Fort Dearborn massacre — Stories of the siirvivurs . 

A DOZEN TEABS had passed sinee the battle of Pallen 'fimber, 
and the ehQdren of the savages of that day were now grown 
to stalwart youth who had not learned the lesson of the jwwer 
of the white man. except thiOTi^ the lips of their elders. 

GradnallT, the older members of the tribes witnessed the passing 
of their lands into the hands of the whites. Lawless traders among 
them whispered tales of eneonragement to the savage to rise in his 
might and destroy the white "lan who was fast mming his hunting 
grounds into farms and settlements. 

The occasion awaited only a second Pontiae. That leader eame 
in the person of Teeumseh, the Shawnee. But he came not alone. 
Another, named Elskwatawa — ^reputed to be his brother — appeared 
on the scene almost at the same time. As Pontiae had conspired 
against the English, so Teeumseh and "The Prophet"' (ior by that 
name was Elskwatawa called ^ came to destroy the Americans. Un- 
happily, their great scheme of murder and destruction approached 
its fini sh simultaneously with Great Britain's harasment of the 
United States until the republic was compelled to declare war against 
the mother country. So, hand in hand^ these two enemies, fighting 
together, but in widely different interests, turned the Maumee- 
"Wabash valleys into fields of bloodshed. 

The appearance of Teeumseh was like the coming of one whom 
the savages had long awaited. Blue Jacket, disappointed with the 
outcome of the contest with Wayne, had induced the great Shawnee 
to assume the command of the savages in their vast new confederacy. 
Teeumseh had been a leader in the attack on Fort Recovery in 1793. 
and he had participated in the battle of Fallen Timber, where he 
was brought into conflict with a leader who was one day to crush 
his hopes of success — 'William Henry Harrison. 

"The Prophet'* eame to the region of the Tippecanoe from his 
village on the Scioto river, in Ohio, where he first gained attention 
as a sorcerer. Pretending to be the chosen mouthpiece of the Great 
Spirit, he gave out the word that the time was near at hand when 



the red man would regain all of tiis departed poBHCHHionn and drive 
the wliitf; rnari from the weKtern country. 

<';t|4airi William VVelJK, at J''ort Wayne, throiijfh hiK close ac- 
fjijai(itaii<r<'Khi[( with the IndiariH, kefit well informed of eonditionH. 
On the 20th of Aut^iist,, 1H07, writin« to Oovernrir JIarriHon, he Kaid : 

"Two confidential IndianH have returned and Hay that the In- 
dianB in that quarter fMackanic] believe in what the Prophet telbi 
them, which \h that the Great Spirit will, in a few ycarH, dewtroy 
every whit'- rrjan in America. • « • Thiw busincKH waH ke[)t a 
Becret from liit.tle Turthr, the White fjoon, Five MedalH and Charley, 
aH they wr;re I'.i« KnivcH [friendH of the KentuckianH] and ou((ht 
not to know anything about the afTairH of the IndianH. • • • 
We are all alarmed at thiH place [Fort Wayne], myHclf excepted, 
ax I can Hce no danger aH yet at our doors. Something must be 
done. It cannot be done too Hoon, too. The IndiaoM are certainly 
forming an im[)ro[»cr combination — one that in not friendly toward 
UH, otherwise the leaders in it would not keep it so much in the dark 
from every person that is friendly disposed toward the United 


In the midst of these troublous times there was added to the 
little settlement at the fort in 1804 the p-rcrich family of Jean Fiap- 
tiste Maloch for Melosh;, consisting of Maloch, his wife and their 
sprightly granddaiighter, Angeline Chapeteau. They came from 

Detroit, by way of the .Manmec. Ant'elioe, then a fir! of Kcvcnteen. 


f ^Z/t'. 

,r^.Y^e^c/-^ ki o< ^i^i^^''^ "f i>-/<?Si^-i-^ 


In 1811 Captain flater Major) John Wlilntler wa« 8tatlon»;<l In a minor 
poHltlon under General William Hull, commandant at Detroit. On April 12 of 
that year General Hull wrote the above letter to the «ecretary of war, William 
EuHtIf). Captain WhiMtler <JI'J not receive the appointment to /-'ort Wayne until 


was destined to remain an active figure in the life of the place until 
the little settlement had developed into a promising city — indeed, 
until the railroad had been a builder of commerce for twenty years. 
Two years after her arrival she married James Peltier, and, latterly, 
Edward Griswold, a building contractor. 

Much interest elustei-s about this pioneer of pioneer families. 
The name of Jean Baptiste Maloch is first found in an old manuscript 
written, it is said, by a French priest, and given to Francis Parkman, 
the historian. He was a resident of Detroit at the time of the Pontiao 
conspiracy in 1760. It was at his house that Pontiac confined as 
prisoners Captain Donald Campbell, second in command of the 
British fort at Detroit, and Lieutenant George McDougall. The 
latter escaped, but Campbell was killed and eaten by the savages. 
The name of Maloch appears as a witness, together with that of his 

In September, 1860, Benson J. Losslng, 
the artist-historian, while in Fort Wayne 
made the above sisetch of the site of the 
grave of Little Turtle, The picture is 
reproduced from Losslng's "Pictorial 
Pieldbook of the War of 1812" by per- 
mission of Harper and Brothers, New 


Anthony Revarre. Jr., or White Loon, 
is the son of Kll-so-quah, granddaughter 
of Little Turtle. In 1902 occurred the 
death of Revarre's wife, an English 
school teacher. Revarre was born in 
1841. The portrait Is from a photo- 
graph by L. M. Huffman. 

brother Francis, in Major Gladwyn's investigation into the death 
of Campbell. He was a man of some means, as is shown by the 
census report of Detroit in 1782, in which he is reported as being 
possessed of "a wife, one hired man, one son, eight daughters, one 
male slave, two female slaves, five horses, four oxen, six cows, six 
steers, nine hogs, 1,500 pounds of flour, seventy bushels of wheat, 
twenty-three bushels of wheat sown and sixty" arpents of cleared 

The late Mrs. Lucien P. Ferry stated that she remembered the 
childhood name of Miss Chapeteau as Angelique. iMany interesting 
stories concerning the attractive French girl have come down to 
the present time. The following incidents are furnished by William 
H. W. Peltier, great-grandson of Angeline Chapeteau Peltier: 

This MCene is from a frieze in one of tlie court rooms in tlie Allen Cuiinty 
court liouse. It represents tlie coniing to Fort Wayne of Angeline (Miapeteau 
and her grandparents. Jean Haijtjste Maloch and hi=: wife, in 1S04. (See 
Chapter XVI. >. The portrait of .Angeline Chapeteau (Mrs. Griswohi) in her 
old ai^(\ appp.irs hehiw. 


A I the ase of sixteen. Mi's. Edwanl 
(_Jris\volfl (Miss Anseline Chapeteau) 
came lo I*'(»rt Wa>'ne in 1S04 witli iier 
Kl'anfiparents. Mr. and Mrs. Jean Bap- 
tiste Aialocli. Slie liecame tlie wife of 
Louis Peltier; later she married Edward 
Gri.-iwold. a coniraetor. Her death oc- 
curred in 1S76. in her ei,£?lity-sixtli year. 
liurinK her youuK womanhood she was 
the heroine of many an episode with 
the savages, who called her "Golden 
Hail" and made her a memher of tlie 
Miami family. During the siese of Fort 
Wayne, Mrs. Peltier, who had declined to 
take refuge in Ohio, with the other 
women of thi' post, remained by her 
hu = band's side. The portrait is from a 
photoKi'aph loaned b.v the great-grand- 
son of Mrs. Griswold, William H. W. 

The photograph .shows Louis C. Pel- 
tier, his son, ,James C. Peltier, and the 
son of the latter. William H. W. Pel- 
tier. The father of Louis C. Peltier was 
.James Peltier, whose father, Louis Pel- 
tier was a resident of the site of Fort 
Wayne long before the Wayne campaign. 
The name Peltier has been connected 
with the history of Fort Wayne longer 
tlian any <.)ther. 

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"At the time of her coining to Fort Wayne she was a bright 
yonng girl with hair of such a strikingly red color that the Indians 
called her 'Golden Hair.' She was at once a favorite with the 
Miamis and they adopted her into their tribe with solemn ceremony. 
We have many stories of her successful efforts to protect the whites 

Chief Little Turtle was burled In July, 1812, In that portion of the present 
city of Fort Wayne which lies between Spy Run avenue and the St. Joseph river, 
some distance north of the St. Mary's river. All authorities agree upon this 
point. But whore Is the exact burial spot? William D. Schlefer. of 333 East Main 
street, recalls the day in 1866 when John P. Hedges indicated to him the place 
where Little Turtle was burled. The chief died July 14. 1812. Mr. Schiefer, in 
1866, lived with his parents on the Abraham Harnett farm, which then included 
the tracts north and south of the present Lawton Place, as shown in the map. 
At that time Mr. Hedges located the grave at the spot Indicated by the letter A- 
On the 4th of July, 1912, Charles and Albert Lochner, contractors, while excavat- 
ing for the dwelling of Dr. George W. Gillie on Lawton Place, unearthed four 
skeletons and a large number of Indian ornaments, dishes and other articles. 
Among the specimens is a sword with a solid silver hilt. It is a fact of history 
that Washington gave to Little Turtle such a sword. Four skulls were found 
In the burial place; three were crumbling, while one was in fair condition. The 
three were buried again, while the best-preservd spcimen was retained. Later, 
Jacob M. Stouder, who is Interested in the study of the Miamis, secured the skull 
and the articles found in the graves. The authorities of the National Museum, 
when the skull was submitted to them, pronounced it to be that of an Indian 
woman. "I am fully convinced, however," says Mr. Stouder, "that the grave of 
Little Turtle has been found. Probably one of the three other skulls was that 
of the great Miami chieftain. I believe this sword is the one given to Little 
Turtle by Washington. There is also a pair of earrings, such as the chiefs, 
only, wore." A visit to Kil-so-quah, the granddaughter of Little Turtle, added 
to Mr. Stouder's belief that the spot of Little Turtle's burial has been found. 
Benson J. Lossing, the artlst-hlstorlan, while in Fort Wayne in 1860, was shown 
the alleged site of the chief's grave by John P. Hedges, but the place described 
by him in his Pictorial Fieldbook is some distance south of that located by Mr. 
Schlefer and Mr. Stouder. (See B.) 



from the savage treatment of the Indians, but probably the experi- 
ence of 1812 best illustrates her power over them. At the time of 
the opening of the siege James Peltier, the Second, her first son, was 
four years old. The family of three lived in a log house outside the 
fort, but within the outer stockade at a point near the building 
of the present Fort Wayne Iron Store Company, East Superior street 
and the Spy Run bridge. Even after the siege was on in earnest Mrs. 
Peltier continued to remain in the house, and here she served as 
a friend of both the garrison and the besiegers, with the hope of 
using her good offices to bring about peace. The Indians, during 
this time, brought venison within reach of the house to exchange 

Shortly before General Wayne Invaded 
the west Captain William Wells, who 
had been stolen when a boy by the 
Miamis and who, when he grew to man- 
hood married a daughter of Little Tur- 
tle, learned of the whereabouts of his 
relatives in Kentucky. He visited them 
and later, in 1808. his niece, Rebekah 
Wells, accompanied him on horseback to 
Fort Wayne. While here she became 
engaged to marry the commandant. Cap- 
tain Nathan Heald, and the wedding oc- 
curred in Kentucky in 1810, after Cap- 
tain Heald had been placed In command 
of Fort Dearborn. Rebekah Wells Heald 
and her husband, with Captain Wells. 
were the central figures in the Fort 
Dearborn massacre. The Healds. how- 
ever, made their escape from the sav- 
ages and managed to paddle a canoe the 
entire length of Lake Michigan in order 
to reach Mackinac. The portrait is re- 
produced by permission of the publish- 
ers. A. C. McClurg, from "The Story of 
Old Fort Dearborn." 

The above picture of the historic apple 
tree which formerly stood in Kekionga, 
site of the present Lakeside, is repro- 
duced from a lithograph in Brice's "His- 
tory of Fort Wayne," published in 1868, 
at which time Mr. Brice wrote: "The 
tree is about one hundred and thirty odd 
years old. • • * The tree is sup- 
posed to have sprung from a seed acci- 
dentally dropped or purposely planted 
by some of the early French traders or 
missionaries." Near It. in a hut. In 1761, 
was born Chief Richardville, of the Mi- 
amis. It is related that during the siege 
of Fort Wayne in 1812. an Indian sharp- 
shooter perched In its branches terror- 
ized the besieged garrison, but was final- 
ly brought to eartli bv a well-ain^ed shot 
from the fort. In 1867 Historian Brice 
found the trunk of the tree to measure 
twelve feet in circumference. 

it for salt which Mrs. Peltier procured from the fort. Thus was 
the garrison kept in food and the savages provided with salt. 
Finally, my great-grandmother was ordered within the fort, and it 
was not long before every building outside the inclosure was in 

At a later time an intoxicated Indian attacked her. She man- 
aged to overpower him and bring him to such a degree of subjection 
that she could tie him securely with a rope and give him a severe 


flogging. In this condition he was compelled to remain until the 
following morning, when he was released. Soon a body of excited 
savages surrounded the house and demanded her appearance. Aa 
she started to come forth, she saw, as a member of the group, the 
savage who had attacked her the night before. She hesitated, but 
it was only for a moment. Imagine her relief when she found that 
the Indians had come to pay homage to a woman of bravery and 
skill in meeting an adversary. The victim himself had organized 
the party which paid its respects and obtained her forgiveness. 

Mrs. Peltier lived until 1876. The children of Mr. and Mrs. 
James Peltier were James Peltier, the Second, born 1806, who lived 
to the advanced age of ninety-six years, Louis Peltier, born March 
14. 1813, who died in 1904 at the age of ninety-one, and Salvador 
Peltier, who died in 1915 at the age of eighty-nine. The children 
of Louis Peltier and wife (Laura Cushing) were James C. Peltier 
and Ellen Peltier-Meegan. Three daughters, were born to Salvador 
Peltier and wife (Catherine Vallequet). 

Mrs. Ferry, who knew all the persons to whom she referred, 
said to the WTiter in 1914: "A year after Angelique Chapeteau came, 
two younger sisters arrived from Detroit. One of these became the 
wife of Charles Peltier. Another sister, Theresa, married Francis 
Minie. Their brother, George Chapeteau, also settled at Fort Wayne. 
One day, when Charles Peltier was riding in the woods, he was 
attacked by wolves. His horse ran away and he could not save 
himself. His skeleton was found later. Nothing but his snufiHiox 
remained for identification." The writer, in examining into the 
family records of the French at Detroit, found the old spelling of 
Peltier to be Pelletier. William H. W. Peltier states that the 
change to the modern spelling was made by his great-grandfather. 
The present spelling of Chapeteau is Chapetan, and many represent- 
atives of the family are living in Detroit today. 


The year 1807 brought a new commandant to Fort Wayne, Cap- 
tain Nathan Heald, whose name figures in one of the most tragic 
events of the frontier— the massacre of Fort Dearborn, six years 
later. In the autobiography of Captain Heald, appearing for the 
first time in 1913, it is recorded that the commandant was born in 
1775. in New Ipswich, New Hampshire, the third son of Colonel Thomas 
and Sybel (Adams) Heald. Referring to the events of the year 1806, 
he says: 

"Left New London [Connecticut] and went to New Brunswick, 
N. J., on the same service [recruiting] & in the fall I was ordered 
to Fort Wayne by way of Philadelphia, where I joined Capt. Stod- 
dard with a Detachment of Recruits & went with him to Newport 
on the Ohio, then by myself to Fort Wayne where I arrived and 
took command in January, 1807. On the 31st of that month, & 
the same year, was promoted to a Capt. in First Reg't Infantry. 
In the Spring of 1807 went to Detroit to sit on a General Court 
Martial & returned to Port Wayne in the summer." 

The autobiography of Captain Heald appears in full as an 



appendix to "Chicago and the Old Northwest," by Dr. M. M. Quaife, 
University of Chicago Press. The original is in the form of a small 
notebook, 3 by 6 inches in size, which forms a part of the Draper 
collection at Madison, Wisconsin. The autobiography was written 
to cover a period of activity down to the year 1822, when Heald 
was living in retirement in St. Charles County, Missouri. 

The story of the frontier experience of Captain Heald includes 
one of the early romances of Fort Wayne. In the year 1809, Captain 
William Wells, on his return from a visit with his relatives in 
Kentucky, brought to Fort Wayne as a guest his niece, Rebekah 
Wells. Miss Wells was the daughter of Samuel Wells, later a hero 
of the battle of Tippecanoe, a brother of the man whose name is 

In the year of her death. 1915, Kil-so- 
quah was 105 years of age. She was 
born In 1810 on the island formed by the 
two forks of the Wabash river two miles 
west of Huntington, Indiana- Her fa- 
ther was Wak-shin-gah, a son of Chief 
Little Turtle. Her mother was the 
daughter of She-mock-o-nish, a Miami 
warrior. The first husband of Kil-so- 
quah was John Owl, whose death oc- 
curred soon after their marriage. Later 
she married Anthony Revarre, who died 
In 1849, after which time the aged Mi- 
ami princess lived with her son, An- 
thony Revarre, Jr.. or White Loon. A 
daughter, Mrs. Taylor, lives in Roanoke, 
Indiana. Kil-so-quah, who was two 
years of age when Little Turtle died, 
retained a faint remembrance of her 
royal grandfather. "The old chief used 
to come to her father's home at Miami 
park, west of Huntington, and, com- 
plaining that his hair had not been 
combed for many days, smiled a whim- 
sical invitation for his tiny granddaugh- 
ter to perform the service for him," 
writes Mrs. Matilda Henderson Whee- 
lock, in the Indianapolis Star of August 
22, 1909. "WTiereupon," she continues, 
"the little Kil-so-quah joyfully climbed 
Into the roval lap, planted her sturdy 
little feet firmly upon the royal knee 
and, with the roval arms to steady her. 
delightedly proceeded with her pleasing 
task." The portrait Is from a photo- 
graph by L. M. Huffman. 


Me-te-a, the noted Pottawatomie chief, 
who had a village on the site of the 
present Cedarville, Allen county, Indi- 
ana, and another on the St. Joseph river 
seven miles north of Fort Wayne, was 
at the height of his power in 1812. It 
was he who secretly informed Antolne 
Bondie of the plan to besiege Fort 
W'ayne. Later, with a few of his braves, 
he prepared an ambuscade for Harrison's 
army, five miles south of Fort Wayne, 
as it approached the fort, but the plan 
was discovered by Captain Logan and 
Major Mann, a spy. Me-te-a, who was 
hidden behind a tree, left his elbow ex- 
posed as he held his rifle; Major Mann 
took aim and fired, the discharge break- 
ing the bones of the chief's arm. The 
warrior escaped and ran to Fort Wayne 
to give the alarm, which enabled the 
savages to reach places of safety. The 
wound of the arm healed, but the mem- 
ber was useless ever afterward. Me-te-a 
is described as a man of bravery, gen- 
erosity and Intellect, and an orator of 
power. He died at Fort Wayne of poi- 
soning in May, 1827, and his body was 
interred in a grave near the present Col- 
lege street, between Berry and Wayne 
streets. The body of Me-te-a was placed 
In the first burial casket made by the 
late Louis Peltier. Reference to the cir- 
cumstance Is given in a more extended 
way in another portion of this work. 


inseparably linked with the history of Fort Wayne and Chicago. 
While here Miss Wells appears to have been a party to a case of 
"love at first sight," in which the commandant, Captain Nathan 
Heald, figured with equal zest, for they were married two years 
later and the brave Kentucky girl's name is written among the 
heroes of the Fort Dearborn massacre. During the visit of Rebekah 
Wells at Fort Wayne, Captain Heald taught her the use of the rifle 
in which she became very expert. (See "The Story of Old Fort 
Dearborn," by J. Seymour Currey; Fort Wayne Public Library.) 

Heald had not been entirely satisfied with his position at Chi- 
cago. A few days after his arrival, in 1810, he wrote Colonel Jacob 
Kingsbury, at Detroit, that he was not pleased with his situation 
and could not bear to think of staying there during the winter. "It 
is a good place," he wrote, "for a man who has a family and can 
content himself to live remote from the civilized part of the world." 
On the journey of Captain and Mrs. Heald from Louisville, Ken- 
tucky, the bride rode "a beautiful and well-trained" bay mare upon 
which the Indians always looked with longing eyes ; they made 
several attempts to steal her. At the time of the Fort Dearborn 
massacre, Mrs. Heald was riding this valuable horse when the attack 
was made, and the Indians considered the horse one of the greatest 
trophies of the attack. Efforts to regain possession of the horse 
by purchase failed. On the trip from Kentucky, Mrs. Heald was 
accompanied by a slave girl, Cicely, who refused to be separated 
from her mistress. The party stopped at Fort Wayne on the way 
to Fort Dearborn. 

But to return to the period of Captain Heald 's administration 
of the affairs of Fort Wayne ■} 

We have for our contemplation a well-framed picture of con- 
ditions about the fort from the letter of a soldier, Lieutenant Philip 
Ostrander, who, sent from Michilimackinac to serve at Fort Wayne, 
records his impressions as follows, in a letter to his friend, George 
Hoffman, at the northern Michigan post. The original letter is in 
the Burton Historical Collection at Detroit. Ostrander wrote: 

"Fort Wayne, October 4, 1807. — Dear Sir: I arrived here yes- 
terday after a journey of eleven days from Detroit, heartily tired 
of my passage. At Detroit, I got into a pirogue with three French- 
men, neither of whom could speak one word of English. You may 
easily judge from this how irksome my situation was; my only 
amusement was shooting along shore and occasionally reading. On 
my arrival at this post [Port Wayne] I was received with the 
utmost politeness by Captain [Nathan] Heald who continues to shew 
me every flattering attention. Indeed, sir, by every ofBeer at Detroit 
and at this place I have been treated with the utmost liberality and 
respect. The very day of my arrival, I was requested to dine with 
Captain [William] Wells [the Indian agent] ; and today by Mr. 
Johnson [Colonel John Johnston], our present factor [superintend- 
ent of the government "factory"] at this post. I do not mention 
these circumstances through vanity, but merely with the intention 
of informing you that everyone endeavors to make my place of 
residence comfortable and happy. 



"I could form no conception of what an agreeable situation 
this is, both as to the face of the country and the elegant situation 
of the fort," continues Lieutenant Ostrander. "We are, however, 
destitute of one thing which would make the situation still more 
agreeable — that is, society. Mr. Johnson [Johnston], Captain Wells, 
J. Audrian [brother of the wife of Mr. Hoffman], and the officers 
of the garrison compose our party. They tell me that the place 
is in general pretty healthy, but, to tell the truth, I have seen a 
number of very sick people. Dr. Edwards [who had married the 
daughter of Colonel Thomas Hunt at Fort Wayne in 1803] had, 
unfortunately, started for Cincinnati about an hour before my 
arrival. » * * Captain Abbott leaves this place early tomorrow 


Th« supposed brother of Tecumseh, 
who exerted a great Influence during the 
Tecumseh campaign of 1811-1813. claim- 
ed to have received authority from the 
Great Spirit to deliver the red men from 
the control of the whites. He was "a 
cunning, unprincipled man, in early life 
remarl<able for nothing but stupidity 
and drunlsenness." One of his eyes was 


.T.' nouTM OF 

The Fort Dearborn massacre took place 
in a region which may now be generally 
defined as bounded by Fourteenth and 
Twenty-flrst streets and Michigan and 
Indiana avenues in the city of Chicago. 
The map shows the location of Fort 
Dearborn, the agency house, the Kinzie 
mansion (1), the Ouilmette house (2) 
and the Burns house (3). 

The writer of the letter. Lieutenant Philip Ostrander, was one 
of the officers who preferred charges against Captain Rhea, the 
commandant of the fort in 1812, which resulted in the resignation 
of that officer to avoid the embarrassment of a court-martial. Cap- 
tain Abbott, to whom Ostrander refers, was probably Robert or Sam- 
uel Abbott, of Detroit. They were brothers of James Abbott, whose 
wife, Sarah, was the daughter of Ma.ior John Whistler; the artist, 
James Abbott McNeill Whistler, was named for his uncle. George 
Hoffman, to whom Ostrander's letter is addressed, was the first 
postmaster of Detroit and at the time of the writing of the letter 
was collector for the government at Mackinac. 

Probably the Audrian (Audrain) to whom Ostrander refers is 
the Audrain mentioned in a report of Governor Harrison to the war 


department complaining of conditions about Fort "Wayne in 1805: 
"I am convinced that a certain Connor and one Audrain have acted 
as Wells' agents in this affair [creating dissatisfaction among the 
Piankeshaws and Delawares concerning a treaty closed by Harri- 
son]. They both have very advantageous contracts with Wells for 
making rails for the Indians. » * * Audrain, although estab- 
lished within a few miles of the falls of the Ohio, has found it to 
his advantage to undertake the making of rails at the Turtle's town, 
north of Fort Wayne." 

Despite the reports of dissatisfaction with the conduct of Cap- 
tain William Wells, sent to the Washington authorities by Governor 
William Henry Harrison, congress, in 1808, in recognition of the' 
services of the hardy frontiersman who was yet to add fame to his 
name through his heroic death in the Fort Dearborn massacre, 
granted to him the right to pre-empt, at $1.25 per acre, one section 
of land in the present Spy Run and Bloomingdale districts of Fort 

"On this improvement of Captain Wells were comfortable 
buildings and a good orchard, plenty of stock and several negro 
slaves, which Captain Wells had brought from Kentucky," says 
the late John W. Dawson. At the time of the siege, after Wells's 
death one month before, the widow and her family, together with 
these slaves, sought refuge in the fort, and all of their movable 
property was carried within the protecting palisades. The farm 
buildings were destroyed by the savages. 

Wells did not pre-empt the land, but his children took advan- 
tage of the government's offer and entered the property soon after 
the close of the war of 1812. 


To Fort Wayne, in 1809, came Governor Harrison, in spite of 
the threatening conditions of the community, to make what proved 
to be his final treaty with the savages in Indiana Territory. The 
agreement, signed on the 17th of September, added to the domain 
of the United States an area of 2,900,000 acres, the greater portion 
of which was situated north of the old Vincennes tract. The total 
amount of land ceded to the United States by the Indians through 
treaties conducted by Governor Harrison was about 29,719,530 acres. 

Preliminary to the Fort Wayne treaty, "the Pottawatomies 
waited on the governor and requested a little liquor, which was 
refused. The governor observed that he was determined to shut 
up the liquor casks until all the business was finished," says Harri- 
son's official report. "So destructive has been the progress of intem- 
perance that whole villages have been swept away," wrote the gov- 
ernor in his first message to the territorial legislature. 

Obstinacy on the part of some of the chiefs caused a vexatious 
delay of the day of signing the treaty. Says Ellmore Barce, in the 
Indiana Magazine of History: 

"The final consummation of the pact was brought about by the 
ready tact and hard common sense of Harrison himself. No solu- 
tion of the obstinacy of the Mississinewa chiefs had been discovered. 



Nothing daunted, Harrison resolved to make one more attempt. 
He took with him his interpreter, Joseph Barron, a man in whom 
he had the utmost confidence, and visited the camps of the Miamis. 
He was received well, and told them he came not as the represent- 
ative of the president, but as an old friend with whom they had 
been many years acquainted. Calling then upon the principal chief 
of the Eel River tribe, who served under him in General Wayne's 
army, he demanded to know what his objections were. The chief 
drew forth a copy of the Treaty of Grouseland and said: 'Pather, 


Above are shown a few of the scores 
of articles taken from Indian graves 
July 4, 1912, by Charles and Albert Loch- 
ner while excavating for the dwelling of 
Dr. George W. Gillie on Lawton Place. 
Jacob M. Stouder, the present owner of 
the collection, is firmly of the opinion 
that the sword is that given by Pres- 
ident Washington to Chief Little Turtle, 
and that some of the specimens here 
ehown are from the chieftain's grave. 

Following the battle of Tippecanoe Te- 
cumseh came to Fort Wayne and de- 
manded of the commandant. Captain 
Rhea, a supply of ammunition, which 
was refused him. "He then said he 
would go to his British father, who 
would not deny him. He appeared 
thoughtful a while, then gave the war- 
whoop and went off." (McAfee). The 
Fort Dearborn massacre, the siege of 
Fort Wayne and many of the western 
features of the war of 1S12 followed, 
with Tecumseh leagued with the Brit- 
ish. The great Shawnee leader was 
killed at the battle of the Thames, in 
Canada. October 5, 1S13. The dispute 
concerning the identity of the man who 
killed Tecumseh led to the choice of Gen- 
eral Harrison as the successful candidate 
for the presidency of the United States. 

here are your own words. In this paper you have promised that 
you would consider the Miamis as the owner of the land on the 
Wabash. Why, then, are you about to purchase it from others?' 

"The governor assured them that it was not his intention to 
purchase the land from other tribes; that he had always said, and 
was ready now to confess, that the land belonged to the Miamis 
and to no other tribe. That of the other tribes that had been invited 
to the treaty it was at their (the Miamis') particular request. The 
Pottamatomies had, indeed, taken a higher ground than either the 
governor or the Miamis expected. They claimed an equal right 


to the lands in question with the Miamis; but what of this? Their 
claiming it gave them no right. * * * It was always the gov- 
ernor's intention so to draw the treaty that the Pottawatomies and 
Delawares would be considered as participating in the advantages 
of the treaty as allies of the Miamis; not as having any rights to 
the land. The governor's resourcefulness saved the day." 

Following the conference, Harrison returned to the fort and 
soon the chiefs, headed by Pucan, waited upon him and signed the 
treaty. The Indians were paid in domestic animals to the amount 
of $500 and the like number for the two following years, and an 
armory maintained at Fort Wayne for the use of the Indians. A 
further annuity of $200 was allowed. 

At the time of Harrison's visit, the following government em- 
ployes were stationed at Fort Wayne: 

Colonel John Johnston, agent or "factor," $1,000 per year, 
with subsistence allowance of $365. William Oliver, clerk, $250, 
with $150 for subsistence. The value of merchandise forwarded by 
the government to Fort Wayne during the summer amounted to 
$4,868.87. The value of merchandise on hand, peltries and other 
goods, was $5,020.75 ; accounts receivable were listed at $2,112.72 ; 
the value of the buildings used was given at $500. (Report of J. 
Mason, superintendent of trading house establishments or agencies 
of the government among the Indians, to the secretary of war.) 


In 1809, Lieutenant William Whistler was transferred from 
Fort Dearborn to service at Fort Wayne. He was a son of Major 
John Whistler, who had established Port Dearborn, and who later 
was to become the commandant of Fort Wayne. Lieutenant Whistler 
later was transferred to Detroit, and was with General Hull when 
that officer surrendered the post to the British in 1812. With Mrs. 
Whistler (formerly Julia Ferson, of Salem, Massachusetts), he was 
carried to Montreal, where they were held until their exchange 
for British prisoners held by the Americans. Lieutenant Whistler 
was six feet and two inches in height, and weighed two hundred 
and sixty pounds. His death occurred at Newport, Kentucky, in 


The passing of the early weeks of 1810 brought increasing 
alarm at Fort Wayne which was not allayed by the revelation of 
the plan of the savages to demand the removal of William Henry 
Harrison as the governor of Indiana territory. In July, Harrison 
wrote to the secretary of war: 

"I have received a letter from Fort Wayne which confirms the 
information of the hostile designs and combinations of the Indians. 
The people in the neighborhood where the horses were stolen are 
so much alarmed that they are collecting together for their defense." 

On the 10th of August, Colonel Johnston wrote to Harrison: 

"Since writing you on the 25th ultimo, about one hundred 
Sawkeys [Sacs] have returned from the British agent [McKee], who 
supplied them liberally with everything they stand in want of. The 



party received forty-seven rifles and a number of fusils [flintlock 
muskets] with plenty of powder and lead." 

Colonel Johnston, at Fort Wayne, also reported that Tecumseh 
and ' ' the Prophet ' ' were active in the organization of their propaganda 
of overthrowing the Americans, and he made a special effort to keep 
in close touch with the governor. Writing under date of October 14, 
1810, the agent said to Harrison : 

"I have at last got rid of the Indians after a very protracted 
meeting. * * * AH of the tribes belonging to this agency were 
invited in the usual manner, by runners. * * * The Miamis hung 
back, under various frivolous pretenses. * * * i soon found out 
from confidential friends among them that there was mischief going 

On May 18, 1808. the national con- 
gress, in recognition of his services to 
the government granted to Captain Wil- 
liam Wells the right to pre-empt, or buy, 
at $1.25 per acre a half section of land 
comprising the greater portion of the 
present Spy Run and Bloomingdale, in 
Fort Wayne. Wells died without taking 
advantage of the privilege, and his chil- 
dren entered the land. Hence the name 
"Wells Pre-emption," often erroneouslv 
called "Wells Reserve." At the last this 
property came to Jack Hackley and 
Ann (Mrs. Ferrand-Blystone) Hackley. 
"Though left with abundant property," 
observes the late John W. Dawson, "nei- 
ther seemed capable of even preserving 
it from improvident sale, and I appre- 
hend both died poor." 

In this house, located a short distance 
south of Roanoke. Indiana, Kil-so-quah, 
granddaughter of Little Turtle, died In 
1915 at the age of 105 years. 

Coming to Fort Wayne first in 1812, 
Mr. Hedges was long an influential cit- 
izen of the pioneer town which grew up 
about the fort. (Signature from Burton 
Historical Collection. Detroit). 

on among them. * * » Without naming Wells, I introduced the 
subject that had been agitated among them of petitioning for your 
removal, and I endeavored to show them the impropriety of their 
interfering in such a business. I told them that whoever advised 
them to it was a wicked bad man and was not their friend. * • • 
The Prophet had two of his people here during the whole confer- 
ence. I took no notice of them. * » * "Wells has undoubtedly 
gone to Washington to make interest, and if he fails in getting into 
office again I am told he intended to try for the contract he has here ; 
and in the state of Ohio on his way thro' Kentucky, endeavored to 
asperse all the measures that has been adopted by you relative to 
the objects of the Prophet." 


Already Harrison had written the secretary of war that "The 
Prophet" had proposed to the young men among the Indians to 
murder their principal chiefs, "observing that their hands would 
never be untied until this was effected." Large numbers of horses 
were stolen from Fort Wayne, including some belonging to Captain 
Wells. "The Prophet," on the occasion of a visit to Governor Har- 
rison at Vincennes at this time, said to the governor: "I heard that 
you wanted to know, my father, whether I was God or man, and 
that if it was the former, I should not steal horses. I heard this 
from Mr. Wells, but I believed it originated with himself." 

Governor Harrison, during this critical period, was not idle. 
Preparations not only for defense but of aggressive warfare against 
the savages, in case of an outbreak, were carried forward without 
interruption. By appointment, Tecumseh appeared before him at 
Vincennes with a large company of hideously painted warriors. 
"The Shawnee Chief Tecumseh has made a visit to this place with 
about three hundred Indians," wrote Harrison, "though he prom- 
ised to bring but a few attendants; his intentions hostile, though 
he found us prepared for him. • • • That he meditated a blow 
at this time was believed by almost all the neutral Indians." 

The object of Tecumseh 's visit was to make a vigorous protest 
against the late treaty at Fort Wayne. "In the course of his speech," 
says Benjamin Drake, "he admitted that he threatened to kill the 
chiefs who signed the treaty of Fort Wayne and that it was his fixed 
determination not to permit the village chiefs, in future, to manage 
their affairs, but to place the power with which they were heretofore 
invested in the hands of the war chiefs." 

The delivery of Governor Harrison's reply was interrupted by 
the outcry of Tecumseh, whose armed braves undoubtedly would 
have fallen upon the assemblage of whites but for the prompt 
appearance of the guard, fully prepared to meet an attack. 


In the midst of the agitation, Captain Nathan Heald was trans- 
ferred from the command at Fort Wayne to the post at Fort Dear- 
born. In his stead came Captain James Rhea, who arrived in the 
spring of 1810. The weakness of character of the new commandant 
under the trying conditions which were soon to surround the little 
garrison of the fort in the wilderness might have proved of frightful 
consequence but for the bravery and intelligence of the subordinate 
military and civil authorities within the stockade. 

"Rhea was a native of New Jersey, and a lieutenant and adju- 
tant of 'Rhea's Levies,' in 1791. He was ensign and second lieu- 
tenant of infantry in 1799, and was promoted to first lieutenant in 
1800. He was commissioned a captain in 1807." (Gardner's "Dic- 
tionary of the Army.") Rhea, after serving under Wayne, had been 
in command of a post established by Wayne below Swan creek, 
which empties into the Maumee, in Ohio. 

The first celebration of the Fourth of July at Fort Wayne of 
which a record has been preserved occurred in the year 1810. Gath- 
ered near the Maumee, below Harmar's Ford, beneath the "big 


elm," as the tree was known for many years, Commandant Rhea 
and his officers, together with the attaches of the fort, were enjoying 
the day in patriotic style when the celebration was interrupted by 

d 'iJ^*^^. 

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The original order of General William Hull to Captain Nathan Heald direct- 
ing the latter to evacuate Fort Dearborn and convey the occupants and stores to 
Fort Wayne is the property of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, through 
whose permission it is here reproduced. The letter was obtained by Dr Lyman 
C. Draper, former secretary of the society, from Darius Heald, son of Captain 
Heald, whom Dr. Draper visited at his home near O'Fallon. Missouri, in 1869. 
The hastily written order which brought a terrible death to many reads as 

"It is with regret I order the evacuation of your post, owing to the want 
of provisions only, a neglect of the commandant at Detroit. You will then Are 
destroy all arms and ammunition but the goods of the factory you may give to 
the friendly Indians, who may be desirous of escorting vou on to Fort Wayne, 
and to the poor and needy of your post. I am informed this day that Mackinac 
and the Island of St. Joseph will be evacuated on account of the scarcity of pro- 
visions, and I hope in my next to give you an account of the surrender of the 
British at Maiden, as I expect 600 men h«re on the beginning of September. 

I am yours, &c., BRIGADIER GEN. HULL." 


the appearance of a mounted courier from Detroit bringing the first 
regular mail and military dispatches to the garrison. Because of 
this occurrence, Captain Rhea, who was authorized to receive and 
distribute the mail, is sometimes referred to as Port Wayne's first 
postmaster, and the "big elm" has been called "the first postolfice." 

Rhea was fully cognizant of the impending trouble with the 
savages, but he failed utterly to grasp the opportunity to make a 
name which should be written alongside those of the nation's heroes 
of the time in the west. The Indian agent, Colonel Johnston, how- 
ever, was alert. On the 6th of February, 1811, he wrote Governor 
Harrison, as follows, omitting the name of his informant: 

" has been at this place. The information derived 

from him is the same I have been in possession of for several years, 
to wit : the intrigues of the British agents and partisans in creating 
an influence hostile to our people and government, within our ter- 

Governor Harrison hastened to Fort "Wayne late in August, 1811, 
and here, on the 4th of September, held a council with such of the 
Indian chiefs as could be induced to attend. Eleven leaders of the 
Miamis were present. The original documents containing the ad- 
dresses of Harrison and chiefs on this occasion were discovered in 
the following curious manner : S. A. Gibson, superintendent of the 
Kalamazoo (Mich.) Paper Company, found, in a mass of waste 
paper, received from Fort Wayne, twenty-eight pages of foolscap 
paper, evidently torn from a book. Upon these pages were written, 
in the same hand, though at different times, the address of Governor 
Harrison, together with the translated speeches of the Indians. The 
identity of the translator is unknown. The speeches first appeared 
in Fergus's Historical Series No. 26, in connection with a paper by 
Hiram W. Beckwith, of Danville, Illinois. 

Returning to Vincennes, Harrison took immediate steps for an 
aggressive campaign against the Prophet's Town, on the Tippecanoe, 
His move was made increasingly urgent by the appeals of the pio- 
neers for protection against the maraudings of the savages which 
now were openly conducted. 


With additional regular troops and militia. Governor Harrison 
advanced up the Wabash during the second week in October. On 
September 11, the governor had written to the secretary of war, 
Mr. Eustis: 

"The government need be under no apprehension for us. Sir, 
if the Prophet attacks us, we shall beat him. I promise you at least 
that we shall not be surprised. * * * The Greek maxim,' Asp/ia- 
les gar est (i) ameinon e thrasus strategas' [A safe leader is better 
than a bold one], which was so great a favorite with Augustus 
(who, by the bye, was, I believe, inferior as a warrior to Little 
Turtle or Tecumseh) shall be ever present to my mind." 

Peace messengers to the Indians were mistreated, and a sentinel 
was seriously wounded. "The Prophet" sent his emissaries to Har- 
rison, pleading for a council the next day, but, true to the savage 



character, the Indians attacked the camp of the Americans on the 
fields of Tippecanoe at 4 o'clock in the morning, but were utterly 
defeated in their attempt to destroy Harrison's army. The American 
loss was twenty-two killed and one hundred and twenty-six wounded. 
About seven hundred men were engaged on either side in this famous 
Battle of Tippecanoe which brought to Harrison new fame and 
turned his face toward the Wliite House. 

As early as May, 1811, Tecumseh had declared openly to Cap- 
tain Wells that he was "determined to resist the encroachments of 
the white people." Upon Wells observing that he would never be 
able to accomplish his intentions, he declared that Wells would live 
to see the contrary. It was Tecumseh 's determination to kill 
every chief who had signed the treaty with Harrison at Fort Wayne 
in 1809. 

Tecumseh had not been a participant in the battle of Tippe- 
canoe, as the conflict had been forced by "The Prophet" while 
Tecumseh was visiting the tribes along the Ohio river. The result 

A smaU tablet marked "Little Turtle, 
1751-1812" was placed by Jacob M. 
Stouder In the rear of the residence prop- 
erty of Dr. George W. Gillie, No. 634 
Lawton Place, to mark the spot where 
Chief Little Turtle is believed to have 
been buried. 

Lieutenant Ostrander was one of the 
officers in charge of Fort Wayne during 
the siege of 1812. (Burton Historical 
Collection, Detroit). 

Captain Heald was in command of 
Port Wayne from 1807 to 1810. At the 
time of the Fort Dearborn massacre he 
was the commandant of the post. His 
wife, who shared the perils of the time, 
was a niece of Captain William Wells. 
(Burton Historical Collection, Detroit.) 

affected him deeply. His great plan was already defeated, but he 
was still for war. Says McAfee: 

"After Tecumseh returned from the south, he visited Fort 
Wayne and was still haughty and obstinate in the opinions he had 
embraced. He made bitter reproaches against Harrison, and, at 
the same time, had the presumption to demand ammunition from 
the commandant, which was refused him. He then said he would 
go to the British father, who would not deny him. He appeared 
thoughtful a while, and then gave the warwhoop and went off." 

Tecumseh made his way immediately to Maiden. Captain Wells 
reported the chief's visit in a communication to Governor Harrison, 
dated July 22. He added that the chief was on his way ' ' to receive 
twelve horseloads of ammunition for the use of his people." 


Later, contrary to the wishes of the government, Tecumseh 
gathered a large number of braves at Greenville. Acting upon 
instructions from the war department, Wells sent Anthony Shane, 
a half-breed Shawnee, with a message to Tecumseh, inviting him and 
his brother, with two other chiefs, to visit him at Fort Wayne, 
where arrangements would be made to render the tribes assistance 
in forming settlements on tracts other than those belonging to the 
United States. The haughty reply of Tecumseh informed Wells 
that if he wished to hold such a conference, he should visit Tecum- 
seh at Greenville and that his presence would be expected on the 
sixth day from the receipt of the message. Shane carried the 
response to Wells, who replied by sending to Tecumseh the com- 
munication from the war department. Tecumseh ignored the mes- 
sage on the ground that Shane was an unfit person to serve as a 
representative of the United States. Instead of dispersing, the 
Indians, in increasing numbers, continued to assemble at Green- 
ville and elsewhere, on government property. 

The depredations of the savages now increased in frequency 
and severity. A body of Indians, however, even with these evi- 
dences of unfriendliness as a warning, visited Fort Wayne and 
succeeded in deceiving the agent, Colonel Johnston, into the belief 
that the Prophet had been repudiated by his followers and was 
then being held a prisoner. The tale was told to induce the agent 
to pay to the spokesmen their annuities, and this request was 


Shortly after the incident. Colonel Johnston was transferred 
to Upper Piqua, Ohio. His successor. Major Benjamin Franklin 
Stickney, a man of strong character, brave and somewhat eccentric, 
took up his duties at a time when the fort was in imminent peril. 
He had been in the government service at Upper Sandusky, Ohio. 
Major Stickney occupied the council house, located just outside the 
fort stockade. His wife was a daughter of Captain John and 
"Mollie" Stark, of Revolutionary fame. Much has been written 
concerning the life and activities of Major Stickney, especially dur- 
ing the period following his service at Fort Wayne. A suggestion 
of his eccentric character is found in the choice of names for his 
children. The sons were styled One, Two and Three, and the 
daughters bore the names of states of the union. After Major 
Stickney 's services at Fort Wayne were ended, the family removed 
to a tract of land within the present Toledo which was then located 
in Michigan. With the building of the Wabash and Erie canal came 
also the "Toledo war" which resulted in the change of location 
of the state boundaries which placed Toledo forever in the state 
of Ohio. Major Stickney was a leader in the fight which brought 
about this result. His written arguments on the subject form an 
interesting story of the time. 

The year 1812 was a period of terror throughout the west. 
Major Stickney, writing May 25th, to Governor Harrison, expressed 
the general thought in these words: 


"The time appears to have arrived when it is necessary, if 
possible, to cut off aU communieation between the Indians within 
the territory of the United States, and Canada." 

Were such a thing possible earlier in the progress of the anti- 
American campaign, the declaration of war against Great Britain 
on June 13 forever forestalled the plan and brought the foes of 
the United States into still closer alliance. Tecumseh was enabled 
at once to rally to his aid many who had been reluctant to sever 
their adherence to the United States. 

John Shaw, sub-agent of the Pottawatomies, at Fort Wayne, 
kept in close touch with the situation, and his letters of March 1 
and 10th, 1812, reveal the watchfulness of the garrison at Fort 
Wayne. Said he: 

"It appears from the statements of a gentleman from Detroit 
that the Morpock (Pottawatomie chief) with a small party of 
Indians, has been, for a considerable time past, encamped on the 
river Raisin, and constantly getting provisions from the British 
at Maiden." 

On the 10th of ]\Iarch, Robert Forsythe, writing to Captain 
Rhea, commandant of Fort Wayne, said : 

"I have no doubt but those Indians that passed this post [Fort 
Wayne] some time ago, are a deputation sent to the British garrison 
for the purpose of procuring ammunition." 

Captain Rhea, addressing Captain John Whistler at Detroit, 
wrote from Fort Wayne, March 14 : 

"From the best information I can get I [have] every reason 
to believe we shall have an Indian war this spring whether we have 
a British war or not." 


In the midst of these anxious days, came the close of the life 
of the great Little Turtle. Far from the thoughts of the chief and his 
friends, as the end drew near, was the truth that in the same year 
would come, also, the death of Little Turtle's best friend — Captain 
William Wells. 

The Miami chief always had been a lover of the choicest foods. 
We hear much of his sumptous repasts in which he failed to display 
the temperate habits which he enjoined upon those who would in- 
dulge in strong drink. This course proved his undoing, for the 
condition developed a fatal attack of gout. For his greater con- 
venience, and in order that he might have the attendance of the 
surgeon of the fort, the chief was brought from his village on Eel 
river to the home of his son-in-law, Captain Wells, in the present 
Spy Run district. Accustomed to life in the open. Little Turtle 
chose to lie in a shelter arranged within the yard of the home of 
Captain Wells. During his final days, the chief, while in friendly 
conversation with his attendants, was informed that gout is a " gen- 
tleman 's disease." With a smile, he replied: "I always thought 
I was a gentleman." The funeral was characterized by the highest 
military honors. The service was in charge of Captain Rhea and 
the garrison of the fort. The chief was buried with all the honors 
due a leader who had, during eighteen busy years, devoted his life 

M A .1 ( > K 1-: I ; i: x i-: z i; 1 1 i > i-: x x \' , 

Major Denny was aide-de-camp to 
General Harmar and also to General St. 
Clair on their western campaiKns (1790 
and 1791). While at the site of Fori 
Wayne he made the first existing map 
of the Fort Wayne rivers. The portrait 
is from the printed edition of his Jour- 
nal, issued hy the Pennsylvania Histo- 
rical Society. 





Mr. Evans was among the earlier act- 
ive business men of Fort Wayne. 

J iii.x i:i,i,iiiTT iir.xT. 

.I.ilin JOIlioll Hunt, son of Culnnel 
Tliomas Hunt, commandant of I'"oM 
Wayne, was the first white child born 
within the stockade of the old fort. This 
was in 1798. .lohn Elliott Hunt rose to 
prominence in tlie later history of Ohio 
and ^lichisan. 

•lames Barnett, in 1S24, erected the 
first brick building in Fort Wayne, on 
the north side of Columbia Street, 
east of Clinton. The brick was made 
by Benjamin Arclier. Used as a resi- 
dence for many years, tlie building at 
the last served as the location of 
Schwieter's bakery. It was torn down 
in 1909. 

1. Frederick W. Keil. 2. William Kaougli. 3. C. R. HigginK. 4. ^^•rigllt AV. 

ItnckhilL r.. William D. Page. fi. Robert B. Haiuiu 

Eilward C. Jliller. 


to the uplift of his people, while proving to be a warm friend of 
the whites. His nephew, Co-is-see,^ pronounced a funeral oration 
over the remains. 

Within the grave of Little Turtle was placed a sword presented 
to him by General Washington, together with a large silver medal 
bearing the likeness of Washington.* 


Within a period of two weeks after the death of Little Turtle, 
General William Hull, governor of Michigan and commandant of a 
strong American force at Detroit, sent an order to Fort Dearborn, 
by way of Fort Wayne, instructing the commandant. Captain Nathan 
Heald, to evacute the fort and transfer the occupants of the lonely 
post to Fort Wayne. The bearer of the message from Fort Wayne 
to Fort Dearborn was Win-ne-meg (Winamac) or "Catfish," a 
friendly Pottawattomie chief whose identity is sometimes confused 
with that of Winamac, the chief who led in the attack on Fort 
Wayne later in the same year. Hull sent, also, a message to Fort 
Wayne, instructing the agent, Major Stickney, to render such 
assistance as possible to Captain Heald in the removal of the men, 
women and goods through the wilderness to Fort Wayne. Captain 
Wells, ever ready when his services were useful in times of peril, 
and spurred to action by the fact of his close blood relationship 
with the commandant's wife, organized a company of thirty friendly 
Indians, and, with Sergeant W. K. Jordan as a companion, set off in 
haste for Fort Dearborn. Among the Indian members of Wells's 
escort was Ching-win-thah, nephew of Little Turtle. Wells hoped to 
reach the fort in time to prevent its evacuation. He arrived too 
late. Heald had followed to the letter the orders of General Hull, 
by agreeing to deliver up to the Indians the fort with its contents, 
excepting such arms, ammunition and provisions as would be neces- 
sary for the journey to Fort Wayne. The Indians, in turn, promised 
to allow the passage to Fort Wayne in safety. Preparations for 
departure were under way when Wells arrived. In addition to the 
sixty-six enlisted men, the fort contained nine women and eighteen 
children, a total of ninety-seven, including the officers. The eight 
days which intervened between the time of the receipt of General 
Hull's order and the departure from the fort were filled with anxiety 
because of the sullen, hostile attitude of the savages, who had 
already murdered the Lee family in their isolated home on the south 
branch of the Chicago river, near the present Halsted street cross- 
ing. Wells was downcast. To remain in the fort now meant death 
from starvation, as all supplies except the little needed for the jour- 
ney had been destroyed or given to the Indians. The attempt to 
reach Fort Wayne was the only alternative. 

On the morning of the 15th of August, the procession, with 
Captain Wells in the lead, his face blackened to indicate his belief 
that death was near at hand, departed from the stockade for the 
ride toward Fort Wayne, one hundred and fifty miles away. The 
band chose to play "The Dead March." Every heart was heavy. 
The children, with some of the women, were placed in covered 
wagons. The wives of the married officers, Mrs. Heald (Rebekah 


Wells) and Mrs. Helm (nee Kinzie), wife of Lieutenant Linai T. 
Helm, accompanied the party on horseback. The ^vife of John 
Kinzie, with eleven other persons, including four of her own children, 
was placed in a boat, with the hope that they might reach a place 
of safety. The story of the attack of the savages, who rose with the 
horrible warwhoop from their hiding places in the sand; the death 
of Captain Wells and many of his companions, and the miraculous 
escape of the few who lived to tell of the bloody tragedy, is insep- 
arably linked with the narrative of Fort Wayne. 

Wells was the first to realize that the fatal moment had come. 
He found the savages in large numbers, hidden behind the sand 
dunes of what is now a thickly settled business and residence portion 
of the city of Chicago, and immediately he gave the alarm. "They 
are about to attack us ! " he cried. ' ' Form instantly and charge upon 
them!" To his niece, Mrs. Heald, he gave the encouraging word 
that her own life would probably be spared, but he added that he 
was marked for certain death. With the opening of the attack of 
the savages, Wells entered into the midst of the fight. All of the 
supposed friendly Indians who had accompanied the party from 
Port Wayne deserted the whites. In an effort to protect the women 
and children, Captain Wells sought to guard the covered wagons. 
In the midst of the melee, one savage eluded the vigilance of Wells 
and crept into one of the conveyances, where he scalped and mur- 
dered its twelve defenseless occupants. Mrs. Heald, beholding her 
uncle riding rapidly toward her, reached for his hand as he said, 
"Farewell, my child." He had received a shot through the lungs. 
Before he breathed his last, he said to his niece: "Tell my wife, if 
you live to get there — but I think it doubtful if a single one gets 
there— tell her I died at my post doing the best I could. There are 
seven red devils over there that I have killed." Wells's horse, 
pierced by a bullet, fell, pinioning its rider to the earth. In this 
position he killed one more of the savages, and then came the shot 
which ended his life. The surrender of the troops, reduced in num- 
bers through death and capture, soon followed. In all, twenty-six 
regulars, twelve militiamen, two women and twelve children were 
killed. The family of John Kinzie, Mrs. Heald, Mrs. Helm and 
Sergeant Griffith (the latter a brother of the elder Mrs. Alexander 
Ewing of Fort Wawne) were saved through the good offices of Black 
Partridge, Sau-gan-ash, and Topenebe. 

From his autobiography, we gain this account of the escape of 
Captain Heald and his wife : 

"On the 16th, that is, the day after the action, Mrs. Heald and 
myself were taken to the St. Joseph river by our new masters. The 
journey was performed in three days, by coasting the lake, and we 
remained with them (both being badly wounded and unable to help 
ourselves) until the 29th of the same month, when we took our 
departure for Michilimaekinac [Mackinac island] in a birch canoe, 
with Sergeant Griffith, one of the unfortunte prisoners, and three 
Frenchmen and a squaw. The 14th of September, we arrived safe 
at Michilimaekinac. I was there paroled by Captain Roberts, the 
British commandant, and permitted to proceed to Detroit with Mrs. 
Heald and the sergeant." 

He adds that the distance from Chicago to Mackinac by the 





route they followed, was two hundred miles, and an additional two 
hundred miles to Detroit. Many of the captives died of exposure or 

Sergeant W. K. Jordan, who had accompanied Captain Wells 
from Fort Wayne and vfho, when the massacre was ended, managed 

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to steal a horse and escape, has left, in a letter written October 12, 
1812, to his wife, "Betsy," in Philadelphia, a thrilling account of 
the affair. The fight, according to Jordan, lasted about ten minutes. 
Describing the attack, he says : 

' ' The first shot took the feather out of my cap, the next shot 
the epaulet off my shoidder, and the third broke the handle of my 
sword. I had to surrender myself to four damned yellow Indians. 
They marched up to where Wells lay, and one of them spoke English 
and said : ' Jordan, I know yoi; ; you gave me some tobacco at Fort 
WajTie — you shan't be killed; but see what I will do with your 
captain.' Then he cut off his head and stuck it on a pole, while 
another took out his heart, and divided it among the chiefs, and 
they ate it raw. They gathered in a ring with us fifteen poor devils 
in the middle, and had like to fall out who should have the pris- 
oners. ' ' 

The ghastly tale of the savages feasting off the heart of Captain 
Wells was, in reality, the highest tribute that could have been paid 
the fearless pioneer, for the red man religiously believed that by 
the performance of this act each man would add to his own nature 
the courage and bravery which characterized the slain leader. Jor- 
dan tells of the various Indian families inspecting the prisoners, 
each family "taking one as long as we lasted, and then started for 
their towns." Watching his opportunity, Jordan stole a horse and 
reached Fort Wayne August 26, being seven days in the wilderness. 


(1) An inventory of merchandise on til 1915. Captain McAfee, the author, 
hand at Fort Wayne, r>ecember 30, 1807, served under Harrison. The book waa 
as $13,046.84: accounts of Indians, published in 1816. 

12,469.29; amount of merchandise re- (3) Jacob P. Dunn states that Co-is- 

ceived from January 1, 1808, $15,226.91; see was a grandson of Little Turtle, 

expenses since January 1, 1808, $6,- For him the town of Coesse, in Whitley 

048.62. The credit side of the report county, is named. See Dunn's "True 

shows merchandise on hand September Indian Stories," page 259. 

30, 1811, $10,281.66; furs, peltries, etc., (4) In September, 1860, Benson J. 

principally hatters* furs (beaver), Lossing, the artist-historian, visited 

J689.62; cash in hand. $76.37%; ac- Fort Wayne to obtain material for his 

counts against Indians, $2,747.56; build- work. He says: "When I visited the 

ings, $400. There had been received spot [the present Spy Run district] In 

during these years for furs and pelt- 1860. in company with the venerable 

ries, $27,547.07; furs and peltries on the Mr. Hedges and the Hon. I. D. G. Nel- 

way to market, $3,053.12; goods re- son, more than twenty apple trees of an 

turned to the government, $1,752.34: orchard planted by Captain Wells — the 

New Tork auctioneer paid state duty oldest in Northern Indiana, having been 

which was refunded. $195.42; salary set out in 1804 and 1805 — were yet 

transferred, $572.30; showing a profit of standing, shorn of beauty, huge, 

$10,602.77, for the period of three years gnarled and fantastical, but fruit-bear- 

and ten months. (Report of Colonel ins; still. They were on the land of 

John Johnston, quoted in Slocum's Mr. Edward Smith, on the east side of 

"Maumee River Basin.") the road from Fort Wayne to White 

(2) "History of the Late War [1812] Pigeon [Spy Run avenue]. In Mr. 
In the Western Country," page 40, by Smith's garden, which was in the en- 
Captain Robert McAfee. The volume closure of the orchard, only a few 
from which this and other quotations yards westward of a group of larger 
are made is the property of the writer. trees, was the grave of the Little Tur- 
The work is very rare and valuable. tie." Other witnesses have declared 
The book was formerly the property of that the burial spot was some distance 
one George Cardwell, of Harrodsburg. north of the place described by Mr. 
Kentucky, from whom it was purchased Lossing. This latter claim is based 
in l?.'i9 hv General Leslie Coombs, of upon the finding of many Indian relics 
Lexington. Kentucky, for his friend, on lot 26. in Lawton Place, the property 
the late John W'. Dawson, of Fort of Dr. George W. Gillie. While mak- 
■\^'ayne. At the time of the death of ing the excavation for the home and 
Mr. Dawson the book became the prop- for the sewer, workmen unearthed por- 
erty of the late Colonel R. S. Robertson. tions of the skeletons of thirteen In- 
It remained in the Robertson home un- dians, showing the place was used as a 




burying ground of the Miarals. In one 
spot was found a collection of silver 
crosses and dishes, but the most in- 
teresting specimen was a sword which, 
It Is believed, was the Identical weapon 
that George Washington gave to Chief 
Little Turtle on the occasion of his 
visit to the president. Tiiese relics are 
tlie property of Jacob M. Stouder. 

Hiram Porter, aged ninety years In 
1916, said to the writer at that time: 
"At one time, Jacl< Hacltiey, son of 
Captain James Hacliley, wanted to ex- 

change his twenty acres of land in the 
present Spy Run for forty acres be- 
longing to my father, farther to the 
northward. I remember he said that It 
the exchange were made he would have 
to aslt to reserve a small piece of his 
ground, for there, he said, Chief Little 
Turtle was burled. I do not know the 
exact spot, as my father did not make 
the trade." The father of Hiram Por- 
ter was John Porter, born in Rock- 
bridge county, Virginia, in 1805, who 
came to Fort Wayne in 1833. 

CHAPTER XVn— 1812 

The Siege of Fort Wayne — William Henry Harrison 
Saves the Garrison. 

The massacre of the Fort Dearborn garrison and the surrender of Detroit 
to the British leave Fort Wayne in a position of peril — General 
Winchester to the west — Harrison's commission — How Logan, the 
Shawnee, saved the women and children of Fort Wayne — Me-te-a 
reveals the savage plot to Antoine Bondie, who tells the story to 
Major Stickney — Rhea scouts the idea of trickery — The murder of 
Stephen Johnston — Bondie foils the plans of Chief Winnemac — "I am a 
man!" — Rhea, the drunken commandant — The siege opens with severitv — 
William Oliver's exploit — Harrison's report to the war department — 
The relief army moves forward — Flight of the savages — The arrival of 
Harrison's army at Fort Wayne — The arrest of Rhea — He resigns In 
disgrace — Destruction of the Indian village — The arrival of General Win- 
chester — Harrison relinquishes the command and departs for Ohio. 

AT LAST, the savages had struck their long deferred blow. 
The little garrison of less than one hundred men at Port 
Wayne received with alarm the first account of the massacre 
at Fort Dearborn. The news was conveyed by one of the 
friendly Miamis who found his way, unseen, to the home of Captain 
Wells and, there, without revealing his identity, he told the tragic 
story to the family of the brave frontiersman. 

The tale spread to the garrison where the deepest concern was 
felt immediately for the safety of the twenty-five women and 
children in the fort who, it seemed, were about to share the dangers 
of an attack by the savages whose intentions were now entirely 

Close upon the revelation of the Fort Dearborn horror came the 
appalling news that the fort at Detroit — the protecting center of 
the lesser forts of the west — had been ingloriously surrendered to 
the British by General William Hull without the firing of a single 
gun. The surrender took place August 16, 1812, and Hull and his 
troops were sent as prisoners to Montreal. The ultimate result was 
the degradation of the commander and the bringing of his service 
to a disgraceful close. The immediate effect was the giving of the 
strongest of the western American posts into the hands of the 
British, together with 2,400 stands of arms, twenty-five camion and a 
vast quantity of stores, with which to carry the warfare against the 
Americans, with Fort Wayne as the first objective point of assault. 
Mackinac .soon fell to the British. The news of these disasters struck 
terror to the hearts of the occupants of Fort Wayne. Tecumseh 
now turned his attention to the capture of Fort Wayne and Fort 
Harrison (near Terre Haute), and to the massacre of their occupants. 

The secretary of war on the 30th of August sent a message to 
General James Winchester, who had been given the command of the 
Army of the Northwest, to the effect that "the immediate object 





appears to be the protection of the frontier, for which purpose you 
will make such a disposition of your force as circumstances may 
render necessary. Port Wayne, if possible, should be relieved." 

Kentucky, under the direction of General Charles Scott, prompt- 
ly gathered an army of 5,500 fighting men. Governor Harrison, who 
had been commissioned to command the troops of Indiana and Illi- 
nois territories, had accepted an invitation to visit and inspect the 
Kentucky troops, on which occasion Governor Scott commissioned 
him major-general of the Kentucky militia. Unknown to all who 
were concerned in this happy event. President Madison, two days 
earlier, had commissioned Harrison a brigadier general in the United 
States army. Soon, the Kentucky troops, under command of Gen- 
eral Harrison, were moving northward from Cincinnati, with the 
ultimate object of joining Governor Meigs's forces to wrest Detroit 
from the British. On the 3d of September, a courier overtook the 
army and handed to General Harrison his commission from the 
president, together with instructions to give the troops into the 
command of General Winchester, who was on his way to receive 
them. Upon the transfer of the troops, General Harrison was to 
have assumed command of the Indiana and Illinois volunteers. 

During this time, events about Fort Wayne portended the seri- 
ous situation which soon confronted the little garrison. The peril 
of the time developed its heroes as well as its cowards and weak- 
lings. Among those whose names are honored in the story of the 
times is that of a young Shawnee brave, who because of his capture 
and adoption in his boyhood by General Benjamin Logan, of Ken- 

Sifitember, 5, i?ij, 40*cl6cV:, A. M.i 

I teqiiertcd my lite addtjft, to rtndeiveii? at Dayion 
ot» il>c li'li inllant. I have now a mote prcding Call for you? 
fetvicei ! Hie Diiiidi an.I InJijns have in\aJed our country, and 
ate now beftiging (perhaps have lakcn) I'ort Wayne. F.very 
fticnd to his country, who is able (o do fo, will join me as fooa 
3s poffible, wtll mounteJ, wiih a good tifle, and twenty or thir- 
ty days provilion. Aniniuiiiiion nill be furnilieJ at Cincinnaii 
and at Djyton — snj ihe Voluriie/rri will draVv provifion« (10 
tist their failed nte»} at uU ihe yMh dcpofuei - the Quailcr* 
Mifleri thJ CoinmiiLiics will fee that tbii order ii executed. 

Just one week before Ills army reached and saved Fort Wayne General 
Harrison Issued the above call for volunteers. The original Is In the war 
department This copy, slightly reduced. Is from a photostatic reproduction in 
the Burton Historical Collection at Detroit. 


tucky, was named "Captain John Logan. "^ Already he was known 
as a true friend of the American cause. Colonel John Johnston, 
former Indian agent at Fort WajTie, then stationed at Piqua, Ohio, 
sent Logan as a spy to ascertain the true condition of affairs at Fort 
Wayne. His brother, Stephen Johnston (who was destined to be 
the first victim of the siege) was connected with the fort affairs as a 
clerk in the Indian agency under Major Stickney. At this time, the 
wife of the younger Johnston was in a delicate physical condition 
and this added to the concern of the elder Johnston. Logan re- 
turned to Piqua and reported that the savages about the fort ex- 
hibited unmistakable signs of hostility, but he expressed his willing- 
ness to undertake the hazardous task of transferi-ing from Fort 
Wayne to Piqua, one hundred miles distant, the twenty-five women 
and children of the fort. These included Ann, Rebekah and Mary 
Wells, daughters of Captain WeUs ; and Mrs. Johnston. Mrs. James 
Peltier (formerly Augeliue Chapeteau, who had married in 1806) 
remained with her husband and four-year-old son, James, Jr., 
through the siege. During the long journey through the wilderness 
the vigilant Logan did not close his eyes in sleep, and the record of 
the experience of the refugees as repeated from the lips of those 
whom he rescued, tells of his constant tenderness and care. This 
was but the first of a series of acts of bravery of Logan who was 
fated to die as a result of a bullet wound from a British rifle while 
refuting a slander which questioned his loyalty. 

Accused of treachery, Logan, in 1813, met the death of a hero, 
while undertaking a most hazardous mission against the enemy. 
It was declared by the Indians that the British had offered $150 for 
the scalp of Logan, and he finally fell a victim to the wiles of his 
enemies. "More firmness and consummate bravery has seldom 
appeared in the military theatre," wrote General Winchester in his 
report to General Harrison. "He was buried with all the honors 
due his rank, and with sorrow as sincerely and generally displayed 
as I ever witnessed. ' ' 

None too soon were the women and children removed to a place 
of safety, for, on the fall of Detroit, warriors to the number of about 
five hundred gathered quietly about Fort Wayne, encamping in the 
forest and seeking to avoid open evidence of hostility. Theirs was a 
waiting game. The situation was rendered highly embarrassing and 
hazardous by the physical condition of the aged commandant. Cap- 
tain Rhea, whose fondness for intoxicants unfitted him for a realiza- 
tion of the true situation. It is evident, too, that ill-feeling among 
the ofificers and Indian agent within the fort was not lacking. In 
later years IMajor Stickney^ wrote: "The commanding officer was 
drunk nearly all the time, and the two lieutenants [Curtis and 
Ostrander] were inefficient men, entirely unfit to hold commissions of 
any grade." Historians have alwaj^s reckoned William Oliver as 
the real hero of the moment, but it is a noticeable fact that Lieu- 
tenant Daniel Curtis, writing his account of the siege at a later time, 
makes no reference to the brave sutler. Concerning Oliver more 
will be said in the development of the storj^ The citations are made 
merely to indicate the deplorable condition of aft'airs preceding the 
severest period of the siege. 

With the completion of their plans to invest the stockade and 




destroy the lives of the men and women within the fort, Me-te-a,' a 
Pottawattomie chief, made his way, under cover of darkness, to the 
hut occupied by Antoiue Boudie and his family, outside the fort 
enclosure, and revealed to Bondie the plans of attack in order that 
he and his Indian wife might escape death. Bondie was a French 
trader, who had married a Miami woman, and had lived in the 
vicinity for many years. Instead of seeking his personal safety in 
joining the Indians, Bondie crept to the council house and there 
revealed the plot to Major Stickney. Stickney was puzzled. Bondie 

The briniant Kentucky statesman and 
brave soldier for whom Allen county is 
named was amonp the first of the Ken- 
tuckians to ofter his services for his 
country when the perilous situation of 
Fort Wayne in 1812 was made known. 
His undaunted couraKe during the try- 
ing period after raising of the siege of 
Fort Wayne, up to the time of his tragic 
death at the battle of the River Raisin, 
near the present Monroe, Michigan, has 
given him a fame throughout the middle 
west which will not pass from the mem- 
ory of his countrymen. John Allen was 
born in Rockbridge county, Virginia, on 
December 30. 1772. His father. James 
Allen, with his family, emigrated to 
Kentucky in 1780 and settled near Dan- 
ville, later removing to a farm a short 
distance from Bardstown, near Louis- 
ville. After a course in two private 
schools. John Allen studied law at 
Staunton, Virginia, and returned in 1795 
to open a law office In Shelbyvllle. He 
rose to great prominence as a lawyer. 
One of his celebrated cases tried at 
Frankfort was as an associate of Henry 
Clay In the defense of Aaron Burr. In 
his race for the governorship of Ken- 
tucky against General Charles Scott he 
was defeated by only one vote. He 
served several terms as a state senator. 
The wife of Colonel Allen was Jane, a 
daughter of General Benjamin Logan; 
the latter gives his name to the history 
of Fort Wayne through Captain John 
Logan, the Shawnee brave, his adopted 
son. The departure of Colonel Allen, at 
the height of his fame as a lawyer, to 
lead his fellow Kentucklans In the try- 
ing northern campaign was marked by 
"wild enthusiasm as this tall, handsome 
soldier led his valiant troops" to the 
place of rendezvous and to his own 


Captain (later Major) George Cro- 
ghan, when he reached Fort Wayne, with 
General Harrison In 1812, was twenty- 
two years of age. His bravery and loy- 
alty caused General Harrison to place 
him In temporary command of Fort 
Wayne, but he was soon afterward in 
active service in Ohio. His brilliant and 
successful defense of Fort Stephenson 
(Fremont) In Ohio was one of the most 
remarkable events of the war. By an 
act of congress he was presented with a 
gold medal. Croghan later located at 
New Orleans, and became postmaster of 
that city in 1824. When he again en- 
tered the army service, a court-martial 
was arranged for examination Into his 
conduct concerning the use of Intoxicat- 
ing liquors. "George Croghan," exclaim- 
ed President Andrew Jackson, when he 
heard of It, "shall get drunk every day 
of his life If he wants to. and, by the 
Eternal, the United States shall pay for 
the whisky!" The proceedings ceased. 
Croghan later served with distinction in 
the Mexican war. He died at New Or- 
leans January 8. 1849. 



possessed a reputation for questionable veracity. The agent had 
been at the fort less than three months. He hesitated to notify Gen- 
eral Harrison, for if the alarm were a false one, it would appear to 
indicate personal cowardice, which did not exist, and perhaps pre- 
cipitate a war if invading troops were called when no outbreak was 
intended by the savages. 

The commandant, Rhea, when Stickney told him the story, scoffed 
at the thought of danger. Stickney, however, decided to notify 
General Harrison, who already had started northward from Cin- 
cinnati, toward Detroit. Rhea finally was induced to send a mes- 
sage to Governor Return J. Meigs, of Ohio, telling of the threatened 
attack of the Indians, and the two messengers were soon on their 
way. Directly, Major Stickney, who still lived in the council house, 
outside the fort, was stricken with illness; he was taken within the 
fort, and, shortly afterward, Bondie and his family sought shelter 
within the palisades. 

During the time following the removal of the women to Piqua, 
Stephen Johnston, whose wife was among those taken from the fort, 
felt a strong desire to look after her welfare. Receiving permission 
to make the journey to Piqua, he left the stockade one night at 
10 o'clock, in company with Peter Oliver, a soldier, and a dis- 
charged member of the garrison. When the three had reached a 
point in the edge of the forest near the site of the present Hanna 
(Hayden) homestead, on East Lewis street, the crack of a British 
rifle in the hands of a watching savage ended the life of Johnston ; 
the other two men fled back to the fort. It was the beginning of the 
series of tragedies which marked the siege. A reward of twenty 
dollars, offered by Antoine Bondie the next day for the bringing of 
the body to the fort — a work performed by a young chief. White 
Raccoon — revealed the fact that Johnston had been scalped and 
tomahawked in a most brutal manner. Indian chiefs placed the 
blame for the murder upon their "young men," asserting that they 
could not control them. It was afterward learned at the treaty of 
Greenville (1814) when Colonel John Johnston accused White Rac- 
coon of having the blood of his brother on his hands, that two 
Pottowattomies and a half breed, one of the Indians named Pokaw, 
were the murderers. The body of Johnston rests in a cemetery at 
Piqua, where the tale of his death is engraved on the tombstone. 

No further proof of the attitude of the savages was needed, and, 
although they made many protestations of friendliness, they stole 
from the vicinity of the fort the cattle, hogs and garden provisions, 
and gave many other evidences of hostility. Both factions, however, 
refrained from open warfare in order to prolong the period pre- 
ceding the actual conflict — the savages expecting that Tecumseh 
and the British would come to their assistance, and the garrison 
hoping for the early arrival of General Harrison's troops. 

Finally, the Indians, on being provided with a white cloth to be 
used as a flag of truce which they delayed using for several days, 
approached the fort in large numbers, hoping, evidently, to be 
allowed to enter in such force as to be able to overpower the occu- 
pants. But few were admitted, however, by Major Stickney, who 
designated thirteen chiefs who would be welcomed. Each was 
disarmed on entering the stockade and the party followed the agent 




CZ^J^ ^^^^'^^^^ 


Captain James Rhea was In command of Fort Wayne during the memorable 
siege of September, 1812. Six months earlier he wrote to Captain John Whistler 
at Detroit: "You say if we have a British war we shall have an Indian war. 
From the best information I can get I [have] every reason to believe we shall 
have an Indian war this Spring whether we have a British war or not. I am 
told the Indians are making every preparation. There is certainly a very deep 
plan agoing on amongst the Indians." 


to his quarters. At the request of the agent, Captain Rhea paraded 
the troops during the coiineil which followed. When the coiincil 
pipes were finished Winamac, addressing the agent, disclaimed, on 
the part of the chiefs, any part in the death of Johnston. "But," 

he added, "if my father wishes for war, I am a man " At this 

moment there was a strange stir among the assembled savages. 
The words, "I am a man" were to have been the signal for Winamac 
to stab the agent with a knife concealed beneath his blanket. An- 
toine Bondie, however, who had penetrated the secret, drew his 
own knife quickly and shouted, "I am a man, too !" and his dramatic 
action, together with the appearance of the soldiers, fully armed, 
brought the treacherous plan to a close. The Indians had hoped, 
through the murder of the agent and officers, to be able to control 
the situation even to the opening of the doors to allow the entrance 
of the murderous horde. Disappointed, they filed back to their 
encampment. A picture of the conditions within the fort from this 
time forward is well drawn by Lieutenant Curtis, who, on October 
4, wrote a letter to a friend, Cullen, from which the following 
quotations are made : 


"On the evening of the 4th of September the flag [of truce] 
returned, accompanied by several chiefs, and, after being asked 
whether they wished to remain at peace with us or be considered in 
an open state of warfare, the head chief among them observed, 
'You know that Mackinaw is taken, Detroit is in the hands of the 
British, and Chicago has fallen ; and you must expect to fall next, 
and that in a short time!' Immediately our great captain invited 
the savage rascal over to his quarters and, after drinking three 
glasses of wine with him, rose from his seat and observed: 'My 
good friend, I love you ; I will fight for you ; I will die by your side. 
You must save me!' and then gave him a half dollar as a token of 
friendship, inviting him at the same time to come and breakfast 
with him the next morning. The chief and his party retired to their 
camps, but instead of accepting his in-vitation to breakfast, sent five 
of their young warriors, who secreted themselves behind a roothouse 
[for vegetables] near the garrison, from which they shot two of our 
men about sunrise as they were passing from a small hotel near that 

"The night of the 5th [of September] arrived and our captain 
had not drawn a sober breath since the chiefs left the garrison the 
night before. From the movement of the Indians in the course of 
the day, Lieutenant Ostrander and myself expected to have some 
sport before the next morning, and were not disappointed in our 
conjecture, for at about 8 p. m. a general shout from the enemy was 
heard, succeeded by a firing of small arms on every side of us. The 
alarm post of every man, as well as the respective duties of Mr. 
Ostrander and myself having been regulated during the day, the 
enemy had not time to fire a second round before we were ready 
and opened three broadsides upon them, and sent them a few shells 
from our howitzers,* which we presume must have raked the skins 
of many. We exchanged three general shots, when I discovered from 


the flash of their guns that they were secreted behind the buildings, 
fences and shrubbery near the garrison, and ordered the men to 
cease firing till further orders, thinking the enemy would conclude 
that we were either frightened or scarce of ammunition, and perhaps 
would venture nearer. As soon as a large body had collected at 
one point, we threw a couple of shells from our howitzers which 
soon made them disperse. The next day they kept up a firing till 
about 3 p. m. Our captain still continued drunk as a fool, and per- 
fectly incapable of exercising rationality on any subject whatever, 
but was constantly abusing every one that came in his presence. The 
night of the 6th approached; we had the roofs of our houses all 
watered, as well as the pickets on the inside, our water casks all 
filled and buckets ready in case of the enemy's attempting to throw 

^ a^^ "^"^ C<,u^J Ocr^-C^ y^ ^JxT^ i^«i( t^ C^^oJL. 


On the 19th of September, 1812. when General William Henry Harrison 
parted from his troops, which, under his leadership, had saved Fort Wayne 
from the siege of the murderous savages, he read to them a letter of farewell. 
The opening sentences follow: 

"The President of the United States having designated Brigadier General 
James Winchester to the command of the army originally destined to relieve 
General Hull, and that officer having arrived at this place, the command is 
accordingly relinquished to him. Brigadier General Payne. Colonel Wells and 
Captain Gerrard, commanding the several corps composing the army, will, 
accordingly, report themselves to General Winchester and receive his orders. 

"If anything could soften the regret which the General feels at the parting 
with troops which have so entirely won his confidence and affection. It is the 
circumstance of his committing them to the charge of one of the heroes of our 
glorious Revolution, a man distinguished as well for the services he has rendered 
his country as for the possession of every qualification which constitutes the 


fire, which they had endeavored several times to do without success. 
Between 8 and 9 o'clock we heard a tremendous noise, singing, 
dancing and whooping, and when they arrived within a proper dis- 
tance they hailed and asked us in plain English what we intended 
to do, whether surrender or to fight. They said they had 500 men 
with them and that they expected 700 the next day. We answered 
that we were ready, and bade them come on. We gave a general 
shout round the works in true Indian style, which they instantly 
returned, commencing at the same time a general fire, which was 
kept up on both sides with miich warmth till about 11 o'clock, 
without the loss or the injury of a man on our side, but from 
appearances they must have lost many, as they were very quiet 
towards midnight. 

"The siege continued from the morning of the 5th to the 10th, 
both day and night, and the fears and troubles of our great and 
intrepid commander were continually drowned in the excessive use 
of the ardents. Our fears and apprehensions from the disorders 
and confusion he created among the men, were one of our greatest 
troubles, and we had everything prepared at one time to silence his 
noise and clamor by coercive measures. He would frequently talk 
of surrendering if the Indians were likely to be too much for us, 
and particularly if they or the British were to bring one or more 
pieces of cannon which they took at Chicago and place them near 
the garrison, when he knew that the largest piece at Chicago was 
only a three-pounder; and when told by one of his subalterns that 
the first person in the garrison who should offer to surrender to the 
Indians or British at the approach of no hea%aer piece than a three- 
pounder should instantly be shot, he offered no resistance, but 
remained silent on the subject." 


In the midst of the period of watchful anxiety within the fort, 
preceding the attack, a most thrilling episode brought cheer and 
courage to the garrison. William Oliver was the hero of the affair. 
Oliver, who was then twenty-five years of age, had been connected 
with the fort as a sutler (a trader licensed to provide the garrison 
with supplies). While the savages were gathering about the fort 
he was absent in Cincinnati purchasing supplies, and there he 
learned of the condition of affairs in Fort Wayne. He enlisted 
with the Ohio troops and tendered his services to General Harrison, 
with the proposition that the general allow him to proceed from 
St. Mary's, Ohio, to Fort Wajoie with a small company as an ad- 
vance detachment of the army of relief. General Harrison consented 
reluctantly, assuring Oliver that he "should not see him again." 
With General Thomas Worthington, later governor of Ohio, the 
undaunted Oliver, leading a body of sixty-eight militia and sixteen 
Shawnee braves, started toward Fort Wayne. When within twenty- 
four miles of the fort, they ascertained the size of the besieging 
forces to be larger than they could safely meet in an open encounter, 
and so the immediate relief of the garrison was abandoned. Oliver, 
however, with three Shawnees, Captain John Logan, Captain Johnny 
and Brighthorn, leaving the camp of Worthington well mounted and 




well armed, proceeded toward the fort, eluding the vigilance of 
the savages. Reaching the Manmee east of the fort, they proceeded 
cautiously to a point near the present Anthony boulevard (Walton 
avenue) bridge, where they tied their horses in the bnish and recon- 
noitered afoot to ascertain the true condition of affairs. The savages 
were in the midst of another conference to capture the garrison by 
stratagem, and had gathered on the west and south sides of the 
stockade. Returning to their horses, the four messengers rode 
stealthily along the Maumee and up the bank to the east wall of 
the fort. No member of the garrison was in sight. Oliver and his 
companions could not make their presence known. It was a moment 
of peril. Their discovery would mean a hand-to-hand battle with 
overpowering numbers. In despair, they rode down the river bank 


1 — Cannon ball owned by M. A. Sheets; 
found in South Wayne by children at 
play. 2 — Cannon ball found in Adams 
township; owned by William Black. 3 — 
Cannon ball owned by J. A. Calhoun; it 
was found in Lakeside. Concerning these 
war relics Dr. Charles E. Slocum. of To- 
ledo, says: "It appears most probable 
that they were fired from Fort Wavne 
during the siege of 1812. from cannon 
left there by General Wayne. Wavne 
left most of his cannon at Fort Defi- 
ance, which he made 'bomb-proof.' Fort 
Defiance was dismantled in 1796, after 
the Jay treaty, and it is probable that 
some of the little cannon were, taken to 
Fort Wayne, and, probably, others were 
taken to Detroit." 






N V 

WAYNE IN 1812. 

1 — Fort Wayne, the stockade, which 
contained a garrison of less than 100 
men. 2 — Encampments of the Indians 
at the time of the William Oliver ex- 
ploit. 3 — -General route of Oliver. Cap- 
tain Logan, Brighthorn and Captain 
Johnnie. 4 — General route of the escape 
of the daring Shawnees. 5 — Site of the 
murder of Stephen Johnston (near the 
present Hanna homestead on East Lew- 
is street, home of Mrs. Fred J. Hayden). 
6— The approach of General W^lUiam 
Henry Harrison's forces. 

and skirted the shore as they turned their horses to the west to 
follow the St. Mary's course. Then, in full view of the savages, 
they dashed up the river bank and made straight for the north 
entrance of the stockade at a moment when Winamac, Five Medals 
and three other hostile chiefs were rounding the northwest corner 
of the fort with a flag of truce to hold another conference with the 
commandant. The sudden appearance of the riders in "full yeU" 
disconcerted the besiegers, who believed them to be the advance of 
a large relieving force. Winamac, after a mere handshake, hastened 
back to a council of the tribes. 

Once within the fort, Oliver quickly learned the true conditions, 


and informed the commandant and Major Stickney that General 
Harrison was on his way to save the post. Without loss of time, 
and while the savages were in a quandary as to the best move to 
be made, Oliver dispatched a note to General Worthington, and 
the gate of the fort was opened to allow three horsemen to dash out 
and dovsTi the trail along the Maumee. They were the faithful 
Logan, who had saved the women and children, and the two other 
friendl.y Shawuees. The astonished besiegers gave chase, but could 
not overtake the true-hearted red men. Oliver remained at the fort, 
and is credited with being the real hero of the trjang days which 

When tlie messengers reached General Worthington, Oliver's dis- 
patches were forwarded to General Harrison. 

The siege was now renewed in earnest. A hail of British bullets 
from British rifles in the hands of British allien, together with 
flaming arrows which set fire to the buildings and the palisades, 
characterized the hours of the five daj's following the arrival of 
Oliver. The savages gained possession of a log building outside the 
stockade, and from this place again demanded the surrender of the 
fort, or threatened the annihilation of the garrison. They claimed 
to have been provided with two British cannon manned by British 
artillerjTuen. The demand was refused and the attack was renewed 
■with increased fury. The soldiers were dismayed at the appearance 
of the cannon, but when one of them burst at the first shot and the 
other at the second, there came the revelation that they were made 
of wood, held by iron bands. It later was learned that these "can- 
non" were devised by Parish, a half-breed Pottawattomie. 

With the belief that Harrison's army of Kentuckians was draw- 
ing nearer with the passage of every hour, the soldiers vtdthin the 
palisades now settled down to a determination to hold the fort at aU 
costs. Their belief was well founded. 

Writing from Piqua on the 5th of September, Harrison pictured 
conditions to the secretary of war. Said he : 

"I received information last night that a British army left 
Detroit on the 13th ultimo for the purpose of attacking Fort Wayne 
and, if successful, Fort Harrison [near Terre Haute] and Vin- 
cennes. I had yesterday dispatched 900 choice men to join the 
mounted men of this state [Ohio] which are in advance, and proceed 
to relieve Fort Wayne from the attack of the neighboring Indians. 
I am now engaged in preparing cartridges and boring touchholes 
of the muskets, all of which are too small, and to some guns there 
are none. I shall set out very early tomorrow, and by forced 
marches, overtake the detachment. I had intended to give up the 
command to General Winchester and had written him to that effect. 
The situation, at Fort Wayne, however, admits of no alternative. 
I have invited him to join me or bring up the troops in the rear. 
From the information I have received since I wrote you, there is 
little doubt that all the Indians (iliamis included) will participate 
in the attack on Fort Waj-ne." 

On account of "the trouble of establishing an issuing com- 
missary's department," Harrison was delayed one day in his march 
upon Fort Wayne. From his camp, seventeen miles from the 
besieged fort, he wrote, September 11 : 




"I shall, however, reach it tomorrow. I have every reason to 
believe it will not be without a severe contest. No information 
has been received from the fort since the 3d instant, and should the 
Indians have been assisted by the British detachment, I fear it 
would not have been able to hold out. * * * You need not fear, 
sir, the issue of the action which, I expect, will take place tomorrow. 
My troops are in high spirits, and will, I am persuaded, do honor to 
themselves and their country. ' ' 

At the dawn of September 6, the main army had moved and 
overtaken, at Girty's Town (St. Miiry's), thp advanrc column of 
Colonel John Allen. Here they were joined by a company of 
mounted Kentucky volunteers under Major Richard Menter John- 
son, later vice-president of the United States. Spies from the be- 
siegers returned to their camp with the report that "Kentuck is 
coming as numerous as the trees." General Harrison had delivered 
to the soldiers a speech, "in which he stated that Fort Wayne was 
in imminent danger and that it was absolutely necessary to make 








n I C H )C,^rv( 


Fort wavjc 

SEPT iZ.IBl2.^„ 
-ri^" & F E R R 6 D C o n n A«^ 


■♦-•*r-_® BATTLE Of 

' NOV. 7, I8'l 

rsl I AN A 

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^r. ^pT VlNCENNES _ ( 

GiveN connAND of 


KENTUCKY ^^^•--■'S.^ 


The map indicates the activity of General William Henry Harrison from 
the time of his departure from Vincennes and the fight with the savages at 
Tippecanoe in 1811 to the decisive battle of the Thames in 1S13. which ended 
the war of 1812 in the west. During the winter of 1812-1813 General Harrison 
maintained his headquarters at Columbus and ChiUicothe. Ohio, and made a trip 
to Cincinnati on account of illness In his family; reference to these matters Is 
omitted from the map. 


forced marches to relieve it," says Captain McAfee. "He read 
several articles of war, prescribing the duty of soldiers, and explain- 
ing the necessity of such regulations. He then observed that if 
there was any person who would not submit to such regulations, 
or who was afraid to risk his life in defense of his country, he 
might return home." Only one man, a Kentucky volunteer, quailed. 
He was ridden on a rail, dumped into the Miami river and ' ' baptized 
in the name of King George, Aaron Burr and the devil." On the 
forward movement, Logan and Major Mann discovered at a point 
about five miles southwest of Fort Wayne the savages gathered in 
an ambush arranged by Me-te-a, which the cavalry was enabled to 


Within the fort the anxiety grew in intensity. Says Lieutenant 
Curtis : 

"We could see large bodies of Indians between that time [the 
10th and the 12th of September] running in great haste across the 
prairies, and many without arms. We were at a loss to determine 
the cause of this movement, but concluded that they must have met 
with some opposition or discovered the approach of an army between 
this place and Piqua, as they were running from that quarter. 
About 3 o'clock p. m. of the 12th, to our great joy, we discovered the 
approach of a small troop of horses, and on their coming up to the 
garrison, we learned it was the advance guard of an army of 5,000 
men under the command of Brigadier General Harrison." 

The scene ^vithin the stockade on the arrival of Harrison's army 
may well be imagined. The region resounded with cheers of the 
soldiers ; in many instances the arrival of the army of relief marked 
the reunion of friends and relatives. 

The general, after arranging his camp, summoned the officers 
and agent of the fort and there, from Lieutenants Curtis and 
Ostrander, with Major Stickney as a corroborative witness, heard 
the charges preferred against the commandant, Rhea. After a 
careful consideration of the charges. General Harrison would have 
discharged the commandant except for his age, but "more particu- 
larly on account of his having a young family," he was allowed to 
resign. Reporting on the conduct of Captain Rhea, General Harri- 
son, writing to the secretary of war, said: "Upon my arrival at 
Fort Wayne, charges of so serious a nature were exhibited against 
Captain Rhea that I arrested him. He agreed to resign, and I gave 
him until December 20 to return home, at which time his pay and 
emoluments will cease." 

During the siege, the garrison lost only three killed. The loss 
of the savages was probably about twenty-five, including eighteen 
killed close to the palisades of the fort. The army encamped around 
the fort, "where, a few days previous, there had been a handsome 
little village ; but it was now in ruins, having been burned down by 
the Indians, together with the United States factory, which had 
been erected to furnish the ungrateful wretches with farming uten- 
sils." (McAfee). The farm buildings of Captain Wells's family 
also were destroyed.* 




On the day following Harrison's arrival, detachments commenced 
the destruction of the Indian villages of the entire region. The first 
division was composed of the regiments under Colonels John Allen 
and William Lewis, and Captain Garrard's troop of horse, under 
General Payne, accompanied by General Harrison. The second 
division consisted of a battalion of Colonel Wells's regiment under 
Major Davenport, of Scott's regiment; the mounted battalion under 
Colonel Johnson and the mounted Ohio troops under Adams. At 
the forks of the Wabash, Payne's men destroyed several abandoned 
villages and fields of corn. Colonel Wells destroyed the village of 
Five Medals, named for a chief who led in the siege, on the Elkhart 
river, near the site of Goshen, Indiana. Colonel Simrall, who arrived 
at the fort on the 17th of September, with a regiment of dragoons, 

Major General Harrison, fourteenth 
president of the United States, was born 
at Berlteley, Virginia, February 9. 1773. 
and died while in offlce April 4, 1841. 
His bravery and energy during the days 
of the Indian wars of the west left 
their influence upon the history of the 
vast areas over which the savages ex- 
tended their warfare. His army, arriv- 
ing at Fort Wayne in September, 1812, 
brought life and hope to a besieged and 
despairing garrison. 


Quartermaster Sergeant (later Cap- 
tain) William Grifflth. one of the sur- 
vivors of the Fort Dearborn massacre, 
was a brother of Mrs. Alexander Ewing, 
of Fort Wayne. Mrs. Ewing was the 
grandmother of the late William E. 
Hood who loaned the portrait from 
which the drawing was made. The inter- 
esting experience of Captain Griffith 
are referred to In Chapter XVI of this 

laid waste Turtle \allage, on Eel river, but did not molest the 
buildings erected by the government for the late Chief Little Turtle. 
General Harrison proceeded also to remove all the underbrush sur- 
rounding the fort extending up the St. Joseph river as far as the 
present State street bridge, and westward along the St. Mary's as 
far as the site of Swinney park, as well as toward the east and south. 

Serving as chaplain of Harrison's army, Rev. Matthew G. 
Wallace, a Presbyterian clergyman, appears to have been the second 
Protestant minister to officiate at Fort Wayne. 

On September 19th, General James Winchester arrived at Fort 
Wayne to take command of the army. Winchester, after his service 
in the Revolution, had retired to Tennessee, where, during the suc- 
ceeding years, he lived in "elegant luxury and ease," which was 


not calculated to fit him for a vigorous campaign. He is described 
as "a 'fussy man,' quite heavy in person, and illy fitted for the 
peculiar service in which he was engaged." (Lossing's "Pictorial 
Fieldbook of the War of 1812"). 

When General Winchester reached Fort Wayne there was en- 
acted a scene which explains in a measure the wonderful success of 
General Harrison, which led him to the presidency of the United 
States — namely, an expression of the love and confidence of those 
who knew him best. The troops who had come with him from 
Kentucky and Ohio rebelled against the change of leadership. They 
demanded Harrison. Many threatened to desert. General Harrison, 
however, did not hesitate to turn the command into Winchester's 
hands, with the promise of such co-operation as he might render. 
It was only with the belief that Harrison would soon resume the 
command that the troops consented to march toward Detroit under 
Winchester. Harrison did in reality again become the commander- 
in-chief during the same month. It was Harrison who led the army the British at the decisive battle of the Thames and there 
won enduring fame. 

The splendid address of Harrison to his men, expressing his 
parting .sentiments, pictures the nobility of his character and reveals 
the qualities which created the bond of strength between the soldiers 
and their leader. Said he to the assembled troops : 

"If anything could soften the regret which the general feels at 
parting with troops which have so entirely won his confidence and 
affection, it is the circumstance of his committing them to the charge 
of one of the heroes of our glorious Revolution, a man distinguished 
as well for the services he has rendered his country as for the 
possession of every qualification which constitutes the gentleman." 

On the following day. General Harrison departed for Piqua to 
take command of the military forces which had been gathering from 
Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, with the intention of joining 
the Northwestern Army in the impending conflict with the British 
about Detroit. 


(1) The city of Logansport. Indiana, tragic death was the result of taking 

received its name from the brave Shaw- poison while conversing with friends 

nee. General Benjamin Logan was the in the silversmith shop of "Father" Be- 

father-in-law of Colonel John Allen, for quette. From the January (1S80) issue 

whom Allen county is named. of "The Casket," an undertakers' Jour- 

(21 Maior Stirknpv's acpoiint of the "'*'■ Published at Rochester, N. T., the 

siigi m^iy'be found7n'the Forf Waynl 'r^i'S^^^l JSk^n"'""^ additional Infor- 

niltbrary "' ''''' ^°'' ^^"^'"^ ^"''- "Th" coffl'^' was of poplar and, as 

,„, ,, 1 ,. , . „ „ staining material was scarce at that 

(3) Me-te-a died in Fort VFayne In time. Dr. Cushman furnished Venetian 

1827. The late Louis Peltier made the red. 'To gain the dark color.' said Mr. 

casket m which the body was buried. Peltier, 'we burned oat straw and then 

Mr. Peltier, who was born within the secured General Tipton's whitewash 

walls of the old fort, In 1815, conceived brush to grain the coffin.' " 
the idea of his life work while assisting Soon after the burial of Me-te-a. Dr. 

to remove the skeletons of the fort Lewis G. Thompson had the body ex- 

soldiers from the military cemetery humed in order to make an examination 

which was situated In the region of the of the remains. "A noise was heard." 

junction of the present Berry and Clay savs the late John W. Dawson, "which 

streets. This was while Mr. Peltier the company thought to be Indians: 

still was in his teens, and was engaged and. as they knew the savages were 

In learning the carpenter and cabinet- greatly hostile to such disinterments, 

making trade with James Wilcox. they were at once panic stricken, and, 

whose shop wa.s also the first under- quickly blowing out their lights, fled 

taking establishment in Fort Wayne. to the brush to await the denouement. 

In the beginning the undertaker was False as the alarm proved to be. ther 

also the coffinmaker. The first person were nevertheless suspicious of the 

for whose body Louis Peltier made the nearness of danger. So, returning to 

burial casket was Chief Me-te-a, whose the grave, they re-buried the body." 




(4) The armament of the fort con- 
sisted of four small cannon fired from 
the turrets of the blockhouses. 

(6) A rare old relic of the siege of 
1812, a remodeled flint-lock rifle. Is 
preserved by William H. W. Peltier. 
The gun was used by his great-grand- 
father, James Peltier I, and doubt- 
less did good work in keeping the 
savages at a safe distance from the 
stockade. The gun passed from the 
hands of the original owner to James 
Peltier II, his son, who eventually gave 
it to his brother, Salvador Peltier. Up- 
on the death of the latter, in 1914, the 
valuable old weapon came Into the pos- 
session of William H. W. Peltier. In 
later years the rifle was provided with 
a hammer and given a larger bore. It 
still retains its breech-loading feature. 
"I have heard my grandfather [Douls 
Peltier] tell of a quarrel between him- 
self and his brother, James," relates 
William H. W. Peltier. "One day, as 
a boy, James started out with a gun 
to hunt deer. My grandfather. Louis, 
then In his teens, followed him, and 

refused to return to the fort. James, 
in his anger, beat him with a ramrod. 
This so enraged my grandfather that 
he took a good aim and peppered his 
brother's legs with fine shot from a 
distance. My grandfather then ran 
away and went to the Indian village at 
Leo, where he stayed until it appeared 
safe to return home; he was absent 
six months, living with the savages. 

(6) A. G. Barnett, son of James Bar- 
nett, states (1916) that his father re- 
lated to him this Incident in connection 
with his coming to Fort Wayne as the 
captain of a company in General Harri- 
son's army: Arriving at the fort. Cap- 
tain Barnett's horse became badly In- 
jured by running into an obstacle while 
frightened. The rider sought to bring 
the injured animal within the fort, but 
General Harrison employed such sharp 
language In ordering him away from 
the fort that the captain never forgave 
him. "And In the Harrison presidential 
campaign," said Mr. Barnett, "my 
father worked earnestly for the defeat 
of his former coramaDdlng ottlcer." 

CHAPTER Vin— 1812-1813 

British Army Under Miiir, Sent Against Fort Wayne, 
Is Turned Back. 

Captain George Croghan at Fort Wayne — Revolt of Captain Ward's men — 
Winchester's rosy view ot the future — The death of Ensign Leggett — 
Winchester's army puts to rout the expedition under Major Muir designed 
to destroy Fort Wayne— Suffering of the Kentucky troops — General 
Tupper's disobedience — Harrison's inspiring address — The battle of the 
River Raisin— Death of Colonel Allen — The siege of Fort Meigs — Harrison 
finds Port Wayne in peril — Colonel Richard Menter Johnson sent to pro- 
tect it — Johnson's men ambushed by savages within sight of the fort — 
Closing incidents of the war of 1812 — Death of Tecumseh. 

ATTENTION now centers upon the campaign which brought 
into conflict the American and British troops in the theatre 
of war in the Maumee valley extending from Fort Wayne 
to Detroit. 
Bidding farewell to the troops who were left to garrison the fort 
at the head of the Maumee, General Winchester on September 22, 1812, 
led his men across the Maumee and down the north bank of that 
stream in the direction of the enemy gathered at Detroit and Maiden. 
He followed the route over which General Wayne came to the site 
of the fort eighteen years before. 


The garrison at Fort Wayne was placed in temporary command 
of Major George Croghan, a youth of twenty years and a nephew 
of George Rogers Clark, who was later to write his name in ever- 
lasting remembrance of the people of the West in his gallant defense 
of Fort Stephenson (Fremont) in Ohio, where a monument to his 
memory bespeaks the gratitude of the present generation. 

Major Croghan soon was transferred to Fort Defiance, and the 
command was entrusted to Captain Hugh Moore, of the Nineteenth 
Infantry, who had accompanied Harrison to Fort Wayne. The 
order which transferred Major Croghan to Fort Defiance was carried 
from Harrison's headquarters at Piqua to Fort Wayne by Peter 
Navarre, a famous .scout, who is said to have shot Tecumseh at the 
battle of the Thames. Between the years 1802 and 1807, Navarre 
had been engaged in trade at Fort Wayne. With his brothers, 
Robert, Alexis and Jacques, he was serving as a scout in Hull's 
army when Detroit was surrendered to the British. After hi.s parole, 
Navarre served with Harrison's army, and his famous ride to carry 
a dispatch from General Harrison to Major Croghan at Fort Ste- 
phenson was one of the thrilling incidents of the war. 

News of the successful defense of Fort Harrison (near Terre 
Haute), under the command of Zachary Taylor, who defeated the 
efforts of the Indians to surprise the garrison, cheered both the 
men of Fort Wayne and those on the march down the Maumee. 


On September 20, Johnson's and Simrall's dragoons, which were not 
included in "Winchester's command, started from Fort "Wayiie to 
join Harrison at Piqua, but were met at St. Mary's with orders to 
return. Ensign William Holton, with twenty-four men of Captain 
Ward's company, refused to obey the command and proceeded to 
their homes in Kentucky. The others obeyed the order to return to 
Fort Wayne. 

On September 22, General Winchester wrote to Governor Meigs, 
of Ohio, that "I rejoice at the prospect of regaining lost territory 
• • • and with the hope to winter in Detroit or its vicinity." 
He requested Governor Meigs to send two regiments to join him at 
the lower Maumee rapids, "well clothed for a fall campaign." 

In the meantime. General Proctor, in command of the British 
at Detroit, was without knowledge of the raising of the siege of 
Fort Wayne, and an army under Major A. C. Muir was moved up 
the Maumee to assist in taking the fort at the same time that 
Winchester's command was proceeding from Fort Wayne. 

The first indication that the Americans were approaching a 
British army came with the capture of Ensign Leggett, with four 
men, in advance of the American troops, who were taken by a 
Frenchman and eight Indians and put to death. Muir's army con- 
sisted of two hundred British regulars, and Colonel Matthew Elliott's 
band of 1,000 Indians. The troops had four pieces of artillery. 
Had they reached Fort Wayne previous to the arrival of the relief 
army under General Harrison the result doubtless would have 
changed the history of all succeeding years in the middle west. 
Having brought their baggage and artillery up the Maumee as 
far as Fort Defiance, the British and Indians here discovered the 
approach of Winchester's army. A hasty retreat followed, after 
their cannon and a portion of the ammunition had been thrown into 
the river. ^' <f|1 

That the British troops under Muir and Elliott were prepared 
to beat dovm the palisades of Fort Wayne is proven by the ofificial 
report of Muir to General Proctor, in explaining the movements of 
his troops. Some of the officers endeavored to induce Muir to hold 
his ground and use their cannon to prevent the advance of Win- 
chester's troops. 

"I told them," he wrote in his official report, "that the guns 
were brought for the purpose of battering Fort Wayne, but would 
not answer to fight in the woods." General Proctor, in turn, ex- 
plaining the movement to General Brock, said: "Fort Wayne had 
been relieved about ten days previous to the detachment's arrival 
at Fort Defiance. The delay occasioned by the armistice prevented 
the attainment of the object of oiir expedition, which was the 
destruction of Fort WajTie." 

General Winchester's army, expecting to force its way to 
Detroit and recover for the United States the stronghold surrendered 
to the British by General Hull, continued its cautious advance down 
the Maumee. In the meantime. General Harrison, who had been 
busy at Piqua, received a notification that he had been appointed 
commander of the Northwestern Army, to succeed Winchester. 
Immediately, he set his troops in motion for the advance to Fort 


Defiance, where he found Winchester's army in a deplorable condi- 
tion. Many of the patriotic Kentuckians, willing to sacrifice all for 
their country's welfare, had hastened to the relief of Fort Wayne, 
clad only in their light summer garments. Cold weather was now 
coming on, and there was a shortage of food. A repetition of the 
hardships of Valley Forge was soon to be the fate of the entire 
army. Many were to suffer death from exposure and disease; 
hundreds were to die at the hands of the savages and the British. 
Much of the blame for this terrible result has been placed not upon 
General Harrison, but upon General Winchester, to whom the com- 
mander-in-chief entrusted the left wing of the army. The name of 
General Tupper, who commanded the central portion of the advanc- 
ing army, is also written in the list of those upon whom falls much 
of the responsibility of the disasters of the campaign of the winter 

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The original of tlie accompanying private letter written by Major Joseph 
Jenkinson, commandant of Fort Wayne. March 14, 1814. to his wife, was loaned 
by Miss Emma Jenkinson, his granddaughter. "Ephraim," referred to in the 
letter, was the colored slave of the commandant. The letter was carried from 
Fort Wayne to Franklin, Ohio, by W. Swain. 


of 1812 and 1813. Wayne's Fort Defiance was in ruins. A new 
and larger fort was erected but a short distance from it; in honor 
of the leader of the left wing of the army it was named Fort 

With the arrival of General Harrison the spirits of the men 
revived. Previous to this, according to one private soldier who 
has preserved his story of the events of the campaign, "Colonel 
Allen, in an animated and encouraging address to his men, banished 
the idea of shrinking in the day of adversity. * * * General 
Harrison addressed the whole army in a most thrilling speech, 
which kindled in the breasts of the men, generally, an increased 
desire to meet the enemy, and a willingness to endure any priva- 
tions they might be called to suffer." (See the "Narrative of the 
Suffering and Defeat of the Northwestern Army, Under General 
Winchester, ' ' by Rev. William Atherton : Fort Wayne Public 
Library. The writer of this little book details the sufferings of the 
army, the massacre of the prisoners and the incidents of his own 
sixteen months' imprisonment.) 

Had General Harrison remained continuously in command of 
the army, it appears very probable that he would have taken his 
troops over an entirely new route to the attack of Detroit, approach- 
ing it from the west while the enemy was expecting the Americans 
to come from the south. To the secretary of war, writing under 
date of September 21, 1812, the day before Winchester's departure 
from Fort Wayne, he had said: "From Fort Wayne there is a path 
which has sometimes been used by the French, leading up the St. 
Joseph river, and from thence across by the headwaters of the River 
Raisin, to Detroit. It appears to me highly practicable, with a 
mounted force, by this route, to surprise and retake Detroit." The 
suggestion was not adopted, and it was now too late to make use 
of the plan. 

General Harrison, while yet busy with his arrangements at 
Fort Winchester, learned that the savages were again surrounding 
Fort Wayne. Five hundred Ohio troops under Colonel Allen Trimble 
were hurried to its relief. They found the condition as reported, 
but the savages fled into the forests as soon as the Americans 

In his report to the war department. General Harrison deplores 
the condition of the army, "the prodigious destruction of horses," 
and the great expense entailed. "I did not make sufficient allow- 
ance," said he, "for the imbecility and inexperience of the public 
agents and the villainy of the contractors," who failed to deliver to 
the soldiers thousands of warm garments sent to them by the women 
of Kentucky. Typhoid fever brought death to scores of the men. 

The story of the experiences of the left wing of Harrison's 
army is a continuous narrative of suffering and disaster. Weary, 
cold and suffering from disease, Winchester's men dragged them- 
selves and their stores through the snows until they reached the site 
of the battle of Fallen Timber. To the northward, on the American 
side of the Detroit river, opposite Maiden, was the village of French- 
town, now Monroe, Michigan. From this place came messengers 
with the alarming information that the Indians were planning the 
massacre of the inhabitants of the town. Winchester acted prompt- 



ly, after calling a conference of his officers, and dispatched Colonel 
"William Lewis, with 550 men, to the scene of the expected trouble. 
Colonel John Allen, with a force of 110 men, followed. In the face 
of overwhelming numbers. Colonels Allen and Lewis pushed for- 
ward, met and dispersed a body of British and Indian troops, which 
fell back across the River Raisin, which empties into Lake Erie at 
Monroe. Here they fortified themselves as weU as possible and 
summoned aid from General Winchester. The commander responded 
at once in person, accompanied by 250 men. 

For a long period Winchester, who had shared the privations 
of the soldiers, now received a warm invitation to make himself com- 
fortable at the home of Colonel Francis Navarre, a short distance 
from the camp of the soldiers. "Habituated to an easy, luxurious 
life," says Dr. Slocum, "the general had been for many weeks in 
the midst of forest wilds, privations and suffering, and now had 
headquarters in a comfortable house as the guest of a man with 
similar tastes in a social way, and with well stocked cellar. • • • 
He was under the magic spell of security and peace, which, like the 

Colonel Johnson, who was in tempor- 
ary command of Fort Wayne, during a 
period following the siege of the fort in 
1812. and who led in the raid to drive 
the troublesome savages from the region 
of northern Indiana, was one of Ken- 
tucky's most famous statesmen. Born 
near Louisville in 17S1, he became a 
prominent lawyer, and was elected as a 
representative in congress for a period 
of twelve years, beginning in 1807. On 
the breaking out of the war of 1812 he 
raised and commanded a regiment of 
mounted Kentucky riflemen for service 
on the frontier, which served under 
Harrison and Winchester. He was seri- 
ouslv wounded in the battle of the 
Thames, October 5, 1S13. In 1S19, Col- 
onel Johnson was chosen a United States 
senator from Kentucky and served ten 
years, after which he was returned to 
the house of representatives and was 
regularly re-elected until he became the 
vice-president of the United .States dur- 
ing the administration of Martin Van 
Buren. He died in 1850. The portrait 
Is reproduced from Harper's Encyclope- 
dia of American History, by permission 
of Harper and Brothers. 


Major Joseph Jenkinson, commandant 
of Fort Wayne in 1813 and 1814, was the 
ji:randfather of Attorney Joseph James 
Jenkinson and Miss Emma Jenkinson. of 
Fort Wayne. The original picture, a 
miniature by an unknown artist, is In 
the possession of a grandson, E. W. Cor- 
win. of New Jersey. Moses Vail Jen- 
kinson. father of Miss Emma Jenkin- 
son. and a member of the Fort Wayne 
bar from 1S48 until his death in 1856. 
was a son of Major Jenkinson. Isaac 
Jenkinson was a nephew of the com- 
mandant. Among the persons who ac- 
companied Major Jenkinson to Fort 
Wayne was Ephriam, a slave, who is 
mentioned In the major's letter repro- 
duced in this work, and of whom the 
commandant speaks as having brought 
him so "completely under" that "he 
bounces at the word." The locking of 
the ne^ro in the guard house and giving 
him "two whippings, thp last of which 
was a very hard one," are revelations of 
character which contrast strangely with 
the gentle phra.seology of the remainder 
of the letter. 


brief calm preceding the disastrous burst of the tempest, lulled to 
inactivity. ' ' 

Alas ! The morning of January 22, 1814, brought the fatal 
storm. Before they were aware of the situation the American troops 
found themselves surrounded by the enemy in such numbers that 
defense was impossible. Against the six cannon of the British, they 
had none to repel an attack. With the opening of the fire of the 
enemy, the destruction of life was terrible. Four hundred in all 
were sacrificed. Five hundred and forty-seven prisoners, including 
General Winchester, were taken. It was the misfortune of many 
to be required to walk a distance of 500 miles over the frozen 
ground to Fort Niagara, to be exchanged. 


Colonel Allen — whose name is commemorated in that of the 
county of which Fort Wayne is the seat of government — tried to 
rally his men, though severely wounded. An Indian chief found 
him in an exhausted condition, seated on a log. As soon as he 
came near the colonel, lie drew his gun across his lap and told him 
in the Indian language to surrender and he should be safe. Another 
savage having, at the same time, advanced with a hostile appear- 
ance. Colonel AUen, by one stroke of his sword, laid him dead at 
his feet. A third Indian near by had, then, the honor of shooting 
one of the first and greatest citizens of Kentucky. 

Following this disaster the British carried forward its plan 
of the siege of the American stronghold. Fort Meigs, on the south 
bank of the Maumee, nearly opposite the present Maumee City, Ohio. 

Meanwhile, Colonel Richard Menter Johnson, of Kentucky, 
who had been allowed to leave his seat in the national house of 
representatives to enter activelj' into the campaign in the west, 
had secured permission to rid the territory of northern Indiana 
of the savages who were still exhibiting a warlike spirit in the 
neighborhood of the western posts. 

General Harrison had already addressed a letter to Secretary 
of War James Monroe — January 11, 1813— concerning the situation 
about Fort Wayne, in which he said : 

"The southwardly direction of Lake Michigan running deep 
into our country, approaches Fort Wayne. * * * The facility 
of attacking Fort Wayne by an Indian force collected at Chicago, 
aided by the British artillery from ^Mackinac, may be seen by the 
Indians of that quarter, and it would have been attempted last 
fall if there had been time enough." 

Four months later — May 23, 1813 — Harrison addressed the new 
secretary of war, John Armstrong, from his headquarters at Cin- 
cinnati, saying: 

"I am persuaded that a demonstration in the direction of Fort 
Wayne by a body of mounted men would be attended by very happy 
effects. I am not entirely at ease on the subject of the garrisons 
in that direction. The enemy, if they understood their business 
(wanting provisions as they do) will certainly make an attempt to 
carry some of our weak posts where we have large deposits. Colonel 
Johnson's corps will make all safe in that quarter." 



Included with his instructions to Colonel Johnson, General 
Harrison commissioned the Kentuekian to assume command of Fort 
Wayne on his arrival here. Captain Robert McAfee, who led a 
company in this expedition, gives the following interesting account 
of the undertaking, as far as it relates to the story of Fort Wayne: 


"On the 5th [of July, 1813] the regiment marched towards 
Fort Wayne, with a view to protect some boats loaded with fiour 
and bacon, which had been sent down the St. Mary's by General 
Wingate of the Ohio militia. A heavy rain having fallen, the St. 
Mary's was found impassable at Shane's Crossing.^ On the next 
day, by felling trees into it from both banks, a rude bridge was 

The sketch and the map indicate the scene ot the massacre of a party of the 
troops of Major Jenl<inson, in 1813. while guiding their flatboat around the bend 
in the St. Mary's river at the present Guldlin playground. A — Where the boat, 
loaded with men and provisions, was attacked by the Indians secreted in the 
bushes. B — Guldlin playground. C — Turnverein Vorwaerts building, formerly 
the Hugh McCuUoch home. D — Residences facing on West Superior street 


constructed, over which the men passed with their baggage, while 
their horses were crossed by swimming. The rest of the way to 
Fort Wayne was found very diiScult, all the flats and marshes 
being covered with water, and the roads very miry. They arrived 
[at Fort Wayne] on the 7th and found all the boats had reached 
the fort in safety but one, which had stuck on a bar in sight of 
the fort. While the boatmen were endeavoring to get her off, a 
party of Indians fired and killed two of them, and the other, attempt- 
ing to swim over the river, was drowned. Colonel Johnson with 
his staff and a few men had just arrived at the fort and stripped 
their horses. As soon as they could make ready, they mounted 
and crossed to the boat. The Indians fired upon the advance and 
then retreated. The spies being of the opinion that the party of 
Indians was much stronger than that with the colonel, he deferred 
the pursuit till the regiment all arrived. He then took a strong 
detachment and pursued them about ten miles, when a rainy night 
coming on he returned to the fort." 

The second day after the arrival of Colonel Johnson's troops' 
at Fort Wayne, the regiment marched to the northwest and sur- 
rounded the rebuilt village of Five Medals which was found de- 
serted. During a march of two hundred miles in five days in an 
almost constant rain, no savages were found, and the troops returned 
to Fort Wayne. Here the regiment remained a few days and then 
proceeded down the Maumee with an escort of provisions for Fort 

Thereafter, Colonel Johnson was an active participant in tlie 
campaigns of the lower Maumee. 

The heavy loss of life which accompanied the British sieges of 
Fort Meigs was due largely to the personal leadership of Teeumseh 
and "The Prophet." The siege of Fort Stephenson, the defense of 
which post, at the site of the present Fremont, Ohio, was in charge 
of Major George Croghan, was soon followed by Perry's famous 
victory on Lake Erie. The decisive battle of the Thames, on Cana- 
dian soil, which brought death to the great Teeumseh,* proved to 
be the final event of t^ie war in the west. General Harrison, after 
appointing General Lewis Cass governor of Jlichigan, returned to 
his family in Cincinnati, where he retained quarters until he re- 
signed his commission in May, 1814. 


(1) Among the government employes gave him 640 acres of land on the St. 
at Fort Wayne at this time was Louis- Mary's river in the treaty of 1817. His 
lanau, a French blacltsmith, who was wife, an Indian, was converted to Chris- 
sent to establish a shop within the tianity at Fort Wayne through the min- 
outer stocl<ade. He is the first man. Istry of Rev. Isaac McCoy. Shanes- 
whose name has been preserved, to ville, on the original Shane property, 
send the musical notes of the anvil located in Mercpr county, Ohio, wa"^ 
over the neighborhood of the fort. The Itnown as Shane's Crossing, and now 
remains of this shop were discovered bears the name of Rockford. 

while worl<men were excavating for the (3) The officers in command of John- 
basement of the Judge W. W. Carson son's regiment were: Richard M. John- 
residence, later the home of the late son. colonel; James Johnson, lieutenant 
Henry C. Hanna, on East Berry street. colonel; First battalion. Duval Payne, 

(2) Anthony Shane (Chesne), for major: Robert B. McAfee. Richard Mat- 
whom Shane's Crossing is named, was ron, Jacob Elliston. Benjamin Warfleld, 
Johnson's guide during this expedition. John Payne, Elijah Craig, captains. 
Shane, previous to W'ayne's treaty, had Second battalion, David Thompson, 
been an enemy of the Americans, but major; Jacob Stucl<er, James Davidson, 
his loyalty thereafter was proven in S. R. Combs, W. M. Price. James Cole- 
many acts of service. The government man, captains. Staff: Jeremiah Kert- 



ley, adjutant; B. S. Chamber, quarter- 
master; Samuel Theobalds, judge advo- 
vate; L. Dickinson, sergeant major; 
James Suggett, chaplain and major of 
spies; Dr. Ewlng, surgeon; Drs. Coburn 
and Richardson, surgeon's mates. 

(4) Peter Navarre tlius descrilies the 
death of Tecumseh: "Colonel [Richard 
Menter] Johnson, under whose com- 
mand I fought, was wounded and had 
his horse killed under him. While he 
was down, Tecumseh sprang from a 
tree to tomahawk and scalp him, and I 
fired upon him. He fell, and the war 
cry of Tecumseh was heard no more." 
The claim of Navarre is disputed by 
other witnesses. "It is the general im- 
pression that Tecumseh was killed by 
Colonel Richard Menter Johnson, later 

vice-president of the United States," 
said the late John P. Hedges, of Fort 
Wayne. "There is no doubt that he 
met his death by the hand of a private 
soldier by the name of King, a member 
of Captain Fairfield's company of Ken- 
tucky militia." John P. Hedges, who 
later became a prominent citizen of 
Fort Wayne, visited Fort Wayne first 
in 1812, previous to the arrival of Har- 
rison's army, and was present at the 
burial of Chief Little Turtle. He was 
then twenty-one years of age and em- 
ployed as chief clerk by John H. Piatt, 
government contractor to supply the 
forts with provisions. In September, 
1812. he returned with Harrison's army 
of relief, and then accompanied the 
troops on their Maumee campaign. 

CHAPTER XIX— 1813-1815. 

Jenkinson and Whistler, Commandants — Rebuilding of 

Fort Wayne. 

Major Jenkinson in command of Fort Wayne — A savage attack on his con- 
voy — Major Whistler succeeds Major Jenkinson — The Suttenfields and 
the Bouries — The residents of the fort — How the Fourth of July was cele- 
brated in 1S14 — Whistler declares the fort was "an ill-constructed thing 
at the first" — Purposes to rebuild the stockade — When John Kinzie's 
scalp was valuable — Hostile chiefs plan attack on the forts — Whistler 
fears for "The poor devils" in the Indian camps — "No whiskey, no soap" 
—Whistler rebuilds the fort — John W. Dawson's observations concerning 
the building and reconstruction of Wayne's and Hunt's forts — Description 
of the fort buildings and surroundings. 

TURNING attention once more to conditions about the war- 
troubled fort at the contiuence of the St. Mary's and the St. 
Joseph rivers we fiud the few settlers there gathered under 
the protection of the fort emerging from the effects of the 
conflict with a determination to begin the upbuilding of a village 
and the establishment of homes and places of trade and industry. 
None was inclined to venture far into the wilderness because of the 
uncertain attitude of the savages; indeed, many atrocities of the 
period made it advisable to consider well the safety of life and 
person. None but brave hearts could endure the dangers of the 
frontier in the years following the final war in the west. 

The year 1813 brought the assignment of Major Joseph Jen- 
kinson, stationed at Newport, Kentucky, to the command of Fort 
Wayne. The descendants of Major Jenkinson became prominent 
factors in (he development of the town of Fort Wayne. From Miss 
Emma Jenkinson, the 7>resent-day representative of the family, a 
granddaughter of Major Jenkinson, much valuable information, 
handed down from the early days of the preceding century, has 
been obtained. 

"My grandfather," says Miss Jenkinson, "must have been a 
gallant gentleman, with mild blue eyes and fastidious as to dress. 
He was a merchant, living in Franklin, Ohio, and he had heard 
much of the beauty and vivacity of Sallie Vail, whose father owned 
a large grist mill near Middletown, Ohio. In keeping with the cus- 
tom of those days, Mr. Vail kept an inn for the accommodation of 
man and beast. Joseph Jenkinson rode down one Sunday evening 
to view the landscape and, incidentally, to see the charming Sallie. 
He ordered an elaborate meal of fried chicken, hot biscuit, mashed 
potatoes and the like. Sallie resented the serving of a spread of 
such proportions, having, perhaps, a more pleasing way to spend 
her time, but she must have succumbed to the charming manner of 
the future military man, for, before he left that night, he had made 
an engagement to return the next Sunday. They were married a 
few months later." 



Major Jenkinson was the father of the late Moses Vail Jenkin- 
son, an active member of the legal fraternity during the early days 
of Fort Wayne's development. 

The wife of Major Jenkinson did not accompany him to Fort 
Wayne. He brought three companies of militia. When they 
reached the St. Mary's river, near the present Decatur, Indiana, 
they procured pirogues and tlatboats for the transportation of their 
goods to Fort Wayne, while most of the troops followed the trails 
bordering the river. 

The march was conducted with precaution for fear of lurking 
savages, and the journey proved uneventful until the boats reached 
the point in the St. Mary's river which may be described as the 
sharp bend north of the present building of the Turnverein Vor- 
waerts, formerly the Judge Hugh McCulloch mansion, on West 
Superior street, in Fort Wayne. The river was swollen at the time 
and the swift current carried the boats around the present Guldlin 
playground so swiftly a.? to cause much anxiety on the part of the 
commandant lest there be loss of life or goods. He remained at 
the treacherous spot, therefore, to direct the operation of handling 
the boats. Before the last boat arrived, however, the commandant, 
leaving a subordinate to direci' the work of the men in charge of 
the remaining craft, returned to the fort, some distance to the 
eastward. Suddenly the men at the fort were startled by the rapid 
discharge of firearms toward the west. Hastening to the scene of 
the bend in the river, they were horrified to find the dead bodies of 
the men of the last boat, who had been shot from ambush and scalped 
by Indians secreted in the underbrush. Several weeks afterward 
the major was informed by a friendly Indian that the savages in 
hiding were at times within the distance of a few feet of the com- 
mandant as he directed the handling of the boats. They had with- 
held their attack until but a small number of men was left at the 
bend, for fear of being overwhelmed by a force larger than their 

The major's period of military service at Fort Wayne was 
brief. He chose to return to Kentucky, where he was appointed 
adjutant of the Forty-eighth regiment of the state militia. The 
original commission, signed by Governor Slaughter, is in the pos- 
session of Miss Emma Jenkinson. 


In 1814, the command of Fort Wayne was given to Major John 
Whistler, of the First United States infantry, transferred from 
Newport, Kentucky. Major Whistler was not a stranger at Fort 
Wayne. As a lieutenant he had accompanied Wayne on his western 
campaign, and was here to assist in the building of the original 
fort. He remained as a special officer to oversee the maintenance 
of the forts of the region. Later, his wife joined him, and it was 
during this period that George Washington Whistler was born, in 
1800. This son rose to fame in the topographical service of the 
government. His death occurred in Russia, in 1849, while he was 
superintending the construction of the Trans-Siberian railroad. A 



son of George Washington Whistler— James Abbott McNeill Whis- 
tler — became one of the world's best-known artists. 

Following Major John Whistler's early experience at Fort 
Wayne he was transferred to Detroit, and from there to the site 

The monument raised over the burial 
place of Chief Jean Baptiste de Richard- 
ville. in the present Cathedral square 
(the south half of which was used orig- 
inally for a burial ground), was, at the 
time of the removal of the bodies to the 
Catholic cemetery in the southwestern 
part of the city, taken to the new bury- 
ing ground, although the body of the 
Miami chief was allowed to remain In 
its original grave. Later, the monument 
was removed to the present Catholic 
cemetery, northeast of Fort Wayne. The 
small shaft of white marble was erected 
by the chief's daughters, Catherine, La- 
Blonde and Susan. While standing in 
the old cemetery, on the bank of the St. 
Mary's river, directly south from the 
Pennsylvania tracks, the monument be- 
came marred by sportsmen, who used it 
for a target in order to carry away its 
chips as souvenirs. It was removed to 
its present site by a granddaughter. Mrs. 
Archangel Engelmann, of Huntington, 
Indiana (daughter of Catherine, the wife 
of Chief LaFontaine). One panel bears 
the inscription: "Here Rest the Remains 
of .John B. Richardville. Principal Chief 
of the Miami Tribe of Indians. He Was 
Born in Fort Wayne. Indiana, About the 
Tear 1760, and Died in August. 1841." 
The resting place of the body of Rich- 
ardville is described as a spot "just at 
the edge of the Cathedral, between the 
forward side door and the first buttress 
of the wall." 


Mrs. Caroline Bourie-Ferry, widow of 
Lucien P. Ferry, died in Fort Wayne In 
1914. shortly after the observance of her 
one hundredth birthday. At that time 
she lived with her daughter, Mrs. Eu- 
dora P. Boyles, though she had resided 
for a considerable period with her grand- 
daughter. Miss Minnie Orvis (now Mrs. 
John .O'Brien) at Decatur, Indiana. She 
was born at Detroit in 1814, and was 
brought to Fort Wayne by her parents, 
Mr. and Mrs. Louis Bourie. 

Mrs. Suttenfield was born in Boston in 
1795. Her death occurred in Fort Wayne 
in 1886, following a residence here of 
seventy-two years. She lived within the 
palisades of the fort for a period. 


of Chicago, where he built Fort Dearborn and became its command- 

The year 1814, which marks the return of the Whistlers, brings 
into the narrative also the names of other families which have 
remained inseparable from the story of Fort Wayne— notably those 
of the Bouries and the Suttenfields. The introduction of the wife 
and two daughters of Major Whistler into the life of the garrison, 
as well as the women of the Suttenfield and Bourie families, together 
with the return of the women refugees who had been kept under 
the protection of their friends in the Ohio settlements during the 
period of strife, introduces into the story a feature which remains 
to the end — the element of the established family circle. 

The troops of Major Whistler came to Fort Wayne by way 
of the St. Mary's river. Among the officers was William Sutten- 
field, given the title of colonel, who was accompanied by his wife 
and baby boy, AVilliam F. Suttenfield. Colonel and Mrs. Suttenfield 
already had figured in many thrilling and romantic episodes. Val- 
uable recollections of the early fort days have been preserved as 
a result of the good memory of Mrs. Suttenfield, which she retained 
to the time of her death in 1886, at the age of ninety-one years. 

Mrs. Suttenfield (Laura Taylor) was the daughter ofMr. and 
Mrs. Israel Taylor, of Boston, where she was born in 1795. A sister 
of Mrs. Suttenfield (Eliza Taylor) became the wife of Judge Samuel 
Hanna. Laura Taylor met William Suttenfield, a dashing young 
military officer, at Detroit, when she was sixteen, and that meeting 
resulted in their elopement the same year. Previous to this, Laura 
had accompanied her father on a business trip to JIackinac. On 
their return they were captured by British officers and held as 
prisoners for a time. The Suttenfields lived for two years in the 
home of Colonel John Johnston, at Upper Piqua, Ohio, after which, 
in 1813, they went to Newport, Kentucky, where Colonel Suttenfield 
joined Whistler's troops. It was not the first visit of Colonel 
Suttenfield to Fort Wayne. In 1811 he was in Colonel Johnston's 
employ, in charge of a pack train hauling military and Indian stores 
from Upper Piqua to the fort. 

Colonel Suttenfield, although he lived within the stockaded post 
at the beginning, was the first to erect, in 1814, a log house at Fort 
Wayne, following the siege. It stood near the corner of the present 
Columbia and Barr streets. This building, re-located and made a 
part of Washington hall in later years, was destroyed by fire in 1858. 

To William Suttenfield and wife on November 29, 1816, was 
born a daughter, Jane. In later years Jane Suttenfield became the 
wife of Myron F. Barbour, one of the earliest teachers of Fort 
Wayne, and later prominent in business affairs. 

The Bouries made their permanent settlement here in 1814, 
although Louis Bourie had been engaged in business at this spot 
thirteen years before. Previous to that time he was a well-to-do 
farmer and trader at Detroit, his property extending in a narrow 
strip through the present business section of that city. Coming 
to Fort Wayne in 1801, he was granted a license to "trade with 
the Pottawattomie nation at Cour de Serf [Coeur de Cerf — Elk's 
Heart — probably on the Elkhart river]." He then transferred his 



business to the portage between the Maumee and the "Wabash 
rivers, and for six years he "kept pack-horses and a warehouse for 
the deposit and transportation of merchandise and peltries." Mr. 
Bourie's business grew to large proportions, and the success of the 
enterprise would have continued had it not been for the outbreak 
of the Indians preceding the war of 1812. It was during this 
"slorra" period that Mr. and Mrs. Bourie returned to Detroit 
Coming once more to Fort Wayne in 1814, they brought their three- 
month-old daughter— Caroline. This child, who later became the 
wife of Lucien P. Ferry, lived to the age of one hundred years 
and witnessed the transformation of the wilderness into a modem 

Mrs. Frances Bourie. with her hus- 
band. Louis Bourie, had visited Fort 
Wayne several times previous to 1814, 
but it was in the latter year that the 
family came from Detroit and took up 
their permanent residence. During the 
war of 1813 their home on their farm, 
which included a part of the present city 
of Detroit, was plundered by the In- 
dians and most of their personal prop- 
erty carried away. In 1834 the govern- 
ment reimbursed the descendants to the 
amount of the loss. Because of her cul- 
ture and dignified manner Mrs. Bourie 
was commonly called "Lady" Bourie. 
The drawing is after a painting by Rock- 
well, of New York, left to the descend- 
ants of Mrs. Bourie's daughter, the late 
Mrs. Lucien P. Ferry. 


The iron safe owned by Chief Jean 
Baptiste de RichardviUe was the first to 
be brought to Fort Wayne. RichardviUe, 
who first secured a near-monopoly of the 
portage business between the St. Mary's 
and the Wabash rivers and later engaged 
in the Indian trade with his headquar- 
ters on Columbia street. Is said to have 
been the most wealthy Indian in the 
west. The safe was a strong wooden box 
securely bound with sheets and strips of 
iron, firmly bolted. The wood is now de- 
cayed and many of the bolts are missing. 
The safe is on exhibition in the relic 
room of the courthouse, as a loan of L. 
W. Hills, who purchased it from John W. 
Miller Mr. Miller bought it from James 
Godfrey in 1850. The safe was opened 
by the use of a key which unlocked the 
door at the top. 

city. Mrs. Ferry died in 1914 at the home of her daughter, Mrs. 
Eudora Boyles. Other children of Mr. and Mrs. Louis Bourie were 
DaAid, Nancy Ann (wife of John P. Hedges), and Harriet (wife 
ol' Colonel George W. Ewing). The children of Mr. and Mrs. Ferry 
are the late Colonel Clinton P. Ferry (famous as "The Duke of 
Taeoma," so called because of his successful speculation in the 
purchase of the land on which the city of Taeoma, Washington, is 
built and which was developed largely through his efforts), Mrs. 
Boyles, of Fort Wayne, and Mrs. Harriet McMillan, of Decatur, 
Indiana, whose former husband was George B. Orvis. 

Soon after his arrival at the fort in 1814, Mr. Bourie was given 
a contract to provide bread for the soldiers, and he built a bakery 


at the corner of the present Clinton and Columbia streets. Later, 
he established a store and erected a log residence building ad- 
joining the bakery. "I well remember that the French baker 
whom my father employed was so clean," said the late Mrs. Ferry, 
"that if we children went into the room Avithout first wiping our 
feet, he would drive us out." 

The death of Louis Bourie occurred in 1816. 

Lieutenant Daniel Curtis, whose name appears among those 
who were the most active in the fort during the siege, was still 
connected with the post in 1814. The residents of the fort, in addi- 
tion to the troops, included jMajor Benjamin F. Stickney, the Indian 
agent, whose good services during the siege have been noted; Ben- 
jamin Berry Kercheval and Peter Oliver (the latter of whom was 
beside Stephen Johnston when he was killed by the savages in 
1812), clerks of the agent; Jean Baptiste Maloche and his wife; 
Louis Bourie and family; James Peltier and wife, Angeline Chape- 
teau Peltier; Charles Peltier, trader; John P. Hedges, who had first 
visited the fort in 1812 and who was now stationed at the fort as 
a storekeeper ; Dr. Daniel Smith, who had removed from Lancaster, 
Ohio ; Robert Forsythe, who later became a paymaster in the United 
States army ; George Hunt, a sutler, and John E. Hunt, then a clerk 
for his brother George. 

The isolation and the quietude of the place is suggested in Jlrs. 
Suttenfield's impressive description of the celebration of the 4th 
of July, 1814, quoted from an article by Mrs. Laura G. Detzer, in 
Volume II of the "History of the Maumee River Basin": 

"The fort at that time contained sixty men of the regular army, 
all patriotic and anxious to celebrate one day in the year. They 
made three green bowers, 100 feet from the pickets of the fort 
where I\Iain street now is — one bower for the dinner table, ona 
for the cooks and one for the music. Major Whistler had two Ger- 
man cooks and they prepared the dinner. There were but eleven 
persons at the table ; but three are now living [1869] to tell of that 
day. Our dinner consisted of one fine turkey, a side of venison, 
boiled ham, vegetables in abundance, cranberries and green cur- 
rants. As for dessert, we had none. Eggs were not known here for 
thi-ee years from that time. There were three bottles of wine sent 
here from Cincinnati; but one was made use of. Then there were 
a few toasts, and, after three guns and music, they went into the 
fort and the ladies changed their dresses. Then Major Whistler 
called for the music, which consisted of one bass drum, two small 
ones, one fife, violin and flute. There was a long gallery in the 
fort; the musicians took their seats there. But three of the gentle- 
men could dance. There were but three ladies present. A French 
four passed ofl:' very well for an hour. Then the gates of the fort 
were closed at sundown, which gave it a gloomy appearance. No 
children, no younger persons for amusement, all retired to their 
rooms. All was quiet and still. The sentinel on his lonely round 
would give us the hour of the night. In the morning we were 
aroused by the beating of the reveille." 

The lives of these residents of Fort Wayne of 1814 were never 
withoTit the fear of possible attack from savage foes, even though 



the treaty of peace with England was designed to govern the acts 
of the Indians in their relations; with the American settlers. 

On January 27, 1814. General Harrison, writing from Cincinnati 

General Duncan McArthur, commanding the Eighth military district, wrote 
from Chilllcothe, Ohio, to the secretary of war in May. 1815, that Major Whistler 
"states that the Picquets in the works at Fort Wayne are so much decayed that 
it will be necessary to rebuild the fort." On August 3, 1816, General A. D. 
Macomb, writing from Detroit, told the secretary that the fort was completed, 
and that a drawing of it, which had been forwarded to Detroit, was enclosed 
with the communication to the secretary. This places the time of the rebuilding 
of the Fort Wayne between the early summer of 1815 and the late summer of 
1816. The original of the above letter is in the war department. This is a 
reproduction from the photostatic copy In the Burton Historical Collection at 


to Jolin Armstrong, secretary of war, observes: 

"Major Whistler, lately from Fort Wayne, says that the Indians 
in that quarter evince the most, friendly disposition, although an- 
other officer who left that post since the major, says that the Miamis 
had informed the commanding officer that Dixon was collecting 
Indians in the neighborhood of Chicago to attack Fort Wayne." 

Robert Dickson (Dixon) was an active and influential British 
trader and emissary who had been sent among the Indians on the 
frcutier to incite them to war. (McAfee.) 

That Major Whistler himself was not a little worried over 
conditions is suggested by his letter of July 1, to Brigadier General 
Duncan McArthur, in which he asks for additional forces or a 
revision of the fort buildings. Said he: 

"The Indians show a bad disposition to Attend the Treaty [at 
Greenville conducted by General Harrison and General Cass] * * 
* I have Received an Account from Mr. Johnston [at Piqua] 
that the Potawitimies and Taways and the Other Indians Bordering 
on Lake Michigan are intending to Join the British and Take Detroit, 
Maiden ;ind this Place [Fort Wayne] this Moon. I am of opinion 
the Addition Made to Tins izarrison [fort] Ought to be pulled Down 
or more Troops sent Here immediately, for the Number here are 
not Sufficient to m;'n both. It Was an ill-constructed Thing at first." 

The conduct of Chief Richardville had been especially annoying 
to Majo.* Whistler. At the outbreak of the war, Richardville hur- 
riedly gathered his effects and fled with his family to the British 
lines and there remained, without taking an active part iu ihe 
trouble, until 1814, when he made his way to a spot about six miles 
southeast of Fort Wayne on the St. Mary's and there encamped. 
Major Whistler sent him a message by the hand of Crozier, an inter- 
preter, inviting him to a conference at the fort. He responded, but 
he appeared reluctant to attend the conference at Greenville. Finally 
he came, in company with Chief Chondonnai, a participant in the 
Fort Dearborn massacre, and placed his signature to the treaty. 

General Harrison, explaining the situation to Secretary Arm- 
strong, wrote : 

"The Miamies have their principal settlement at the forks of 
the Wabash thirty miles from Fort Wayne, and at the Missisineway, 
thirty miles lower down. A band of them under the name of Weas 
have resided on the Wabash sixty miles above Vincennes, and an- 
other on the Eel river, a branch of the Wabash twenty-five miles 
northwest of Fort Wayne. By an artifice of Little Turtle, these three 
bands were passed upon General Wayne as distinct tribes and 
an annuity granted to each." 

Rumors of British influence kept the garrison alert to interpret 
every suspieioxis movement of the savages. Early in the year 1815 — 
February 11 — William Woodbridge, acting governor of Michigan, 
writing to General McArthur, states that a reward of $600 each 
had been offered by the British for the scalps of John Kinzie, Jr., 
and Chaudonet, and iirged that these men assemble the chiefs at 
Port Wayne to conciliate them. "May I hope for your influence 
and sanction in the endeavor to effect it?" he asked. "Will you, 
if you approve of it, enforce it by your influence with the govern- 



ment by such an order to the commandant at Fort Wayne as may 
be requisite?" 

Major Whistler, writing from Fort Wayne to General Mc Arthur 
as early as January 14th, tells of the visit of a Frenchman named 
Bartrand employed by John Kinzie, Jr., who, under oath, told of 
the hostile intentions of two chiefs, Gemmo and Geebance. Directly 
afterward, a Pottawattomie chief. White Pigeon, was discovered 
lurking near the fort. He was induced by Antoine Bondie to visit 
the commandant who held him captive. In the year 1818 this Bar- 
trand lived in a log house on the site of South Bend, Indiana, the 
only dwelling between Fort Wayne and Chicago. 

An interesting portion of Major Whistler's letter deals with 
the duties of the "armourer" of the fort, who, he explains, "fre- 
quently works for the Indians Such as Mending their Guns, Tommy 
hawks &c. I mentioned the circumstance to the agent, Mr. Stiek- 

George W^ashlngton Whistler, father 
of James McNeiU Whistler, the world- 
famed artist, was born in 1800 within 
the stockade of old Fort Wayne. He 
was the son of Major John Whistler, the 
commandant from 1814 to 1816. In later 
years George Washington Whistler rose 
to fame as an engineer. He was the 
builder of the Transslberian railroad. 

This handsome mahogany table was 
used for several years in the old fort by 
Mrs. Laura Suttenfleld. It passed into 
other hands and finally became the prop- 
erty of the late Colonel R. S. Robertson, 
It is still in daily use in the Robertson 

ney, at St. Mary's," he adds, "wishing to be informed if the Soldier 
was to receive pay from the Indian department as they had done 
at Fort Dearborn at ten cents per day. Stickney informed me that 
they were to have no Work done for them unless an order from 
the Secretary of War. I know not what will become of the Poor 
devils ; they must have some way to maintain themselves and familys. 
HoAvever I shall continue to have Such Work done for them as have 
been customary untill your excellency orders Me otherwise or some 
other officer authorized to Order it otherwise." 

Concerning the lack of food supplies, Major Whistler says : 

"The contractor has been very deficient in his Supplying this 

Post. There is not now more than Six days Issue of flour on hand 

at half rations. I had to send Soldiers with Sleds to St. Mary's for 

that Article and for the Six pounder. I am informed the Commd. 


oflScer there has been firing brick bats with it and has used all the 
powder in that manner. No whiskey or soap. This is the second 
time I had Sent Sleds by Soldiers for flour to St. Mary's."' 

Major Whistler, in view of the hostile attitude of the savages 
to the northwest, determined that the safety of the garrison, as well 
as the women and children under his care, demanded the building 
of a new fort. 

In the month of May, 1815, he informed General Duncan Mc- 
Arthur of his intention to rebuild the fort, and General McArthur 
communicated the information to the secretary of war in a letter 
written from Chillicothe, Ohio, in which he said : 

"I have just received two letters from Major Whistler, com- 
manding at Fort Wayne, in which he states that the Indians to the 
northwest have declared their intentions to continue the war against 
the United States. They also say they will not suffer the lands in 
the territories of Michigan, Illinois and Indiana to be surveyed or 
settled. He also states that the piquets h'it'kets] in tlie works at 
Fort Wayne are so much decayed that it will be necessarv to rebuild 
the fort." 

In the fall of 1815, therefore. Major Whistler directed the con- 
struction of a new fort to take the place of the decaying structure 
erected by the troops of Colonel Hunt fifteen years before. 

Where was the new fort placed? 

The writer has found no better authority for an answer to the 
question than the record of the late John W.' Dawson, who, in 1858, 
gathered his information from the earliest settlers and wrote as 
follows : 


The exact spot, or, rather the very boimds of the fort grounds 
are not, at this distant period, to be ascertained; but enough is 
certainly known to advise the interested that the ground selected for 
this [Wa.yne's] fort is that which is designated on the city of Fort 
Wayne as lots 11, 12 and 13, within Taber's addition, laid" out 15th 
April, 1835, being at the northwest corner of Clay and Berry streets, 
near where Clay street crosses the canal [Nickel Plate railroad 
tracks] at the Maumee bridge [then at Main street] just below the 
junction of the St. Joseph and St. Mary's. [Lot 11 is 
now occupied by the new building of the Western News- 
paper Union, erected in 1916. Calvin K. Rieman states 
that when his father purchased this lot in the seventies 
and commenced an excavation on the property, he dug out the 
fragment of a pole, set deep in the ground, which the late Franklin 
P. Randall believed to be the flagpole of Wayne's original fort Mr. 
Dawson, writing in 1872, says that this stump of a pole was doubt- 
less the remnant of one of the liberty poles erected by the whigs in 
honor of General Harrison in the summer of 1840, when "this place, 
as others in the west, ran up so many poles that the traveler ap- 
proaching the town was reminded of the spars of shipping in some 
harbor."] This [Wayne's] fort was of log construction, well located 
but not very safe. The location commanded the Maumee for half a 
mile below the junction, and the mouth of the St. Joseph and the 
St. Mary's. It was small, and, not serving the purpose, was torn 



down about 1804 [really in 1800] and a new one built on what is 
now lot 40, in the addition named above [Taber's] by Colonel 
[Thomas] Hunt. [Lot 40 is almost identical with Old Fort park. 
It seems very probable that the troops occupied the original fort 
during the period of construction of the second fort, so there were 
two American forts standing at the same time, separated by per- 

Major (then Lieutenant) Whistler first 
served at Fort Wayne In 1794, when 
Wayne assigned hlra to perform special 
service for the government. In 1803 he 
built Fort Dearborn (Chicago). He 
served as commandant at Fort Wavne 
from 1814 to 1816. Major Whistler came 
to America as a British soldier in the 
Revolution, under Burgoyne. He wa« 
captured, paroled and sent back to Eng- 
land. His elopement with Miss Ann 
Bishop, daughter of Sir Edward Bishop, 
a close friend of his father, is an inci- 
dent of importance, as it brought to 
America the fugitive lovers, who first 
made their home at Hagerstown, Mary- 
land, in 1790. Major Whistler at once 
joined the army of the United States and 
in the following year came west with 
General St. Clair's army. He escaped 
from the "Wabash slaughter field" with 
severe wounds. At Fort W^ashington 
(Cincinnati), where WTiistler was as- 
signed to duty, he was joined by his 
wife. Upon the arrival of Wayne's army 
he was taken on the northward march. 
He participated in the battle of Fallen 
Timber and assisted in building Fort 
Wayne. After the war the Whistlers 
were residents of the fort, and here, in 
1800, George Washington W^hlstler was 
born. Mrs. Laura Suttenfield, who died 
In Fort Wayne in 1886, at the age of 
ninety-one years, has left many remin- 
iscences of Major Whistler, with whom 
she was well acquainted: the WTiistlers 
and the Suttenflelds occupied homes 
within the fort at the same time. Th« 
commandant was a man of high charac- 
ter, a linguist and a musician; his wife 
was a woman of rare charm and force 
of character. To Major Whistler and 
wife were born fifteen children. In 1816 
the commandant was transferred to duty 
at St. Louis. 

"He was," said Senator John Tipton, 
who knew him well, "the ablest diplomat 
of whom I have any knowledge. If he 
had been born and educated in France, 
he would have been the equal of Tally- 
rand." The portrait of Chief Jean Bap- 
tiste de Richardville (Pe-che-wa) is aft- 
er an oil painting in the possession of 
Ills granddaughter, Mrs. Archangel En- 
gelmann, of Huntington county. Richard- 
ville was the son of Joseph Drouet de 
Richardville, a French trader, and Tau- 
cum-wah. a sister of Chief Little Turtle. 
He was born about 1761 in a hut near 
the historic apple tree in the present 
Lakeside. While yet a boy. an exhibi- 
tion of great daring in rescuing a white 
prisoner from burning at the stake made 
Richardville a chief of the Miamis. Al- 
though he was present on the occasion of 
Harmar's defeat, he did not participate 
in the slaughter, as his tendencies were 
always toward peace and the betterment 
of his tribe. He was a signer of the 
treaty of Greenville. A daughter. La- 
Blonde, married James Godfrey. A 
daughter of James Godfrey was named 
Archangel. A son of James Godfrey 
(John (jodfrey. Sr. ) was killed by his 
son. John Godfrey in 1908. Catherine, a 
second daughter of Chief Richardville, 
became the wife of Chief Francis La- 
Fontaine. There was a third daughter, 
Susan. The chief died at his later home 
on the St. Mary's August 13. 1841. 



haps three hundred feet of space.] This was taken down in 1817 
[really in 1815-1816] by Major [John] Whistler and rebuilt in a 
most substantial manner. From the best information, it seems to 
have enclosed an area about 150 feet square in pickets ten feet high, 
and set in the ground, with a block house at the southeast and north- 
west corners, two stories high. The second floor projected and 
formed a bastion in each where the guns were rigged ; that on the 
southeast commanding the south and east sides of the fort, and 
that on the northwest the north and west sides. The officers' quar- 
ters, commissary department and other buildings located in the dif- 
ferent sides, formed a part of the walls, and in the center stood the 
liberty pole on which was placed a metal American eagle, and over 
that floated the Stars and Stripes of the United States. 

"The plaza, in the enclosure was smooth and gravelly. The 
roofs of the houses all declined within the enclosure after the shed 
fashion, and to prevent the enemy from setting it on fire, and, if 
fired, to protect the men in putting it out; and the water which 
fell was led in nicely made wooden troughs, just below the surface 
of the ground, to the flagstaff, and from thence led by a sluiceway 
to the Maumee. 

"It is thought it left out a small portion of the old ground 
[that is, when Major Whistler rebuilt the fort he did not include all 
of the ground covered by the fort as built by Colonel Hunt], for it 
is definitely known that the southwest corner of the new fort was 
exactly at the corner of lot 40, the pickets running south of east, 
toward John Brown's blacksmith shop, and near where the shop 
now stands [1858], and where was one of the forts [blockhouses]. 
The east side ran to a point on the north bank of the canal, then 
west to the second fort and then [south] to the place of beginning. 

"The stone curbing of the old well may yet be seen [1858] 
in the edge of the south bank of the canal and near the northwest 
corner of the fort. [In June, 1847, the Fort Wayne city council paid 
Dennis Dumean $1.50 for "filling up well at old fort"]. The canal 
cut oft' the north end of the fort, by which the pickets were removed, 
and this ancient relic invaded about 1833. 

"Commencing at the north and at the upper side of the fort 
was a fine wagon track that ran obliquely down the bank, landing 
near lots 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6, Taber's addition, and just below and 
about the south end of the present bridge over the St. Mary's at 
that place. [The bridge, at that time, 1858. crossed the St. Mary's 
at Lafayette street. The lots mentioned compose the unoccupied 
south bank of the St. Mary's running east from the Spy Run bridge. 
This was known for many years as the pirogue landing.] 

' ' The fort itself was one of the most substantially built in the 
west. Attached to it was the commanding officers' garden of about 
one acre, which was on the west, including what are now lots 35, 36, 
37 and 38, Taber's addition. • * • The company's garden ex- 
tended to the west of that of the commanding officer, and ended 
about where the Hedekin house now is [Barr street], embracing, 
perhaps, lots 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 26, 27, 28 and 29, County addition, 
and was most highly cultivated. 

"The road ran about where the canal does now [right-of-way 
of the Nickel Plate railroad] , from what is now the northeast corner 


of Columbia and Barr streets, eastward to the fort. 

"To the south of the fort, where F. P. Randall, Esq., now lives 
[northwest corner of Lafayette and Berry streets], lots 35, 26 and 
37, County addition, and lots 11, 12 and 13, Taber's addition, was 
a graveyard, where were buried many persons — officers, citizens and 
soldiers, who had theretofore died. [It will be observed that this 
graveyard included the area occupied by Wayne's fort.] • • • 
Another place of burial was that now occupied by the Times build- 
ing [1858] and block contiguous — northeast corner of Columbia and 
Clinton streets, where many whites, children and Indians were from 
time to time buried — the bones of whom have been lifted as work- 
men have dug for foundations for building." 

A later observation by the same writer is as follows : 

"The timbers [for the rebuilt fort] were cut by the troops on 
the grounds now [1858] held and occupied by H. B. Taylor, James 
Embry, Samuel Hanna, and that between here and there on the 
east of town. It was hauled by the aid of oxen, ropes used instead 
of chains, and raised by the troops into officers' quarters, commis- 
sary departments, blockhouses, etc. The pickets were 121^ feet 
long and were put in sets of six, with a cross-piece two feet from 
the top, let in and spiked, and a trench dug 2i/^ feet deep, into which 
they were raised. A part of the old was taken down at a time and 
replaced by the new. It was in this year [1815] that a small log 
house was built in what is now Barr street, near the corner of that 
and Columbia, and was located within range of the fort, that it 
might be razed if it were attacked by the enemy. This primitive 
building was afterward set out of the street and stood for a long 
time as a part of Washington hall [Ewing's Tavern], facing Barr 

The late George W. Brackenridge thus described the appearance 
of the fort in 1830 : 

"Timbers of the old fort were standing in 1830. They were 
about a foot square, eight or ten feet high, pointed at the top. The 
stump of the flagpole was also in front of the two blockhouses which 
occupied the high ground at the east end of Main street, north side 
— both built of hewed logs. These buildings were two stories high, 
consisting of two large rooms below, same above, both lengthwise 
north and south. The one farthest from the street was taken down 
when the canal was dug. The other stood many years afterward, 
occupied by tenants. A blockhouse for storing arms and ammuni- 
tion with an all-round over-jet second story, stood about seventy- 
five feet west of the two aforementioned." 

Writing of 1838, John W. Dawson says : 

"A common road ran down along the canal and across the old 
fort ground, between the old well and the only building of the fort 
then standing. This building stood on the vacant ground [now Old 
Fort Park] ; it was two-story, and had been changed from a shed to 
a conical roof. It had been used originally for officers' quarters. 
A broken pole stood in the center of the parade ground, on which 
the Federal flag had been originally hoisted. The pickets which 
had enclosed the ground had nearly all been removed, yet the line 
where they stood was marked. A post at the gateway at the south- 
west corner of the stockade on the alley between Berry and Wayne 


street, was standing. These pickets and the logs which had com- 
posed the other buildings within the pickets, had all been removed 
by the people for building purposes." 

The last of the buildings was torn down in 1852. Early in that 
year enough of the original stockades and buildings remained to 
arouse a vigorous but ineffectual protest against their final destruc- 
tion. In that year Dr. G. W. Bowen, writing in the Laurel Wreath, 
a local publication, gave utterance to his sentiments in verse. The 
title of the poem was, "Spare Wayne's Fort." The opening stanza 
follows : 

Why tear it down and spare it not? 

Are other days so soon forgot? 

Are other scenes no more to be 

Brought back to sweet, blessed memory? 

And must those walls that served so well 

To shield at night from savage foe 

That daring band, be leveled low? 

The silent truth forbid to tell ! 


(1) John H. Piatt, the first man to was purchased later bv Robert, Hugh 

hold a government contract to supply Glen and Jacob Fowler, who held It 

goods to the soldiers of Fort Wayne, until 1817. when Major William P 

was Cincinnati's earliest banker and a Rathbone, of New York, succeeded 

successful merchant. He lost a for- them. Andrew Wallace was the father 

tune In the enterprise. As a result of of Mrs. Katherine Lewis, widow of 

his persistent efforts to secure the ful- Major Samuel Lewis. In July, 1916 

nllment of his demands on the govern- ninety-four years after the death of 

ment he was arrested and placed in John H. Piatt — the heirs brought suit 

prison in Washington, D. C, where he against the national government for 

died in 1822 without sufficient funds to the payment of the sum of $617,501. 

give his remains a decent burial. Mr. The supreme court, several years be- 

Piatt, in 1S14, appointed as his assist- fore, had awarded Piatt's estate a judg- 

ant Andrew Wallace. His contract ment for |131,508. 

CHAPTER XX— 1816-1819 

The Evacuation of Fort Wayne — Wild Gatherings of 


Richardville becomes the most wealthy Indian in the west — Major Vose suc- 
ceeds Major Whistler in command of Fort Wayne — Religious services in 
the fort— Dr. Trevitt and Lieutenant Clark— Vose builds the council 
house — The beginning of decisive canal activity — James Bamett and 
Samuel Hanna — The fort is abandoned by the troops — Lonely situation 
of the pioneers — Captain Riley's prophecy concerning Fort Wayne — Rev. 
Isaac McCoy braves the perils of western travel and establishes the first 
Protestant mission and the first school — The voyage from Terre Haute — 
Rev. Mr. Finney's account of the annuity distribution to the Indians — 
Unprincipled traders — Rumsellers described as "robbers, thieves and 
murderers" — Scenes of debauchery — Major Long's unkind description of 
the "worthless population" of Fort Wayne. 

AS THE RISING SUN dispels the darkness and the gloom of 
the night, so the dawn of the year 1816 gave to the gladdened 
vision of the pioneers the banishment of the menacing cloud 
of savage warfare. The new year of peace brought to the 
troops and the families under their charge the true joy of living. 
This well-founded feeling of security and comfort was not based 
upon the standards of today, for few could endure now in comfort 
the life measured by the service and convenience typified by the 
tallow dip and the open fire, the ox-cart and the pirogue. 

The national government realized the permanent return of 
peace, and already had removed from the other western posts the 
troops stationed there for the protection of the pioneers who were 
now coming to the westward in ever-increasing numbers. But the 
time was not yet arrived when the Washington authorities consid- 
ered it wise to remove the military protection from the head of the 
Maumee. The Indians still thronged here in large numbers. Their 
periods of gathering to receive their annuities brought hundreds to 
the little settlement and here, ofttimes, they remained for several 
weeks. Normally, they were inoffensive, but their fondness for in- 
toxicants rendered them dangerous in the extreme. 

At this time, there was no settlement nearer than St. Mary's, 
in Ohio, and between Port Wayne and Fort Dearborn no white man 
had ventured to establish his abode. 

Traffic over the rivers, however, showed a steady increase over 
former years, and the portage was a busy pathway of commerce. 
Chief Jean Baptiste Richardville, who was granted a license to trade 
at Fort Wayne, nearly monopolized the traffic over the famous 
Maumee- Wabash carrying-place, and his immense business finally 
gave him the reputation of being the wealthiest of the western 
Indians. His riches were estimated at $200,000, treasured in cash. 
Richardville 's iron-bound safe, the first to be seen in this part of 
America, is still a treasured relic on display in the court house at 



Fort Wayne. It is the property of Leslie W. Hills. The chief estab- 
lished a place of business on the present Columbia street and also 
on his reserve on the Wabash river southwest of Fort Wayne. 

As early as 1805, Governor William Henry Harrison, in a letter 
to Henry Dearborn, Secretary of War, referring to Richardville 's 
transactions, said: 

"Richardville • * • generally procures his goods on the 
British side of the lakes, and the duties have always been exacted 
from him by the collector of Detroit, contrary, in my opinion, to the 
treaty with Great Britain. He has appealed to me for redress. If 
you think as I do, I must beg your interference to relieve him from 
duties in future." 


The westward movement of the settlers brought about the 
transfer of Major Whistler from Fort Wayne to St. Louis, in 1816. 
The government authorities assigned to the command of Fort Wayne 
Major Josiah N. Vose, of the Fifth United States infantry, who was 
destined to be the final commandant of the post at the head of the 
Maumee. During a period of about three months, however — from 
February 15 to May 31, 1917 — before Major "Vose assumed his new 
duties, the garrison was under the command of First Lieutenant 
Daniel Curtis, of the Third infantry, who had served with credit dur- 
ing the siege of 1812, and from whose pen has come one of the best 
accounts of that perilous experience. 

Major Vose was a citizen of Manchester before his assignment 
to the west. He was commissioned a captain in the Twenty-first 
infantry in April, 1812, and promoted to major during the war. 
In 1842, he received the commission of colonel. His death occurred 
at New Orleans Barracks, in Louisiana, in 1845. 

A notable characteristic of Major Vose was his strict adherence 
to Christian living and his conduct of religious services for his 
officers and men. Concerning this feature of his character. Colonel 
John Johnston, who knew him well, said in a letter written in 1859, 
that Major Vose was the only commandant of the fort who publicly 
professed Christianity. It was his constant practice "to assemble 
his men on the Sabbath day and read the Scriptures to them and talk 
with them in a conversational way about religion. The conduct of 
Such a man," added Colonel Johnston, "can only be appreciated by 
persons familiar with the allurements and temptations of military 

With Major Vose came Dr. Trevitt, assigned to the post as sur- 
geon's mate, and Lieutenant James Clark. 

One of the early acts of the new commandant, in 1817, was the 
erection of a new council house to replace the one burned during 
the siege of 1812. It was a two-story log structure, which stood 
for many years. Latterly it was used as a school house and for 
residence purposes. 

The garrison in 1817 consisted of fifty-six men. 

In common with the people of the remaining portions of Indiana, 
the citizens of Fort Wayne rejoiced in the transformation of their 
territory into a state on April 29, 1816. Tlie new governor — 
Jonathan Jennings — inaugurated at Corydon, the first capital of 




the state, launched out at once upon a state-wide plan of internal 
improvements, a policy which was soon to meet with a co-operative 
response at Fort Wayne, where the first real work in the fulfillment 
of the scheme — the construction of the great Wabash and Erie canal 
— was begun. 

The first state legislature assembled at Cor.ydon in November. 
At the time of the creation of the state of Indiana, in 1816, all of 
northeastern Indiana was included in Knox county, of which Vin- 
eennes was the seat of government. In 1818, Randolph county was 
organized, with Winchester as the county seat. Fort Wayne was 
included in this latter subdivision. 

Fort Wayne was alive with interest looking to the rapid and 
permanent rise of the new state to a place of prominence in the 
union. Attention seemed to turn instinctively to the construction 
of a canal to connect the Maumee and the Wabash — a waterway 
which should supplant the centuries-old portape. In his first mes- 
sage to the legislature. Governor Jennings urged a prompt consider- 
ation of the establishment of canals, and especially the proposed 


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The outline map of AUen county shows the location of the several reserv- 
ations granted to the Indians and whites by the United States at the time of the 
treaties of October. 1818, and October. 1826. The reseivations are as follows, 
the numbers corresponding to the figures of the map: 1 — Pipe-ne-wav. 2 — Jack 
Hackley. 3 — Joseph Park. 4 — Ann Hackley. 5 — John B. Bourie. 6, 7, 8. 9 — 
Chief Jean Baptiste de Richardville and Joseph Richardville, his son. 10 — Maria 
Christiana DeRome. 11 — LaGros. 12 — Captain William "Wells. 13^John B. 
Bourie. 14 — Eliza C Kercheval. 15 — LaVenture. 16 — James Knaggs. 17 — Old 
Raccoon. 18 — Chopine. 19 — Ne-ah-long-quah. 20 — Wa-pa-se-pah. 21 — To-pe-ah. 
22 — Branstetter. 23 — Seek. 24. 25, 26 — Chief Francis LaFontaine. 27 — Josette 
Beaubien. 28 — The son of George Hunt. 29 — White Loon. 


connection between the Maumee and the "Wabash rivers. Benjamin 
F. Stickney, the Indian agent at Fort Wayne, through a letter to 
DeWitt Clinton, of New York, giving convincing facts with refer- 
ence to the proposed waterway, brought an enthusiastic response 
from Clinton — considered as the "father" of the Erie canal — who 
said: "I have found a way to get into Lake Erie [by the construc- 
tion of a canal between the Hudson river and Lake Erie], and you 
have shown me how to get out of it. * * * You have extended 
my project six hundred miles." 

In 1816, two years earlier than Stickney 's observations, ap- 
peared the book by Captain Robert McAfee, of Kentucky, the "His- 
tory of the Late War in the Western Country," in which the author 
declared that "a canal, at some future day, will unite these rivers 
[the Maumee and the Wabash] and thus render a town at Fort 
Wayne as formerly the most considerable place in all that country." 

On the 17th of June, 1843, thirty-one years after his first visit. 
Captain McAfee wrote to friends in Fort Wayne: "My recollection 
of the condition in which we found that place [Fort Wayne] in 
September, 1812, when General Harrison's army relieved it from 
the attacks of the Indians who had burnt and plundered every house 
outside of the fort, are yet fresh in ray mind. « * « Being 
strongly impressed at that time with the admirable locality of the 
place, I then predicted (and so entered in my journal which I now 
have before me) that a canal at no very remote period would unite 
the waters of the lakes with those of the Ohio and Mississippi." 

Early in the year 1818, James Barnett (born in Pennsylvania 
in 1785) came to Fort Wayne and decided to cast his lot among 
the few who were establishing themselves about the fort. He had 
visited the place in 1797, as a trader, and, later, in 1812, he had 
come as the captain of a company serving under General Harrison. 
His activity and enterprise were soon to incite that degree of confi- 
dence which was necessary to the upbuilding of a town in the 
wilderness. The wife of James Barnett (Nancy W. Hanna) was a 
sister of Judge Samuel Hanna. Mr. and Mrs. Barnett were married 
at Troy, Ohio, in 1824. 


The year 1819 witnessed an important and significant change 
at Fort Wayne — the departure of the troops and the abandonment 
of the fort as a military stronghold. The evacuation took place on 
the 19th of April. Fort Wayne was the last of the Indiana posts 
to be maintained by the government. At the close of their service, 
the garrison consisted of Major J. N. Vose, one post surgeon, two 
captains, one first lieutenant, five sergeants, four corporals, four 
musicians (two fifers, one snare drummer and one bass drummer), 
and seventy-four artillerymen and privates — ninety-six men in all. 
The order for the evacuation caused no little excitement in tlic 
settlement, and when the day of the departure came, the few settlers 
who comprised the village felt a loneliness which was overcome 
only through the performance of the duties which came upon them 
as pioneers and founders of an enlightened community. Major Vose 
and his troops went to Detroit by way of the Maumee, in pirogues. 




They took from the fort its equipment of "heavy" armament, includ- 
ing one six- and one twelve-pounder cannon. 

The fort buildings, vacated by the military, now came under 
the control of the civil authorities, represented by the Indian agent. 
Major Stiekney, who leased the former quarters of the soldiers to 
such families and individuals as desired them. Even at this period, 
the shelter of the stockade brought a feeling of security, and the 
fort was not without its convenient firearms and supply of ammu- 
nition. The provision of these comfortable living quarters served 
also to attract many travelers, some of whom remained to stamp 
their names and characters upon the history of the village and the 


Upon the abandonment of the fort by the soldiers, the govern- 
ment sent Captain James Riley, a civil engineer, to Fort Wayne, to 
survey the lands about the old fort belonging to the United States, 
preparatory to the sale of a portion of the military reservation to 
the settlers. Already, it was a recognized truth that a city of im- 



The first addition to the original plat 
of Fort Wayne was the county addition: 
the second was Taber's addition, which 
included a portion of the military tract. 
Cyrus Taber, owner of the property, was 
the son of Paul Tal)er, who arrived from 
the east with his family in 1819. Cyrus 
Taber became active in the upbuilding of 
the town, and his name figures strongly 
in local affairs up to the time of his re- 
moval to Logansport. A brother, Sam- 
uel, became one of the earliest settlers 
of Marshall county. A sister. Lucy, was 
the wife of Thomas W. Swinnev. Paul 
Taber. the father, died in 1826. The por- 
trait is from a daguerreotype loaned by 
the daughter of Cyrus Taber, Mrs. Hol- 
man Hamilton. 

The dotted lines indicate the present 
streets in Spy Run district. The map 
shows the slough which extended across 
the lower portion of the district in for- 
mer years. The bridge which crossed the 
slough at Spy Run avenue, according to 
George Keever. 341 Randolph street, who 
remembers it well, was a longer struc- 
ture than the iron bridge which spans 
the St. Mary's at Spy Run avenue today. 
The map shows the location of the house 
of Jack Hackley. grandson of 'Captain 
William Wells, the location of the 
Wells house where Little Turtle died, and 
the old Hackley burying ground, where 
Captain .lames Hackley and Rebekah 
Hackley (daughter of Captain Wells) 
wero buried. The Wells house was a 
double log cabin. It stood at the rear 
of No. 1410 Spy Run avenue. The Hack- 
ley house was a small brick building. 


portance would one day grace these choice lands at the head of the 
Maumee. From Captain Riley's reports to his superior, Edward 
Tiffin, surveyor-general, we have a comprehensive picture of Fort 
Wayne of that day. Said he : 

"At every step in this country, every unprejudiced mind will 
more and more admire the movements and achievements of the 
army, conducted by this veteran and truly wise and great com- 
mander [General Wayne]. By occupying Fort Wayne, the com- 
muuication between Lake Erie and the Ohio, througli the channels 
of the Maumee and the Wabash (which is the shortest and most 
direct route from Buffalo to the Mississippi river), was cut off or 
completely commanded. 

' ' The country around Fort Wayne is very fertile. The situation 
is commanding and healthfid, and here will arise a town of great 
importance which must become a depot of immense trade. The 
fort is now only a small stockade. No troops are stationed here, and 
less than thirty dwelling houses, occupied by French and American 
families, form the settlement. The departure of the fort soldiers 
has left the little band of residents here extremely lonely. But as 
soon as the land has been surveyed and offered for sale, I have no 
doubt but that inhabitants will pour in from all quarters to this 
future thoroiaghfare between the east and the Mississippi river. 

"This is a central point, combining more natural advantages 
to build up and support a town than I have seen in the western 
country. ' ' 

This letter of Captain Rile.y, which also contained a strong 
recommendation for the careful survey of a canal route connecting 
the Maumee and the Wabash, became a part of the official records 
of the surveyor-general's office, and through this channel found its 
way into the congressional debates concerning the Wabash and 
Erie canal. It appears, however, that the first man to bring the 
canal project to the attention of congress was Peter Buell Porter, 
a New York congressman. Captain Riley's faith in the development 
of the region is shown in the fact that he platted the town of Will- 
shire, Ohio, and there built the first dam to be placed across the St. 
Mary's river. 

While in this vicinity. Captain Riley surveyed a route for the 
canal between the two rivers. The captain's final visit to Fort 
Wayne was made in 1827, at which time the Wayne lodge of Masons 
gave him assistance on account of a serious illness. Some time after- 
ward, he published his interesting "Narratives," a work now out 
of print. He died on shipboard, in 1840, while nearing the port of 
St. Thomas in the West Indies, and was buried at sea. 

Among those sturdy, intelligent men who found their way to 
the settlement in 1819 and remained as a builder of a state and of 
his own fortune was Samuel Hanna, pioneer merchant, judge, legis- 
lator, canal builder, railroad builder, banker and foremost leader 
in all branches of public enterprise. Born in Scott county, Kentucky, 
in October, 1797, and later removing with his parents to Dayton! 
Ohio, he came to Port Wayne from St. Mary's, Ohio, where he had 
been engaged in supplying goods during the Indian treaties of the 
preceding year. He was twenty-two years of age. He built at 
once a log house on the site which later became the northwest corner 




of Barr and Columbia streets, where now stands the oldest brick 
building in Fort Wayne — erected also by Samuel Hanna at a later 
period. Here, having formed a partnership with his brother-in-law, 
James Barnett, a trading post was opened. Much of the goods 
which came from the east were purchased from Abbott Lawrence, 
at Boston ; the shipments were made by water to New York, thence 
up the Hudson river and across to Buffalo, and from there to Fort 
Wayne by way of Lake Erie and the Maumee. 

Great throngs of the Indians, many of whom had sunk to a low 
degree of degradation because of the liquor furnished to them by 
unprincipled whites, gathered about the fort seeking food and cloth- 


"Judge Hanna belonged to the higher 
type of the pioneer class of men. He 
was a planter and builder, more than a 
legislator. He had the hope, the cour- 
age, the forethought, the fertility of re- 
source, the unfaltering purpose and will 
that characterize planters of colonies and 
founders of cities. He was more than a 
statesman, for he had In him the ele- 
ments and powers of the men who build 
cities and found states." — From an ad- 
dress by Joseph K. Edgerton on the day 
following the death of Judge Hanna, 
June 11, 1866. 

The name of Francis S. Aveline is best 
remembered in connection with the Ave- 
line hotel, which he erected during the 
war period and which remained a leading 
place of entertainment for nearly half a 
century. Mr. Aveline came to Fort Wayne 
with his parents, Mr. and Mrs. James 
Aveline, in 1820. He was born in 1814 at 
Vincennes, Indiana. With Francis Com- 
paret. he built the large reservoir now 
known as Sylvan lake, «t Rome City, 
Indiana, and was the contractor and 
builder of some of the most Important 
earlier structures in Fort Wayne. His 
demise, in 1865, was the direct result of 
grief on account of the death of his son. 
Captain Frank Aveline, who was killed 
in the Chattanooga campaign. 

ing while awaiting the period of the annual consignment of money 
to be paid them for their lands. 

During the year 1818, treaties with the Miamis held at St. 
Mary's, Ohio, represented by Governor Jennings, Governor Cass 
and Beujamin Park, United States commissioners, gave to the United 
States much valuable ground about Fort Wayne. Among those to 
whom parcels of laud were reserved for residence purposes or be- 
cause of the nation's recognition of their services, were the follow- 
ing: Chief Jean Baptiste Richardville, Joseph Richardville, Joseph 
Richardville, Jr., Francis LaFontaine, the son of George Hunt; Little 
Turtle (Mishe-no-quah), Josette Beaubien, Eliza C. Kereheval (daugh- 


ter of Beujamin B. Kerclieval), James Knaggs, John B. Bourie, Joseph 
Parke, Ann and Jat-k Haekley, the children of Maria Christina De- 
Rome and LaGros. The Little Turtle here referred to was a slightly 
known Miami called the "Little Little Turtle" to distinguish him from 
the famous Miami leader. 

With renewed confidence and self-reliance since the removal 
of the protecting troops, the year 1820 brought marked advance- 
ment in the development of the village. The year brings to the 
pages of history the names of Rev. and Mrs. Isaac McCoy, the first 
Protestant missionaries to the Indians and the founders of the first 
school of the settlement. The McCoys, sent by the Baptist mission- 
ary convention, after a severe experience in the vicinity of the 
present city of Terre Haute, were induced to settle at Fort Wayne 
through the advice of Colonel John Johnston and of Dr. William 
Turner. With their family of seven children, and accompanied by 
an Indian boy, a hired attendant and Mr. Lykins, a teacher, they 
rode on horseback from Fort Harrison (near Terre Haute) to Fort 
Wayne. At one point in the wilderness a party of drink-crazed 
Indians attacked the missionary while he was separated from the 
other members of the party, but his life was saved by a half-breed, 
Louis Godfrey. Chief Richardville then met and conveyed the party 
to Fort Wayne in safety. The missionaries drove a herd of fifteen 
head of cattle and forty-three hogs the entire distance from Terre 
Haute to Fort Wayne. The goods of the family were brought on 
flatboats on the Wabnsh, and portaged across to the St. Mary's. 

"At Fort Wayne was a little village of traders and of persons 
in the employ of the government, as interpreters, smiths, etc., some 
of whom were French, of Canadian and Indian descent," writes 
Rev. ]\Ir. McCoy in his book, put)lished in later years. ■■The 
nearest settlements of white people were in the state of Ohio, and 
nearly one hundred miles distant." 

The missionaries were kindly treated by the people of the 
village, who prepared for them free quarters in the fort building 
and furnished and plowed two acres of ground for use as a^ garden. 

"I preached to them in my own house every Sabbath," writes 
the missionary. "On the 29th of May [1820] our school was opened ; 
I was teacher" myself. We commenced with ten English scholars, six 
French, eight Indians and one negro; the latter, we hoped, would 
one day find his way to Liberia, iji Africa." 

Tlie interesting story of the experiences of the McCoys is given 
in the "History of Baptist Indian Missions," by Rev. Isaac McCoy. 
Unfortunately," the work is out of print and the only copy in Fort 
Wayne, as far as the, author is aware, is owned by Mrs. Laui-a G. 
Det'zer, tln-ough whose kindness the references here given are made 

The late ^Irs. Lucien P. Ferry (Caroline Bourie) was one of 
the pupils of Rev. Isaac McCoy, being at that time five years of age. 
Before their departure for a new field in southwestern IMiclngan. 
the McCoys established a Baptist church of eleven members, but 
the organization soon disbanded. 

The perils of the life of the frontier are well illustrated by the 
experience of the McCoy family, by which a daughter of nine years 
was all but murdered by a fiendish savage, who captured her near 


the fort and would have taken her life but for the timely interference 
of a young friendly Indian and one of the attaches of the missionary 
school. The child was apparently "struggling in the agonies of 


Until (he 1st of Sc pteniber , the savrges about the 

2) QiL^ had professed fritiidship, with a view to get pos- 

sessitiii of it by soiiiu stiatap;ein. Captiiin llhca who 
cismm.inded, was athlicied to inloxicalioii, for which' 
ami his other uiiscoiidiict he was airosted by general 
Harrison ; hut on account of liis age he was pcriiiiltcd 
to reNigD. Tlie fort was well prepared to resist a 
siege by Indians, as it liad plenty of provisions and' 
Mater, and aliout 70 men with four small field pieces. 
It is delij;hlfully liluated vn an eminence on the soiillt 
!^ bank of the .Miami uf t!:e Lake , immediately below the- 

formation of that ii\er by the junction of the St. jVIa. 
rjs from the southwest with the St. Jose(ihs from, tlie- 
north. It is well constructed of block houses iind- 
Hickctting, but could not resist a British force, as the*e 
^ are several eminences on the south side, froitv whicll 

it could be commanded by a six or nine pounder. 
This is the place, where the Miami Indians fby. 
Q^ merly had their princi |i al town : and here many an 

"■ unfurtuHate prisoner sntfered death by burning at the 

blake. It was here alsu, that general Harmer sufl'eled 
his army to be cut up and defeated in detachments af- 
ter ha had burnt the town in the fall of the yeapl7U0. 
For more tlian a century before that lime, it had been- 
the principal place of rendezvous l)etween the Indians 
iif the lakes, and those of the Wabash aud Illinois, 
aiul had been much resorted alxiut the year '56 and 
previously, by French traders from Canada. The 
Q) ^liami is na\igahle for boats from this jtlace to tlm 
[0 lake, and the portage to the nearest navigable branch 
of the Waliash. is but seven or eightmiteT, [ITrairgb a 

©level mnrshy prairie, from which the water runs both 
to the Wabash and St. Marys. A canal at some fu- 
tiu-a day will miite these rivers, and thus render .-i 
SJ town at (ort Waynt^ as formerly, the most cnnsidc- 
Pf^hle place in all that country. *The corn which had : 
been cultivated in the fields by the \ iUagers, wrs ti 
nearly all destroyed by the Iiidia'i'5 : the I'eniai*^'.. • 

..TT- '^^^'^ '^^^ photographic reproduction of a page from Captain Robert McAfee'.s 
History of the Late War [1S12] in the Western Country." It describes F^ort 
Wayne as it appeared at the time of the publication of the boolt in 1816. FoHow- 
ing IS an explanation of the numbered references; 1 — September. 1812 2 — The 
buildings and palisades of the fort. 3 — Maumee river. 4— In the neighborhood of 
Clay. Washington. .Jefferson and other streets of that locality. 5 — Kekionga. 6^ 
Little river. 7 — McAfee here predicts the Wabash and Erie canal; that did much 
to render a town at Fort Wayne." (8) which, indeed, became "the most consid- 
erable place in all that country." 


death" when her rescuers reached her side. The father was just 
reaching home from a horseback ride to Baltimore, whither he had 
gone to secure financial aid for the mission and school. The mis- 
sionary, describing the experience, adds that a Miami woman, who 
was a member of their household, threw herself, while intoxicated, 
into a fire and burned to death, and that the Miamis, while under 
the influence of liquor, committed many murders in the Indian 
villages about the settlement. 

FORT WAYNE FROM 1819 TO 1823. 

To the description of Fort Wayne at this time as given by Rev. 
Isaac McCoy, we have chosen to add that given by four other 
visitors to the settlement between the years 1819 and 1823. 

The journal of Thomas Scattergood Teas, of Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania, published for the first time in 1916 in "Indiana as Seen 
by Early Travelers." edited by Harlow Lindley, secretary of the 
Indiana Historical Commission, gives an intimate view of life in the 
^^llage of Fort Wayne in 1821. 

"The laws of the United States for preventing the introduc- 
tion of liquors among the Indians, though very severe, are ineffect- 
ual," wrote Mr. Teas. "A person might remain in the woods 
within five or six miles of Fort Wayne for a year without being 
discovered by any white settler. It has been the custom of the 
traders to bring whiskey in kegs and hide it in the woods about 
half a mile from the fort, a short time previous to the paying of 
the annuity, and, when the Indians came to the fort, to give inform- 
ation to such of the young men as the traders can confide in, that 
there is whiskey to be had at those places. These inform their 
comrades, and as soon as they receive their money they go off in 
droves to the places appointed, where they frequently buy it at 
two dollars a pint, till their money is gone, and then pawn their 
blankets, guns, bracelets and other trinkets till they are sometimes 
reduced to a state of nudity. In this manner the unprincipled 
traders evade the laws with impunity, and render all the efforts 
of the friends of civilization abortive. * * * There are con- 
siderable numbers of Indians here of the Pottowattomies, Shawnees, 
Miami, Utawas and Delaware tribes. Notwithstanding the efforts 
of the Indian agent to prevent the traders from selling whiskey to 
them, tliey still contrive to do it. I have seen as many as fifty 
drunk during my short stay here. They assemble in groups of 
ten or twelve, men and women promiscuously, squat on the ground 
and pass the canteen rapidly around, and sing, whoop and halloo, 
all laughing and talking at once, with the most horrible contortions 
of countenance; so that they remind me of Milton's demons. It is 
not uncommon to see them entirely naked, except a strip of clothing 
about a foot broad about their middle. This evening six deserters, 
who had been taken and sent to Green Bay, and discharged after 
serving tlieir time out, arrived here. They were miserable looking 
fellows. One of them came to the tavern and offered to barter a 
roll of tobacco for whiskey, but was refused. They took up their 
quarters for the night in an empty cabin. » * * 

"The settlement at this place consisted of about thirty log 
cabins and two tolerably decent frame houses. The inhabitants 




are nearly all French-Canadians. The fort stands at the lower end 
of the village and is composed of hewn log buildings about thirty-five 
feet high, and the intervals between them filled up with a double 
row of pickets twenty feet high. It is about sixty yards square. 
There is no garrison kept here, and the barracks are occupied by 
the Indian agent, the Baptist missionary and some private families. 
There is a school for the Indian children in the fort, under the 
auspices of the Baptist Society. It is conducted on the Lancasterian 
system; the teacher's name is Montgomery. On my arrival, as the 
school was the principal object of curiosity, I waited on the mission- 
ary whose name is McKoy [Rev. Isaac McCoy], and requested him 
to accompany me to it, which he did ; and, during my stay in Fort 
Waj^ne, treated me with an attention as unexpected as it was grat- 
ifying. There are about forty scholars. It is pleasing to see the 

pta H•Hw m;^u!;! ; f:;al:aj;;}^a8 3gstf| 

Mr. Barnett's first visit to tlie old fort 
was in 1797, two years after the building 
of tlie stockade by General Wayne. He 
came again as a soldier with General 
Harrison in 1812. His permanent resi- 
dence dates from 1818. Mr. Barnett 
built the first brick house in Fort Wayne. 
The portrait is reproduced from the 
"History of the Maumee River Basin" 
(vol. 11). 


In 1820 Francis Comparet came to Fort 
W'ayne and opened an Indian trading 
post; later he established several manu- 
facturing industries and was foremost in 
many of the enterprises of the day. He 
was one of the contractors whose work 
on a proposed Fort Wayne-to-Chicago 
canal created Sylvan Lake at Rome City, 

order in which the school is kept, and the delight that the scholars 
seem to take in their studies. There are two boys of the Potto- 
wattomie tribe, who had been only two weeks at school, who were 
spelling in words of four letters. As soon as they begin to learn 
their letters, they are furnished with a slate, and form letters on it 
in imitation of printed type. About half the scholars were writing, 
and many of them write a good hand. Their improvement is such 
as to remove all doubts as to their capacity. 

"There is a U. S. reserve of six miles square round the town 
and the settlers are squatters who pay no tax or rent, and are liable 
to be ordered off at a minute's warning. The village, before the 
late war [1812] was much larger than at present. The Indians 
destroyed all the houses except two which were near the fort, and 
which were burnt by order of the commandant, to prevent the 


Indians from settine: fire to them when the wind should get towards 
the fort and burn it. This part of the country possesses great com- 
mercial advantages, and when it becomes settled, will be a place 
of great business." . ^^ 

Rev. J. B. Finney, in his book, "Life Among the Indians,' 
tells of visiting the village during the period of the distribution of 
the annuities to the savages. He writes : 

"This was an awful scene for a sober man to look upon. Here 
were encamped between two and three hundred Indians, and one- 
third, if not one-half, drunk; men and women, raving maniacs, sing- 
ing, dancing, lighting, .stabbing and tomahawking one another— 
and there were the rum-sellers watering their whiskey until it was 
not strong grog, and selling it for four dollars a gallon, their hired 
men gathering up all the skins and furs and their silver trinkets, 
ear-bobs, arm bands, half moons, silver crosses and brooches — 
giving a gill of grog for a dozen brooches — and their guns, toma- 
hawks and blankets, till they were literally stripped naked, and 
three or four were killed or wounded. The reader may set what 
estimates he pleases, or call him by what name; yet, if there were 
ever a greater robber, or a meaner thief, or a dirtier murderer than 
these rum-sellers, he is yet to be seen." 

Lest the severe arraignment of the preacher appear unjust, 
let us compare it with the opinion of Captain James Riley as given 
in the following year (1S20) to Edward Tiffin. Captain Riley 
prefaces his observations with the statement that he came to the 
village of Fort Wayne to witness the scenes which he describes. 
Said he : 

"There were at least one thousand whites here, from Ohio, 
Michigan, New York and Indiana, trading with the Indians. They 
brought a great abundance of whisky with them, which they dealt 
out to the Indians freely, in order to keep them continually drunk 
and unfit for business; their purpose being to get the best of them 
in trade. Horse-racing, gambling, drinking, debauchery, extrava- 
gance and waste were the order of the day and night." 

But these conditions, as pictured by Captain Riley, prevailed 
only during the period of the annual distribution of the money 
sent by the government to be paid to the Indians in accordance with 
the treaty agreements. It is of interest, then, to quote the words 
of a man who made a "between-times" visit to the village. We 
find him, in the person of ^Major Stephen H. Long, a topographical 
engineer, who visited the village in 1823. He wrote his impressions 
in the following forceful words as given in his "Expedition to the 
Sources of the River St. Peter:" 

"At Fort Wayne we made a stay of three days, and to a person 
visiting the Indian country for the first time, this place offers many 
characteristic and singular features. The village is small — it has 
grown under the shelter of tlie fort, and contains a mixed and 
apparently very worthless population. The inhabitants are chiefly 
of [French] Canadian origin, all more or less imbued with the 
Indian blood. The confusion of tongues, owing to the diversity of 
Indian tribes which generally collect near a fort, make the traveler 
imagine himself in a real babel. 

"The business of a town of this kind differs so materially from 




that carried on iu our cities, that it is almost impossible to fancy 
ourselves within the same territorial limits, but the disgust which 
we entertain at the degraded condition in which the white man, 
the descendant of the European, appears, is perliaps the strangest 
sensation which we expei'ience. To see a being in whom from his 
complexion and features we should expect to find the same feelings 
which dwell in the bosom of every refined man, throwing off his 
civilized habits to assume the garb of the savage, has something 
which partakes of the ridiculous as well as the disgusting. The 
awkward and constrained appearance of those Frenchmen who had 
exchanged their usual dress for the breech-cloth and blanket was 
as visible as that of the Indian who assumes the tight body-coat of 

A log building known as the council 
house was destroyed by fire during the 
siege of Fort Wayne in 1812. A new 
building, of which the above is a sketch, 
was erected by Major Vose in 1817. to 
take its place. The building stood on 
East Main street, on a lot adjoining the 
No. 1 fire station, occupied later by tlie 
residence of Michael Hedekin. In later 
years it was u^ed as a schoolhouse. "In 
one room," said the late Mrs. Lucien P. 
Ferry, "there were cupboards full of to- 
bacco. Whenever the boys were unruly 
they were shut up in these cupboards 
until they were almost suffocated." The 
building was the birthplace of Louis T. 
Bourie and his wife; it became the prop- 
erty of Captain .lohn Bourie in 1S39 and 
was torn down in 1856.* 





Dr. Turner, a son-in-law of Captain 
William Wells, became Indian agent at 
Fort Wayne in 1821, succeeding Major 
Benjamin F. Stickney (Signature from 
Burton Historical Collection. Detroit). 


Alexis Coquillard was one of the ear- 
liest representatives of the American Fur 
Company to locate at Fort Wayne. He 
was one of the first settlers of South 
Rend. Indiana. (Burton Historical Col- 
lection, Detroit). 

the white man. The feelings which we experienced while beholding 
a little {'niiMdi;ni stooping down to pack up and weicli 1lie hides 
which an Indian had brought for sale, while the latter stood in an 
erect and commanding posture, were of a mixed and certainly not 
of a favorable nature. At each unusual motion made by the white 
man, his dress, which he had not properly secured, was disturbed, 
and while engaged in restoring it to its proper place he was the 
butt of the .jokes and jibes of a number of squaws and Indian boys 
who seemed already to be aware of the vast difference which exists 
between them and the Canadian fur dealers. 

"The village is exclusively supported by the fur trade, which 
has, however, gradually declined, owing to the diminution of the 
Indian population. The traders seldom leave the town but have 


a number of Canadians, called engages, in their service who accom- 
pany the Indians in their summer hunts, supply them with goods 
in small quantities, and watch them that they shall not sell their 
goods [furs] to traders other than their employers. The furs 
brought in consist principally of deer and raccoon skin. Bear, otter 
and beaver have become very rare. The skins when brought in 
are loosely rolled or tied, but they are afterward made into packs 
which are three feet long and eighteen inches wide after being sub- 
jected to a heavy pressure in a wedge press. Skins are worth : 
Deer (buck), $1.25; deer (doe), $1.09; raccoon, .$0.50; bear, $3.00 
to $5.00. The values are nominal, as the furs are paid for in goods 
which are passed off on the Indians for more than double the prime 
cost and transportation. The furs are usually sent down the Mau- 
mee to Lake Erie and thence to Detroit, where they are for the most 
part purchased by the American Fur Company." 

CHAPTER XXI— 1820-1823. 

Platting the Town of Fort Wayne — Allen County 

Dr. Turner, John Hays and Benjamin B. Kercheval, Indian sub-agents at 
Fort Wayne — The first postoffice — Kercheval, and Hanna. postmasters — 
The American Pur Company — Alexis Coquillard — Francis Comparet, James 
Aveline, the Ewings, the Hoods, William Rockhill, the Swinneys, Paul 
Taber and others locate in the village — "Father" Ross — The first secret 
order, Wayne Liodge of Masons, organized within the fort — Why General 
Harrison blocked the way against the establishment of a town in 1805 — 
The government decides to sell the land about the fort — The land office — 
Captain Vance and Register Holman — Allen Hamilton, John T. Barr and 
John McCorkle — Robert Young surveys the original plat of Fort Wayne — 
Ewing's tract — Why the original streets run askew — Allen county is 

A CHANGE in the management of the Indian agency at Fort 
Wayne took jjlace in 1820, when Major Benjamin F. Stiek- 
ney was transferred to a post on the lower Maumee and 
Dr. William Turner' was named to succeed him. Major 
Stiekney had served with credit during nine strenuous years, and 
had suffered, as many another efficient ofificer has done, from the in- 
trigues of enemies among the Indians and the whites. General Dun- 
can McArthur, ^\Titing from Chillicothe, Ohio, as early as March, 
1815, informed the secretary of war, James ilonroe, that Colonel 
Lewis, a Shawnee chief, had placed before him severe criticisms of 
Stiekney '.s methods. "The Indians are generally displeased with Mr. 
Stiekney as an agent," added General McArthur, "and several of 
them have requested me to make it known to the president and 
solicit his removal. He is certainly not well qualified to discharge 
the duties of an Indian agent." 

In May, 1818, Governor Lewis Cass, at Detroit, wrote to Major 
Stiekney as follows : 

"By an act of congress, passed April 20, 1818, the agencies at 
Fort Wayne and Piqua have been consolidated, and John Johnston, 
Esq., has been appointed agent for the agency thus formed. This 
new organization has left you out of the service. I do not know what 
arrangement has been made by the war department for the pro- 
visional execution of duties at Fort Wayne, nor have I been in- 
formed whether it is expected that Mr. .Johnston should remove from 
Piqua. It is especially necessary that some person should be charged 
with the management of Indian affairs at Fort Wayne until the 
pleasure of the secretary of war can be made known upon the sub- 
ject. I have to request that you execute the duties of sub-agent at 
that post." 

Major Stiekney continued to serve, under this arrangement, 
through the year 1810, though there appears to have developed a 
degree of friction between the sub-agent and his superiors. Gov- 




ernor Lewis Cass, of Michigan, writing in January, 1819, to John 
C. Calhoun, seeretaiy of war, concerning the situation at Fort 
Wayne, said : 

"I consider him [Major Stickney] a very zealous and honest 
agent. But circumstances have occurred at Fort Wayne which 
have had a tendency to injure the usefulness of Mr. Stickney there." 

Under these circumstances, Major Stickney removed from Fort 

A7/CA// 1/ /a A/ 

The map shows the area of AHen county, as created in 1S23. as compared 
with Its present size; even today it is the largest county in Indiana. 



Wayne and settled on the site of Toledo, Ohio. Dr. Turner, the 
new sub-agent, resigned his office within a few weeks after taking 
up his duties on account of failing health, and John Hays was 
appointed in his stead, at a salary of $1,200 per year. Benjamin B 
Kercheval,- a young Kentuckian who had been serving as clerk, 
was appointed sub-agent at a salary of $500. Mr. Kercheval soon 
succeeded Mr. Hays. The payment of aniuiities to the Indians in 
1820 amounted to $21,121 in cash, in addition to .$5,838.40 for mills, 
materials, superintendents, agents, sub-agents, interpreters and lilack- 

In 1821, the birth of a daughter to Benjamin B. Kercheval, the 
Indian sub-agent, and his wife (formerly Maria Forsytlie) was an 
event of such interest to the Indians that they shortly adopted her, 
with solemn ceremonies, as a member of the Miami tribe. The child. 





Herewith is shown a reproduction of a portion of the crumbling, discolored 
original charter granted to Wayne lodge No. 25. Free and Accepted Masons. 
November 10. 1S23, by the grand lodge of the state. This was the first secret 
society organized in Fort Wayne. The original charter, framed, hangs on the 
wall of the lodge room in the Masonic Temple. 

Eliza Cass Kercheval, in maturity, married Francis Woodbridge, a 
Vermont West Pointer. From Fort Wayne, the Kerchevals removed 
to Detroit, where the family and its descendants became strongly 
identified with the development of the town and city. 

In 1822, the government assigned Richard Whitehouse, black- 
smith, to serve the needs of the Indians at the agency house. 

The national government recognized the growing importance of 
the town of Fort Wayne in the establishment of the postoffice in 
1820. Although Samuel Hanna was in reality the first man to serve 
as the postmaster of Fort Wa^^le, another pioneer, Benjamin B. 
Kercheval, whose commission bore the date of February 4, was the 
first appointee of Postmaster General Return J. Meigs, of President 
Monroe's cabinet. Mr. Hanna established the office in his store, 
after Mr. Kercheval, evidently, had declined to serve. 


At this time, there was one mail every two weeks from Cin- 
cinnati, and the only newspaper to find its way to the pioneer village 
was the Liberty Hall (Cincinnati Gazette). 

In 1822, in response to the demands of the town, the govern- 
ment established regular mail routes between Fort Wayne and 
Chicago, as well as Ohio villages. Colonel William Suttenfield car- 
ried the mails to Chicago, and on one trip he made the entire journey 
on foot. Samuel Bird, a veteran of the Wayne campaign, who 
helped to build the original fort, carried the Maumee mails, making 
one trip a week. 

The chief industry of the town during these earlier years con- 
sisted of the trade with the Indian tribes, chiefly in the exchange 
of goods for furs and peltries. The American Pur Company estab- 
lished an important branch station here and Benjamin B. Kercheval, 
Alexis Coquillard and Francis Comparet were its representatives. 

Mr. Comparet, who came to the village from Detroit in 1820, 
was a native of Monroe, Michigan, where he was born in 1798; he 
made Fort Wayne his permanent place of abode, and the family is 
identified with much of the early and more modern activities of the 
village and city. 

Alexis Coquillard came from Detroit. After his residence at 
Port Wayne, he established a trading station on the St. Joseph river 
of Lake Michigan, on the site of the city of South Bend, Indiana, as 
an outpost of the American Fur Company's establishment at Port 

James Avelme and family, of Vincennes, and John E. Hill 
arrived in 1820 and entered actively into the affairs of the village. 
The family of Mr. Aveline had come to America from St. Jule, in 
France. He was familiarly known as "St. Jule." His son Francis 
was the builder of the Aveline house. In 1832, with Robert E. Flem- 
ing, Mr. Hill engaged in the dry goods trade in Fort Wayne. In 
1846, with A. M. Orbison, the firm of Hill and Orbison, for many 
years prominent in the commission business, was formed. 

In 1822 came the family of Colonel Alexander Ewing, of Troy, 
Ohio, whose members exerted a mighty influence in the affairs of 
the west during the two score years preceding the outbreak of the 
war of the rebellion. 

The family consisted of Colonel Ewing (born in Pennsylvania 
in 1753), his wife (Charlotte, a sister of Captain William Griffith, 
prominent in the Fort Dearborn tragedy), four sons, Charles W., 
who became president judge of the circuit court and a prominent 
lawyer ; William G., the first man to be admitted to the bar in Allen 
county; George W., who, associated with William G., became one 
of the most widely known business men of the middle west, and 
Alexander H., a prosperous Cincinnati merchant; and three daugh- 
ters, Charlotte (Mrs. William N. Hood, later Mrs. Smalwood Noel) ; 
Lavina (Mrs. George B. Walker), and Louisa (Mrs. Charles E. 

Colonel Alexander Ewing 's first visit to Fort Wayne was made 
in 1812. He had removed from New York to Piqua, Ohio, in 1806 
and there built a double log house which was used as a tavern and 
trading house. He became a colonel in the Miami county militia 
which joined General Harrison in his relief expedition to Fort 



"Wayne in 1812. Colonel Ewing served with the army in a detach- 
ment of spies, and continued throughout the campaign to the battle 
of the Thames. He lived but five years after the family settled in 
Fort Wayne, but in that brief period he established one of the 
pioneer taverns and became the owner of real estate which is today 
of incalculable value. 

In 1855, Colonel George W. Ewing prepared a history of the 
Ewing family. "I cherish the fond hope," said he, "that they [the 
Ewing descendants] will aim to emulate those who have preceded 
them, and to add to our family name and reputation, rather than 
by unworthy conduct sink down and detract from it. I wish that 
they would not only read and study the course and conduct of 
my late lamented brother, William G. Ewing, and of Alexander H. 
Ewing, and myself, but I want them to appreciate them, and aim 
to profit by our examples." 

The year 1822 also gave to Fort Wayne the families of William 
Nesbit Hood and his brother, Robert Hood, who came from Dayton, 
Ohio. The former, the father of the late William Ewing Hood, 

General Tipton, appointed Indian agent 
at Fort Wayne in 1823, was one of Indi- 
ana's most progressive citizens. His 
father was murdered by tlie savages, 
leaving him as the support of his mother 
while a mere boy. John Tipton was born 
in 1786 in Sevier county. Tennessee. 
While serving under General Harrison 
during the Tippecanoe campaign he rose 
to the rank of captain, and soon attained 
the title of brigadier general. Before 
coming to Fort Wayne he had served as 
sheriff of Harrison county and while a 
representative in the state legislature, he 
was a member of the commission chosen 
to select the first capital, Corydon. After 
the completion of his service at Fort 
Wayne he removed the land ofllce to Lo- 
gansport. In 1831 he was the choice of 
the legislature as a representative of In- 
diana In the United States senate. Dur- 
ing his residence in Fort Wavne he was 
instrumental in the organization of the 
first Masonic lodge; later he was the 
grand master of the order in Indiana. 
The portrait Is from the seventy-fifth an- 
nual report of the Indiana Grand Lodge 
of Free and Accepted Masons, 1896. 


Colonel Swinney, who came to Fort 
Wayne probably in 1823, was a native of 
Plketon, Ohio, where he was born No- 
vember 18, 1803. Shortly after his ar- 
rival two brothers, Joseph L. and Sam- 
uel, located at Fort Wayne; the former 
was active In the earlier development of 
the town, but the latter died soon after 
his settlement here. Previous to the 
marriage of Thomas W. Swinney and 
Lucy Taber, daughter of Paul Taber. the 
wife had entered the tract of land which 
Included the present Swinney park. To 
this tract Mr. Swinney made valuable 
additions. Including a tract belonging to 
Paul Taber and a piece on the west bank 
of the St. Mary's river, adjoining Swin- 
ney park. Mr. Swinney took an active 
part In the development of the city and 
became a man of large means. His 
munificence, as expressed in the posses- 
sion by the city of Swinney park, will 
be appreciated by untold coming gener- 
ations. His death occurred January 20, 
1875. The portrait Is from a photograph 
loaned by the Misses Frances and Caro- 
line Swinney, daughters of Colonel 


became one of the earliest associate justices of the Allen county circuit 
court, and was one of the founders of the city of Peru, Indiana. 

"My father and mother were married in Fort WajTie in 1827," 
said the late William Ewing Hood, who died in Fort Wayne in 
1915, "my mother [Charlotte Ewing] being a daughter of Alex- 
ander Ewing. In 1829, my father bought, for .$500, two hundred and 
ten acres of land on whicli he, in connection with Jesse L. Williams 
and Richard L. Britten, Fort WajTie friends to whom he sold an 
interest, located the town of Peru, Indiana, in 1834. My father 
had removed his family to Miamisport, which is now a part of 
Peru, in 1833. He died in 1838. In 1843, my mother was united in 
marriage with Smalwood Noel, and we returned to Fort Wayne. "" 

Notable visitors, too, were attracted to the village on the Mau- 
mee. Among these, in 1822, were General Lewis Cass, of Michigan, 
and Henry Schoolcraft, the explorer and geologist, who were follow- 
ing the old waterway route from Lake Erie to the Mississippi 

We have noted the first attempt, on the part of Rev. Isaac 
McCoy, the Baptist missionary, to establish a denominational church 
at the settlement. In this connection it is fitting to note the visit 
of another representative of the church, Rev. John Ross, affection- 
ately called "Father"" Ross, a native of Ireland, who came first to 
the village in 1822, and spent a considerable period as a missionary 
representative of the Presbyterian church. Coming from Franklin, 
Ohio, in the winter season. Rev. Mr. Ross "took passage in a light 
two-horse wagon, with Matthew Griggs, visiting Fort Wayne on 
a trading expedition with hats and dried fruit." The journey was 
filled with perils. Threatened with death in a severe snowstorm 
and by the wolves which roamed the prairie, Mr. Griggs and Rev. 
Mr. Ross left the vehicle under the guard of a faithful dog and led 
the horses to the village, where they were entertained at the home 
of Samuel Hanna. (See Jesse L. Williams "s "History of the First 
Presbyterian Church.") 

The story of the beginnings of Allen county introduces the 
names of many who, at later periods, gave of their services to the 
advancement of mau.y public interests. 

William Rockhill, who came to Fort Wayne in 1823, was a 
prominent figure in the development of the town until civil war 
times. Born at Burlington, New Jersey, in 1793, ^Mr. Rockhill 
chose to settle at Fort Wayne at the time of the opening of the land 
sales, at which time he purchased by entry a large tract, the eastern 
boundary of which is the present Broadway. From the beginning, 
Mr. Rockhill was identified with the development of the town along 
political, educational and commercial lines. 

Probably in 1823, Colonel Thomas W. Swinuey (born at Piketon, 
Ohio, in 1803) came to Fort Wayne. He became an extensive owner 
of lands now comprising Swinney park and a large tract on both 
sides of the St. Mary's river in that locality. Upon this extensive 
piece of ground Colonel Swinney commenced tlie raising of farm 
products, and through his persistent activity he laid the foundation 
of his large means, which, in later years was augmented by the 
increasing value of his land holdings. A short time after Colonel 



Swinney came to Fort Wajme, he was joined by two brothers, Joseph 
L. and Samuel. The latter died soon afterward. 

Another family of prominence of the period was that of Paul 
Taber, who had come from the east in 1819, accompanied by his 
sons, Cyrus and Samuel, and his daughter, Lucy. The elder Taber 
became active in the affairs of the town, but his efforts were brought 
to a close by his death in 1826. Cyrus Taber, the owner of Taber 's 
addition, removed to Logansport in an early year. Samuel Taber 
removed to Marshall county, Indiana. Lucy Taber became the 
wife of Colonel Thomas L. Swinney. Paul Taber had entered a 
considerable tract of ground west of the town, which was later 
purchased by Colonel Swinney. A tract entered by Samuel Taber 
was purchased by William Rockhill. Lucy Taber 's ownership iu- 

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Samuel Hanna and Benjamin Cushman were elected in 1823 by the voters of 
Allen county to serve as tlie first associate judges of the circuit court. When 
Judge Hanna was elected a member of the state legislature. Governor James B. 
Rav appointed William N. Hood to fill the vacancy on the circuit court bench, 
"for the term of seven years from the 15th day of June, 1824, in the room of 
Samuel Hanna, resigned." Judge Hood's period of service commenced in April, 
1S27. The original commission from which the engraving was photographed is 
among the effects of the late William Ewing Hood, son of Judge Hood. It bears 
the certificate of Anthony L. Davis, clerls of the circuit court, dated July 14, 1827. 


eluded the present Swiimey park. 

Jean Baptiste ("Father") Bequette, a French silversmith, estab- 
lished a manufactory of jewelry and "ear -bobs for Miami belles," 
in which was employed at times as many as forty persons. Hugh 
B. McKeen opened a school in the old fort. 

In 1823, came General John Tipton, appointed by President 
Monroe to succeed Benjamin B. Kercheval, Indian agent at Fort 
Wayne. General Tipton was of the type of unlettered pioneer 
whose power lies in native strength of character. He had served 
with Harrison at Tippecanoe, and it is said he was spurred to give 
his best service there by the memory of the death of his father at 
the hands of a murderous savage. General Tipton's account of the 
battle, in his own handwriting, forms a part of the John Holiday 
collection at Indianapolis. 


The year 1823 marks the beginning of fraternal societies in 
Port Wayne, with the organization of Waj-ne Lodge, No. 25, Free 
and Accepted Masons. General John Tipton appears to have been 
the moving spirit in the matter. On March 22 John Sheets, grand 
master of Masons in Indiana, granted a dispensation to Alexander 
Ewiiig, worshipful master; John P. Hedges, senior warden; Ben- 
jamin Cushman, junior warden, and others, to form a lodge to be 
known as "Wayne lodge, of Fort Wayne, County of Randolph, 
Indiana." At the first meeting, held in May, there were present, in 
addition to those already mentioned, Captain James Haekley and 
Benjamin B. Kercheval, together with the following-named visitors : 
General Tipton, of Pisgah lodge, of Corydon, Indiana; Anthony L. 
Davis, of Franklin lodge, Kentucky; Richard L. Britton, of St. 
John's lodge, of Ohio; John McCorkle, of lodge No. 14, Ohio, and 
Robert A. Forsythe. The lodge was opened with John P. Hedges, 
senior warden and s'X'ivtary pro ton; Benjamin Cushman, junior 
warden; James Haekley, treasurer, and Benjamin B. Kercheval, 
steward and tyler pro tern. At the June meeting I\Ir. Kerchevnl was 
elected treasurer; Charles W. Ewing, secretary; James Haekley, 
senior deacon; Robert Hars, junior deacon, and John P. Hedges, 
steward and tyler. On the 10th of November the charter was 
granted. On the evening of November 17, in the rooms of General 
Tipton, enclosed within the palisades of the fort, the following 
officers were installed : Worshipful master, Alexander Ewing ; senior 
warden, John Tipton; junior warden, Benjamin B. Kercheval; 
secretary, Charles W. Ewing; treasurer, Anthony L. Davis; senior 
deacon, James Haekley; junior deacon, Hugh B. McKeen; steward 
and tyler, James Wyman. On the occasion of the meeting on 
Christmas night, General Tipton was elected to the office of wor- 
shipful master, a position which he held for five years. 

Although Wayne lodge is today a most substantial organization, 
the story of its earlier years is one of heartaches and difficulties. 
During the first five years, the order continued to meet in one of 
the buildings of the old fort, and in Washington hall, the County 
Seminary and the court house, although efforts were begun in 1825 
to establish a lodge hall owned by the organization. Because of 



financial and other difficulties, the work of building was delayed. 
At length, in 1829, the lodge purchased from John McCorkle, John 
T. Barr and Joseph Holinan a lot near the northeast corner of 
Columbia and Harrison streets, the site of the establishment of S. 
Bash and Company, and there erected a brick building. On June 
3, 1833, the lodge found it necessary to sell the lot and building to 
the highest bidders — Joseph Holman, Richard L. Britton, Francis 
Comparet, Alexis Coquillard and Hugh Hanna— for $1,328. 

The suicide of James Hackley, husband of Rebekah, daughter 
of Captain William Wells, presented a troublesome problem to the 
Wayne lodge of Masons in 1826. Hackley 's death was the first in the 
lodge since its organization. Some objection was made to conduct- 
ing the funeral because of the nature of the death, but, accord- 


Judge William G. Ewing. the first man 
to be admitted to the bar in Allen coun- 
ty, held also the honor of serving as the 
first judge of the probate court, from 
1830 to 1836, when he resigned to en- 
gage, with his brother, George W. Ew- 
ing, in extensive trading operations, with 
many branch houses in the central 
states. At the time of his death on Lake 
Superior in 1854. he was one of the 
wealthiest men in the middle west. The 
portrait is from a photograph loaned by 
the late Mrs. Cynthia A. Hill. 

Mr. Hamilton, who came to Fort 
Wayne in 1823. rose to a most prominent 
place among the men of wealth and in- 
fluence of his period. In 1824, at the 
time of the organization of Allen county, 
he was appointed by the governor to 
serve as sheriff. Subsequently, he held 
various important public oflRces. His 
connection with the early banking Inter- 
ests is commemorated In the name of the 
First and Hamilton National bank of 
today. He died in 1864 at Saratoga, 
New York. 

ing to tlie records, the members "turned out to gratify ]Mrs. 
Hackley." Hackley had taken his own life, by hanging, after a 
vain attempt to murder his sister-in-law, Mrs. Turner, against whom 
he had become enraged because of a dispute over the partition of 
their property in Spy Run. Mrs. Turner escaped by leaping from 
an upper window of her home. The details of the incident are given 
by John W, Dawson in his "Charcoal Sketches," and these agree 
in all respects with the story as repeated by the late Mrs. Lucien P. 
Ferry, who was then a girl of twelve years. 

Attention seemed now to turn instinctively to the formation 
of a town of commercial importance at the head of the Maumee. 
The residents and visitors alike were unsparing in their expressions 
of favorable opinion of the site of Fort Wayne as an ideal spot for 



the upbuilding of a place of importance. Like Captain Riley, they 
believed that once the land were offered for sale, it would be pur- 
chased eagerly by the pioneers who, up to that time, were mere 

The government in 1822 took active steps which opened the 
way for the sale of the ground in 1823. It is probable that this 
action would have taken place thirteen years earlier but for the 
words of protest of Governor William Henry Harrison. In 1805 a 
report of the proposed action of congress reached the ears of the 
governor of Indiana territory, and he hastened to report his opinion 
to Henry Dearborn, secretary of war, as follows : 

"I have understood that it was intended to sell immediately 
the United States land aromid Fort Wayne. I am very certain, 
however, that the money which would be put into the treasury by 
the sale of it would not counterbalance the inconvenience that would 
arise from having it settled with the description of people who will 
naturally buy it. It is too far removed from our other settlements 
to entice American farmers to go there, but the few sections that 
are sold will be purchased by the Indian traders, and we shall thus 
have, in the heart of the Indian country, a number of unprincipled 
people who will be entirely out of reach of the laws of the United 
States regulating the trade and intercourse with the Indian tribes. 
If the immediate settlement of it is an object, I think it would be 
better to sell it by contract, upon the condition that there should 
be, within a given time, a certain number of American farmers 
on it." 


The above reproductions of parts of the government iand patents for portions 
of the land on which the city of Fort Wayne is situated were made from tracings 
of the originals In the possession of Oliver S. Hanna, grandson of Samuel Hanna. 
The grant to John T. Barr and John McCorkle, bearing President Monroe's 
signature, is for ground in the heart of the present city, including the original 
plat of Fort Wayne. The Daniels and Hanna tract was southwest of the town. 
These grants, bearing the signatures of Presidents James Monroe, John Quincy 
Adams and .Andrew Jackson, are framed and on display in the Nuttman bank, of 
Fort TVayne. 


Following the memorable treaty of St. Mary's, congress passed 
an act, signed by President Monroe on the 8th of May, 1822, author- 
izing the sale of the lands about the old fort. This act defined the 
boundary of the land district, based upon the surveys of Captain 
Riley, and permitted the disposal of all the unappropriated and 
unreserved lands within it to which the Indian titles had been 

The area presented an interesting appearance at this time. 
A few unpretentious log buildings collected about the region of the 
present Clinton, Barr, Columbia, Lafayette and Superior streets, 
constituted the settlement. Away to the southwest, where now are 
located the Wabash railroad shops and the Fort Wayne plant of 
the General Electric Company, was a broad swamp, fed by springs. 
The outlet of this swamp was a creek called Bloody run. whicii 
coursed northward. This creek was joined by another which flowed 
from the east and had its source near the present Bass foundry. 
This latter stream crossed Calhoun street at the present Baker 
street. It ran west on Baker street until it joined Bloody run, 
which then coursed to the northward and emptied into the St. 
Mary's river near the Wells street bridge. In its meandering, it 
crossed all of the principal east-and-west streets. At Wayne street, 
a bridge spanned the stream just west of Harrison street. A. G. 
Barnett stated, in 1917, that he remembered catching fish from this 
stream which coursed through the town even after the canal was 
in use. In times of freshet, the flood eould not find an outlet through 
the opening beneath the canal to allow of an outflow sufficient to 
avoid inundating surrounding property. Finally, the springs near 
the Wabash shops were choked, though the place has remained 
swampy in a section between the shops and McCulloch park. Mr. 
Barnett states that the foundation of the Spencer house, which 
occupied a site on Calhoun street between Main and Berry streets, 
was made of stones taken from the bed of Bloody run. 

At this time, a swamp occupied the region of which the present 
Lincoln Life building on East Berry street is the center. The late 
Louis Peltier related the story of a man who shot a deer and then 
chased it into this swamp. He waded out to the animal which 
attacked him and killed him before the eyes of a number of persons 
who had been attracted to the spot. 

Scattered trees, grown since the siege of 1812. dotted the land- 
scape, while here and there were the sites of Indian camps chosen 
by the red men for their long sojourn while awaiting the distribu- 
tion of their annual payments from the government. 

The coming of Joseph Holman, of Wayne county, appointed by 
President Monroe to serve as the first register of the land office, 
and Captain Samuel C. Vance, of Dearborn county, as the receiver 
of public moneys, was the signal for activity in securing the choicest 
sites when the sale should open in the fall of 1823. Register Holman 
and Captain Vance established their office in the old fort, where 
much of the clerical work of the business came under the direct 
supervision of a young man who accompanied Captain Vance as 
his assistant — Allen Hamilton — a citizen who was soon to become 
one of the foremost among Fort Wayne's enterprising men. 

The arrival of the memorable 22d of October, 1823 — the twenty- 



ninth anniversary of the dedication of "Wayne's fort and the thirty- 
third anniversary of Harmar's battle — fonnd tlie village alive 
with visitors who vied with the citizens to secure an advantage in 
the purchase of the available grounds nearest the fort. The lands 
directly adjoining the stockade were not offered for sale — they were 
later to become platted as Taber's addition — but that portion which 
forms the downtown district of the present city was the choice piece 
which all who possessed the means sought to purchase. 

** 1, 1 

Colonel Ewlng, son of Alexander Ew- 
ing. who, with his brother, William G. 
Ewing, became widely known throughout 
the west because of his large and wide- 
spread commercial interests, began his 
business career at Wapakoneta. Ohio. 
The branches of the trading business 
were located in Michigan, Iowa, Kansas, 
Minnesota, Illinois, Missouri, Indiana 
and Wisconsin; indeed, "the name of the 
Ewings was familiar from the Alleghen- 
ies to the Rocky mountains." In 1839 
George W. Ewing removed from Fort 
Wayne to Logansport, and later located 
at Peru, going from there to St. Louis, 
where he resided until the death of Wil- 
liam G. Ewing in 1SB4. From this time 
until his death in 1865 Colonel Ewing 
lived in Fort Wayne. The portrait is 
from a photograph loaned by the late 
William Ewing Hood. 




Mr. McCorkle was one of the proprie- 
tors of the land comprising the original 
plat of Fort Wayne. The signature is 
from articles of agreement between Mr. 
McCorkle, on the one side, and the gov- 
ernment representatives, on the other, to 
supply meat and bread for the Indians 
while waiting at Fort Wayne for the di.s- 
tribution of their annuities. (Burton 
Historical Collection. Detroit). 

Charles W. Ewing was the eldest of 
the son.-^ of Alexander Ewing. strong fig- 
ures in the early history of Fort W^ayne. 
He had been admitted to the practice of 
the law before coming to Fort AVayne in 
1822, and was the first lawyer to settle 
here. The portrait is from a photograph 
of a painting loaned by Mrs. G. W. Mc- 
Caskey. a niece. 


In 1822 Captain James Riley was sent 
by the government to survey the mili- 
tary tract about the old fort. It con- 
sisted of forty acres, which later formed 
a large part of Taber's addition. 



John T. Barr, a merchant, of Baltimore, Maryland, and John 
McCorkle, an active citizen of Piqua, Ohio, combined their resources 
and purchased the tract which since has been known as the Original 

Neither of these original proprietors of Fort Waj'ne chose to 
make his home here. Nothing is known of the activities of John T. 
Barr, in Baltimore, beyond the showing of the Baltimore city direct- 
ories of his period, which refer to him as a merchant. Jluch is 
known, however, of John McCorkle. His first connection with Fort 
Wayne came through his association with John P. Hedges, when 
the two men were engaged, in 1819, to furnish supplies of beef and 
bread to the Indians while waiting for their anjuiities. From an 
article written by the late E. F. Colerick, quoting Benjamin F. 
Blosser, former postmaster of Decatur, Indiana, we learn that Barr 
and McCorkle came to the land sale together, in a bateau which 
they propelled down the St. Mary's river. Mr. Blosser assisted them 
in transferring their luggage, including their specie, around Captain 
James Rilej^'s dam at Willshire. Mr. McCorkle was born at Piqua, 
in 1791. As the owner of a carding mill, grislniill and oil mill, he 
laid the foundation for a prosperous future. He became Piqua 's 
leading merchant. In 1821, with two other enterprising citizens, he 
founded St. Mary's, Ohio. He was an orator of power, a state repre- 
sentative, and a, leader in many local enterprises at Piqua. He died 
in 1829, at the age of thirty-eiKht years. 

For the original tract, Barr and McCorkle paid the minimum 
price of $1.25 per acre, and they took immediate steps to plat the 
property and to offer it for sale in the form of business and residence 
lots. Robert Young, ^ a Piqua surveyor, was employed to lay out 
the property which was described as "the north fraction of the 
southeast quarter of section two, township thirty north, range 
twelve east." 

Alexander Ewing secured eighty acres of ground immediately 
west of the Barr and McCorkle tract, at $1.25 per acre, which later 
became Ewing 's addition to Fort Wayne. 

The plat of the Barr and McCorkle land consisted originally of 
110 lots. There were four north-and-south streets (Calhoun, Court, 
Clinton and Barr), and five east-and-west streets (Water, Columbia, 
Main, Berry and Wayne). Water street was later renamed Superior. 
The streets of this original plat, as well as all which adjoin it, do 
not conform to the points of the compass, but rather, are based on 
lines north and south on a variation of three degrees and thirty 
minutes west of magnetic north. 

"The reason the lines of the lots were not run with the land lines 
according to the cardinal points of the compass, consists in this, 
that the trading and other houses, built before that time, were 
ranged along two common roads, now Columbia and Barr streets, 
so that to save them in their location, the town was laid off to conform 
to these roads and save the houses from removal." (John W. Daw- 
son's Charcoal Sketches"). The first man to conform his surveys to 
the true points of the compass was Major Samuel Lewis, who, in later 
years, laid out his addition south from Lewis street. 


While the proprietors of the new town of Fort Wayne were 
busy preparing for the sale of lots, the state on the 17th of December, 
1823, took an important step in the formation of the county of Allen, 
with jurisdiction over what is now Wells, Adams, DeKalb and 
Steuben and portions of Noble, LaGrange, Huntington and Wliitley 
counties. The name of Allen was suggested by General John Tipton, 
who was an admirer of Colonel John Allen, the gallant Kentuekian' 
who, after the relief of Fort Wayne in 1812, lost his life at the battle 
of the River Raisin, in Michigan, south of Detroit. 


(I) Dr. William Turner died at his 
residence in the old apple orchard in 
Spy Run (Fort Wayne) in 1821, and his 
remains were buried there. He was 
the son-in-law of Captain William 
Wells, having married his eldest daugh- 
ter, Ann Wells CAh-pez-zah-quah), who 
survived him until July 26, 1834. 

The second daughter of Captain 
Wells, Rebekah (Pe-me-sah-quah), be- 
came the wife of Captain James Hack- 
ley, of the United States army, who 
was a charter member of Wayne lodge 
of Masons. Hackley committed suicide 
in the early twenties; Mrs. Hackley 
died June 14, 1835. Their children 
were Ann and Jack W. Hackley. Ann 
Hackley married Nathan Ferfand in 
1835; later she married Peter Bly- 
stone. With her husband and her son. 
Jack, she removed to Kansas, and there 
her death occurred in 1858. 

The third daughter of Captain Wells, 
Mary. or Mollie (Ah-ma-quah-zah- 
quuah. Sweet Breeze), born at Fort 
Wayne in 1800, married Judge James 
W^olcott, who came from Torrington. 
Connecticut, in March. 1821. In 1826. 
the Wolcotts removed to Maumee City 
(now South Toledo). Ohio, where the 
death of the wife occurred February 
17, 1843. Judge Wolcott died in 1873'. 
A son of Judge Wolcott, Frederick Al- 
len Wolcott, was killed before Atlanta, 
Georgia, July 22, 1864. 

Jane T. Wells, fourth daughter of 
Captain William Wells, married John 
H. Griggs at Fort Wayne about 1830. 
Mr. Griggs came from the vicinity of 
Piqua. Ohio. Their children, born at 
Fort Wayne and Peru, were Warren. 
Charles F., Anthony Wavne, Lvdia. 
Martha, Mabia and Oliver. The present 
Warren Griggs, of Peru, is a son of 
Charles F. Griggs. 

Juliana Wells, fifth daughter of Cap- 
tain Wells, died at Fort Wayne. 

William Wayne Wells (Wa'-pe-mong- 
gah). first son of Captain Wells, spent 
his young boyhood at Fort Wavne, but 
like his sisters, Ann and Rebekah. he 
was given the advantage of an educa- 
tion in the schools of Kentucky, where 
the relatives of their father lived 
Prom Kentucky, William Wavne Wells 
enrolled as a cadet at West Point Mili- 

tary Academy. He graduated with 
honors in 1821, but his death occurred 
soon after his appointment as a lieu- 
tenant in the United States army. 

Samuel G. Wells, second son of Cap- 
tain Wells, born at Fort Wayne, died 

Yelberton P. Wells, third son of Cap- 
tain Wells, died at St. Louis, Missouri, 
leaving one child. 

"All of those having Indian names 
claimed that these names had been 
given them by their grandfather. Little 
Turtle," says the late John Wentworth, 
of Chicago. 

From present available information. 
It appears that Yelberton P. Wells and 
Juliana Wells were the children of his 
third wife, the daughter of Colonel 
Guiger, of Kentucky. (See Chapter 
XV). Authorities agree that Wells' 
first wife was the daughter of Little 
Turtle, although some writers refer to 
her as a sister of the chief. From 
"Early Chicago," published by the Fer- 
gus Printing Company, comes the state- 
ment that Wells's second wife was a 
member of the Wea tribe. 

(2) When Barr and McCorkle. the 
original proprietors of the town of Fort 
W ayne, were naming the streets, they 
specified one as Kercheval street. "Not 
so," responded Ben.iamin Berry Ker- 
cheval. "But If you insist upon naming 
one of the streets for me. you mav use 
my middle name." And thus did Berry 
street receive its name. (Statement of 
G. K. Michaelis, of New York, a great- 

(3) A score of years later, Robert 
^oung. addressing the committee in 
charge of the ceremonies of the open- 
ing of the Wabash and Erie canal 
wrote: "When I surveyed Fort Wayne 
for Messrs. Barr and McCorkle, about 
twenty years ago, with the aid of Mr 
[Anthony L.] Davis and other gentle- 
men, I made a survey and level from 
the waters of the Wabash to the St 
Mary s, near Fort Wavne, with refer- 
ence to a canal. Convinced of the prac- 
ticability and importance of the work 
both in public and private life. I have 
since used all the influence so humble 
an individual could use in favor of this 
great public improvement." (Original 
letter owned by Mrs. Clark Fairbank) 

Pioneer County Government — The First Lot Buyers. 

Settlers pour into the village of Fort Wayne — Arrival of the commissioners 
to establish the government of Allen county — Swing's Washington Hall 
and Suttenfield's tavern — The first officials of Allen county — The first 
tavern rates — The original tax schedule — Paying taxes in wolf scalps — 
The first circuit court judges indicted for law infraction — Grand jury 
activities — The first attorney's license, trespass suit, divorce case, nat- 
uralization grant, tavern license and marriage license — Barr and McCor- 
kle's plat of the town is accepted — Valuable gifts to the county — The 
original lot buyers — The county library — Fate of the institution — Wells's 
Pre-emption is opened — The first brick building — A near-war between the 
Miamis and the Ottawas assists in the foundation of two fortunes. 

THE EYES of the entire middle west were now centered upon 
the village at the head of the Maumee, and the settlers ap- 
peared in increasing numbers over the convenient streams 
which approach the spot from widelj^ separated regions. 
Many of these travelers came to purchase a place on which to estab- 
lish homes. Pending the sale of lots, Barr anil McCorkle awaited the 
organization of the county government, and then they proceeded in 
due form with the work of securing the returns on their investment 
in the faith of the pioneers. 

At this time there were no streets beyond the beaten paths and 
the driveways which had, by chance, come into accepted use when- 
ever one man chose to walk or drive over a route taken by another 
before him. However, with the laying out of the streets of the 
future town and city, the site assumed an air of order, industry and 
enterprise. There was work for all. 

The legislative act creating Allen county took effect April 1, 
1824. Six days previous to this date, the arrival of four horsemen 
was hailed with delight. They were the commissioners appointed 
by the legislature to determine upon the seat of government for the 
new county — Lot Bloomfield, of Wayne county ; Abiathar Hathaway, 
of Fayette county ; William Conner, of Hamilton county, and James 
M. Ray, of Marion county. 

These commissioners, in accordance with instructions of the 
legislature, held their session at the tavern of Alexander Ewing, 
known as Washington Hall, and soon completed the formalities of 
their mission. The Ewing building, constructed of logs, stood at 
the southwest corner of Barr and Columbia streets. 

Ewing 's Washington Hall was the first tavern to be established 
in Fort Wayne, although the rival place of entertainment, estab- 
lished by William Suttenfield on the corner diagonally opposite, 
was built in the same year, 1823. The Ewing house became the first 
meeting place of the circuit court judges, and the Suttenfield tavern 
was likewise employed during the earlier years of the county's 
history. The Ewing tavern, which was considered the best in north- 
ern Indiana, passed through a succession of ownerships. 



The first election of county officers occurred on the 22d of May. 
Previous to this, Governor William Hendricks had named Allen 
Hamilton, the young clerk in the land office, as sheriff of Allen 
county, "to serve until the next election, and until his successor 
shall be appointed and qualified — should he so long behave well." 
Cyrus Taber and Joseph Holman signed the sheriff's bond of $5,000. 
The election of county offlcers was held in accordance with 
the sheriff's proclamation. The race was characterized by a lively 
spirit (although partisan i)()lities did not figure in the contests), as 
is indicated by the attempt of defeated candidates to wrest the 
honors from some of the victors. The choice of the voters fell upon 
Samuel Hanna and Benjamin Cushman, associate circuit court judges 
Anthony L. Davis, clerk and recorder (succeeded by Joseph Holman) 
William Rockhill, commissioner for three years ; James Wyman, 
commissioner for two years; Francis Comparet, commissioner for 
one year. Alexander Ewing, a rival of Samuel Hanna, and Marshall 
K. Taylor, who opposed the election of Wyman and Comparet, filed 
notices of contest of election. Init they failed to prove their right to 
political honors. 

On Wednesday, May 26, the newly-elected board of county com- 
missioners met at the house of Alexander Ewing for a six-day ses- 
sion. Their first official act was the selection of Joseph Holman to 
be the treasurer of the county; he was required to "give bond, with 
two good, sufficient freehold securities, in the penal sum of .$1,000.'" 
In 1825, W. 6. Ewing was appointed to succeed Mr. Holman as 
treasurer. Thomas Forsythe was elected to the office in 1826. At 
this time Mr. Ewing reported that during the year 1825, $283,311/4 
had been i-eceived by the county, and that $22.41 had been expended, 
leaving a balance of $260,901/4. Moses Thorp succeeded Mr. Forysthe 
in 1827. 

Mr. Comparet was absent from the initial session of the board, 
but he appeared the next day. The board appointed General John 
Tipton to be the county agent— a position of importance — and 
authorized him to pay, at the rate of $3 per day, the allowance due 
the five commissioners sent to select the county seat. The board 
then made the following appointments : Hugh B. McKeen, lister of 
taxables ; Lambert Cushovis, constable ; Robert Hars, inspector of 
elections; William N. Hood, inspector of flour, beef and pork for 
the township of Wayne ; Samuel Hanna, road supervisor for Wayne 
township ; W. T. Davis and Alexis Coquillard, overseers of the poor 
in Wayne township ; Israel Taylor, Joseph Troutner and Moses Scott, 
fence viewers. At this time Wayne township included the entire 
county of Allen. John Tipton, the county agent, was ordered to 
construct a "pound" of suitable size, on the site of the present court 
house, in which to house stray animals. This appears to have been 
the first building ordered to be placed on the public square, but the 
order was rescinded at a later time. The board ordered the county 
agent to advertise an election, "to be held at the house of Alexander 
Ewing, if permitted ; if not, at some suitable place in the township 
of Wayne, for the election of three justices of the peace." The 
commissioners also selected thirty-six names from which to choose 
a petit jury for the circuit court. 

The commissioners fixed the following figures to regulate the 




rates to be charged by tavernkeepers, who were required to pay an 
annual license of $12.50 to conduct their business : Dinner, break- 
fast and supper, 25 cents; keeping horse, night and day, 50 cents; 
lodging, per night, 121/4 cents; whisky, per half pint, 121/^ cents; 
brandy, per half pint, 50 cents ; gin, per half pint, 371^ cents ; porter, 
per bottle, 371/2 cents; cider, per quart, 18% cents. 

The board also decided upon the following rates for assessment 
on personal property, for county purposes, for the year 1824 : Male 
person, over the age of 21 years, 50 cents; horse, gelding, mare or 
mule, three years old and upward, 371^ cents; work oxen, three 
years old and upward, 18% cents ; gold watch, $1 ; silver watch, 
25 cents ; pinchbeck watch, 25 cents ; pleasure carriage, four wheels, 
$1.50; pleasure carriage, two wheels, $1. 

Treasurer Holman reported that in 1824 the county was entitled 
to $112.62 from taxes, "embracing delinquents, errors, etc." The 
state at this time and for a long period to follow paid a bounty on 

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The tracings show the original plat of Fort Wayne as presented by John T. 
Barr and .lohn McCorkle, together with the county addition, which wa*; opened 
for sale at a later period. The original plat was first recorded in Randolph 

all wolf scalps taken; the certificates thus issued were receivable 
for tax payments. Nearly all of the taxes of Allen county "were 
paid off in these certificates, which were usually sent up to Indian- 
apolis by the representatives." 

As a result of the election in August, a board of three .iustices of 
the peace was elected — Alexander Ewing, William N. Hood and 
William Rockhill. One of the first acts of this board, which sup- 
planted the board of county commissioners, was the receipt and 
acceptance of the report of Benjamin B. Kercheval and Samuel 
Hanna, commissioners for Allen county, to survey and locate the 
Winchester road, "from Vernon, in Jennings county, by way of 


Greensburg, Rushville and Newcastle, to Port Wayne." It was 
Allen county's first established rural highway; it ran nearly south 
from the town, and was the beginning of a great network of roads 
which centered at the settlement. The road was surveyed by 
Chauncey Carter, under the direction of Kereheval and Hanna. 

Under the provisions of the constitution of 1816, "the circuit 
courts shall consist of a president and two associate judges." In 
all counties of the state, the circuit court liad common law and 
chancery jurisdiction, as, also, criminal jurisdiction, subject to 
certain limitations. The president judge, whose duties carried him 
on the circuit of several counties, was chosen by joint ballot of the 
legislature for a term of seven years; the associates, or "side" 
judges, served for the county only, and were chosen by the voters 
of the county. Membership in the legal profession was not a re- 
quirement of qualification for the associate judgesliip. Allen county 
was a part of the Third judicial circuit, with the counties of Wayne, 
Pranklin, Dearborn, Randolph, Union, Switzerland, Payette and 
Ripley, over which William W. Wick was, in 1824, president judge. 
The first session of the Allen circuit court was held beginning 
Monday, August 9, 1824, at Ewing's Washington Hall. Judge Wick 
was absent — indeed, he was unable to attend any of the court ses- 
sions in Port Wayne— and the "side" judges, Samuel Hanna and 
Benjamin Cushman, recently elected, found themselves confronted 
by a vast amount of business. The records of the opening years of 
the county's judicial history reveal the fact that very few of the 
leading citizens escaped indictment on charges of selling liquor 
illegally, larceny, assault and battery, gambling, defamation of 
character, "affrays," and like misdemeanors, while the civil and 
chancery cases were numerous from the beginning. At the opening 
session, Anthony L. Davis, an appointee of Governor Hendricks, 
officiated as clerk of the court; he filed a bond for $2,500, with 
General Tipton and Benjamin B. Kereheval as sureties. The court 
appointed Charles W. Ewing as prosecuting attorney. 

The report of the first grand jury, which was received, no doubt, 
with complacency by the community, would if duplicated at the 
present time, precipitate official investigations and consequent loss 
of reputation. But it reflects merely the spirit of the times and 
cannot be paralleled with the standard of the demands of the Amer- 
ican people of today. Both of the associate judges were indicted for 
wrong-doing, and a member of the grand jury was found guilty of a 
misdemeanor which brought a three-dollar fine. The indictments 
against the judges were continued to the next session, and the 
record contains the notation that "he [the prosecuting attorney] 
will no further prosecute the said indictments." Of the nine de- 
fendants charged with the illegal sale of liquors, the larger part 
were men whose names are synonymous witli the great accomplish- 
ments of early Port Wayne. Six of those accused of the illegal sale 
of liquor paid fines of three dollars ; another seems to have sinned 
a little in excess of his brothers, for he was required to pay four 
dollars. Two, charged with "playing at a game," demanded a jury 
trial, and were assessed a fine of $10 each. One woman, charged 
with lewdness, was acquitted by a jury, while another was found 
guilty and sentenced to serve fifteen days in jail, a fate from which 




she Avas saved on the securing of bail to the amount of $100. This 
first grand jury was composed of General Tipton (foreman), Paul 
Taber, William Suttenfield, Alexander Ewing, James Hackley, 
Charles Weeks, John Davis, William Probst, Horace Taylor, James 
Wyman, James Cannon and Peter Felix. The latter, emploj-ed as a 
baker, was excused, and two men, Cyrus Taber and William N. 
Hood, were named to take his place. The jurors were allowed $1.50 
each for their services. 

The. court admitted to the Allen county bar William G. Ewing, 
the first man to be thus honored, although his brother, Chai-les W. 
Ewing, was the first lawyer to locate in the county. The first case 
on the court docket was that of Richard Swain vs. Joseph Troutner 
for trespass; it was tlisniissed at the next session. A divorce suit, 
the first on record in the county, filed by A. Cannada against Na- 
thaniel Cannada, resulted in a decision for the plaintiff, who was 
required to pay the costs. The finding was rendered at a later 
session of the court, after the due legal publication in the Richmond 
(Indiana) Enquirer, such procedure being required because tlu' 
defendant was a non-resident. Pollv Robertson also sought a divorce 

Mr. EdsaH was among the settlers of 
1S24, being one of nine children of Mrs. 
Peter Edsall. a widow, who came from 
Ohio. He became an attache of the sur- 
veying corps of Colonel Shriver, who was 
sent by the government to lay the lines 
for the Wabash and Erie canal and who 
died in Fort Wavne while in the midst of 
the work. William S. Edsall established 
a ferry, he became a clerk of the Ew- 
ings and lived for a period at Hunting- 
ton, where he became county clerk and 
recorder. Returning to Fort Wavne in 
1836. he formed a partnership with his 
brother Samuel, and later became a part, 
ner with the Ewings in the firm of Ew- 
ing, Edsall and Company. He also served 
as register of the land office. The Ed- 
salls originated the Fort Wayne and 
Bluffton plank road, and were the con- 
tractors for forty-seven miles of the 
grading of the Wabash railroad. In 1S68. 
after returning from a three-vear resi- 
dence in Chicago, William S. Edsall was 
elected clerk of the courts. The portrait 
is from a photograph loaned bv Mrs. 
George D. Crane. 


Mr. Edsall was a son of Peter Edsall. 
He came to Fort Wayne with his mother 
and eight brothers and sisters in 1S24. 
He became a pioneer miller and was oth- 
erwise prominently identified with the 
development of the town. In 1842 he, 
with William Rockhill. established two 
band sawmills, operated with water 
power from the canal. In 1843 Mr. Ed- 
sall established the famous "stone mill." 
known also as Edsall's mill, and the Orff 
mill. Mr. Edsall was one of the builders 
of the first courthouse in 1831. and was 
given the contract for the construction 
of the new building in 1847. Associated 
with his brothers, WMlliam .S. and Simon. 
Mr. Edsall was prominently connected 
with the construction of the Wabash 
railroad. Simon S. Edsall was a prom- 
inent farmer. John Edsall. another 
brother, was a pioneer tailor of Fort 
■^'ayne. Though the pioneer period, the 
family added substantially to the de- 
velopment of the community. The port- 
rait is from a photograph loaned by 
Mrs. I>eGroff Nelson, his daughter. 


from her husband, Thomas Robertson; the case was dismissed at a 
subsequent session of the court, and in this record the names appear 
as "Robinson" instead of "Robertson." James Aveline, a native 
of France, was made a naturalized citizen, the first to be thus 
honored in Allen county. The court granted Alexander Ewing a 
license to conduct a tavern. The first marriage license was issued 
August 8, 1824, to Samuel McElwain and Zeruen Marian. The 
marriage service Avas performed by James Cannon, justice of the 

The court allowed Allen Hamilton, sheriff, $16.65 2-3 for four 
months' work, and Charles W. Ewing .$5 for services during the 
session. Robert Hars, constable, received 75 cents per day. The 
clerk was authorized to make use of a "scrawl [scroll?] including 
the letters A. C. C. [Allen circuit court] for the seal of office until 
a proper seal can be provided." The first record of the "binding 
out" of a minor is that of the placing of James Peltier, jr., aged 
10 years and 7 months, son of James Peltier, sr., in the charge of 
James Haekley, until the boy had reached the age of 21. Hackley 
agreed to supply "meat, drink, washing, lodging and apparel," 
and to teach the boy reading, writing and arithmetic "as far as the 
rule of three." James Peltier, sr., was a brother of Louis Peltier. 
The son, James, lived to an age beyond 90 years; his brother, Sal- 
vador Peltier, died in 1914. 

Thus we find the machinery of self-government set in motion 
in the pioneer county of vast dimensions where a little village of 
men and women, types of the hardy specimens of the race, set about 
the task of laying the foundation of the modern city. 

More important than all other matters to come before the county 
commissioners in 1824, was the proposition of John T. Barr and 
John McCorkle, proprietors of the town plat which they had laid 
out in August. It included the ofi'er to pay into the treasury of the 
coimty $500 cash, and to donate to the county "all of that oblong 
square piece of ground situate and being in the town of Port Wayne 
aforesaid, and stained red on the plat of said town, as recorded 
in the recorder's office of Randolph county in said state [the present 
courthouse square] , which is granted as a public square, whereon 
public buildings for said county are to be erected, and bounded by 
Main, Court, Berry and Calhoun streets." The offer included also 
a lot at the northwest corner of the plat, four rods square, "for a 
church, to be of no particular denomination, but free to all," the 
unoccupied portion of which was to be used for a burial ground. 
In 1838 and 1839, Samuel Ilanna, who purchased all of the unsold 
and unappropriated portion of the Barr and McCorkle holdings, 
arranged for the removal of the bodies of those buried in this ceme- 
tery to a new burial place (the present McCulloch park). The 
remains of one person, ovei-looked in the process of removing the 
bodies, were unearthed in April, 1916 — seventy-seven years after 
the cemetery had bem abandoned. 

Another lot given by Barr and McCorkle, for "a seminary of 
learning," on the site of the present county jail, was located east of 
the proposed church lot. 

The place designated for a church was never used for this 
purpose, but the "seminary" became an important early educational 




institution. In addition to the tracts already referred to, the pro- 
prietors oifered to give the county lots 8 and 9 (north side of Supe- 
rior street, west of Clinton), lots 101, 102 and 103 (west side of 
Calhoun street, north from Berry street to the alley), and lots 104 
to 118 (south side of Berry street, from the alley between Calhoun 
and Harrison east to the site of the Pixley block). Little time was 
lost in accepting this generous offer, and the town of Fort Wayne, 
consisting of about sixteen square blocks, came into existence. The 
deed was made out to John Tipton, the county agent. This plat 
was recorded at the county seat of Randolph county — Winchester — 
and subsequently in Recorder's Book A, page 316, in Allen county. 
Tlie first lots of the original plat of Fort Wayne were sold Sep- 
tember 18, 1824, under the direction of John Tipton as the county 
agent. The buyers were Francis Comparet, William Barbee, Wil- 
liam Suttenfield, Edward Mitchell, Thomas Rue, Charles W. Ewing, 

Born at Georgetown, Kentucky, in 1799 
Colonel Hanna removed to Fort Wayne 
In 1824 and engaged in business as a 
carpenter and cabinetmalier. He became 
an influentiai citizen in connection with 
many affairs during tiie twenties, but 
In 1834, in company with David Burr, he 
platted a town which became the pres- 
ent city of Wabash, Indiana, and re- 
moved to that place in 1835. He became 
the sole proprietor of the place, and, 
with its growth, served in several im- 
portant ofllcial positions. His death oc- 
curred in 1869. 


Mr. Holman was the first receiver of 
the land office, state representative and 
treasurer of Allen county. He was a na- 
tive of Versailles, Kentucky, and In 1805 
settled in Wayne county, Indiana, where, 
for the protection of his neighbors dur- 
ing the war of 1812, he built a block- 
house on his farm. He then enlisted and 
served under Harrison. He was one of 
the founders of Peru, Indiana, in 1834. 
The portrait Is reproduced from "Pic- 
tures of Peru, Past and Present," pub- 
lished by Omer Holman. 

Rees Goodwin, John H. Griggs, Benjamin B. Kereheval, Christopher 
Valleynitte, Chief Jean Baptiste de Richardville, Alexander Ewing, 
William Murphy, Benjamin Archer, Moses Scott, William N. Hood, 
Jacob Everly, Walker and Davis, Samuel Hanna, Moses Gerard, 
Henry Diehle, Benjamin James, Abner Gerard, Matthew Griggs, 
Jacob Everley, Ben Glassbrenner and Jacob Glassbrenner. Sorue 
of these lots, in the heart of the present city, sold for $10.25; the 
highest brought only $25. The entire thirty-six lots comprising this 
original sale, netted, only $690.50, an average of less than $20 per 
lot. After the sale of some of the remaining lots, General Tipton 


resigned as county agent and Charles W. Ewing was appointed to 
fill the vacancy. 

The late Charles E. Bond held among his valued papers a deed 
of the transfer of the entire northeast fourth of the square bounded 
by Calhoim, Harrison, Berry and Wavue streets, which was sold in 
1825 to Benjamin Archer, Jr., for $31..50. The Old National bank 
block, the new Odd Fellows' block and a number of other business 
buildings now occupy this site. 

That the proprietors of the original plat of the town of Fort 
"Wayne were men of high ideals is shown in the record of their 
donation of sites for religious, educational and burial purposes. It 
is interesting to observe, also, that their agreement with the county 
specified that "of all the donations, it is expressly understood that 
10 per centum is to be appropriated for use by said county of Allen 
and to be appropriated for the use of a county library." The 
county records, dealing with the establishment of the Allen county 
library, are found to be incomplete, although it is known that as a 
result of the accumulation of a fund through the sale of lots of the 
original plat of the town of Fort Wayne, this fund amounted in 1842 
to $1,700. Ten per cent, of the sale price of lots passed into this 
library fund. In 1834, J. H. Kincaid and S. V. B. Noel served as 
trustees ; in the following year, John Spencer, Robert Brackenridge 
and Thomas J. Smith were elected to manage the institution. The 
founders of the state of Indiana had incorporated in the provision 
for the formation of counties the means to establish a library in 
each county. Many of Fort Wayne's leading citizens assisted in 
making the local institution a success. The trustees under the act 
of 1824 were elected by popular vote, but subsequently they were 
appointed by the county oomniissiouers to serve one year without pay. 
In 1831 it was provided that not more than .$500 should be invested 
in land or other property except books. Among those who served 
as trustees during later periods were R. J. Dawson, William Means, 
Osborne Thomas, Madison Sweetser, William G. Ewing, Dr. Philip 
G. Jones. F. P. Randall, G. W. Wood. I. D. G. Nelson and Robe-t E. 
Fleming. Henry R. Colerick served as librarian, beginning in 1844. 

In 1850, a committee composed of Hugh McCulloch, J. K. Edger- 
ton and Henry R. Colerick was appointed by the county commission- 
ers to purchase books to the value of $150 for the library. Five 
years after this period the county was subdivided into library 
districts and the books were distributed among them. A citizen 
who remembers the days of the county library has said: "It was 
the careless gathering of a sack full, carrying to the center of 
exchange, that separated the volumes, and the confusion was never 
fvdly restored to order." One of the sub-librarians was asked if 
the people read the books. He replied : "They don't take them oiit. 
They ain't much account. Plutarch's 'Lives' and a lot more old 
novels. They were getting yellow and I boxed them up." Some of 
the books passed into the hands of the township trustees and be- 
came a part of the township libraries. (See article on "Libraries 
of Allen County," in "History of the Maumee River Basin," Vol. II, 
by John H. Jacobs.) 

In 1824, the section of land now forming Spj' Run and Bloom- 
ingdale, known as the Wells Pre-emption, which had been, by act of 


congi-ess in 1808, set apart as a pre-emption to Captain William 
Wells, who was authorized to enter it as soon as adjacent lands 
should be offered at $1.25 per acre, also'came upon the market. The 
heirs of Captain Wells placed the lands on sale at the same time that 
the property south of the St. Mary's was opened to the settlers, and 
its subdivision soon followed. 

A curious document filed in August, 1823, is the will of Mrs. 
Ann Turner, daughter of Captain William Wells. It was written 
one night when she was ill and alone, and fearing to die without 
leaving a record of her wishes concerning the disposal of her prop- 
erty. "It is now very late at night," she wrote. " I have the night- 
mare very severely. I stood in the door to get someone to go for 
the doctor, but could not, and thought I had better write this lest 
I might be called before the light of another morning." She left 
a valuable piece of ground "for religious purposes." Among other 
items is "the lot of land in dispute 70 acres, odd acres, to be appro- 
priated to my account to B. B. Kercheval which is a note for $200 
and $30 borrowed when I was sick at R. Hood's, and $14 at two 
different times, and four barrels of flour, the bed and the candle- 
stick, making in all about $367." Others mentioned are the sister, 
Mrs. Hackley, Allen T. Hackley, D. F. Colerick, Dr. Cushman, A. L. 
Davis and Dr. L. G. Thompson. Mrs. Turner lived to witness the 
passage of eleven years after the making of the will. 

The circuit court, at the session of 182.5, appointed John Tipton, 
Alexander Ewing and Joseph Holman as commissioners to make 
partition of 320 acres of land, "lying in the forks of the St. Mary's 
and St. Joseph rivers,'' the Wells Pre-emption, in response to a petition 
of James Woleott (son-in-law of Captain William Wells), which 
commission recommended the partition of the property into eight 
portions, one to be given to each of the following: Ann Turner, 
James Hackley, Rebecca Hackley, William Wayne Wells, Samuel G. 
Wells, James Woleott, Yelberton Peyton Wells, Juliana Wells and 
Mary Turner. This action was the beginning of litigation which 
extended down through the years. In 1825, Robert Turner and 
Mary, his wife, filed a suit in chancery against the eight above 
named and secured a guardian, Benjamin B. Kercheval, for the 
three last named, who were minors or infants. At the same session 
the court appointed a commission consisting of Paul Taber, Richard 
Beeson and William Rockhill to make partition of two sections of 
land held by Samuel Hanna and James Barnett as tenants in common 
with To-pe-ah, son of Francis LaFontaine. 

The year 1824 brought to the village a number of valuable 
citizens. Mrs. Peter Edsall, with nine children, removed to Fort 
WajTie from a fai-m on Shane's prairie, southwest of Fort Wayne, 
on the St. Mary's river, where the husband had died. During a 
treaty in 1814 at Greenville. Ohio, Mrs. Edsall had conducted a 
boarding house, and from there removed to St. Mary's, where a 
similar gathering enabled the family to obtain the means to purchase 
a farm. Samuel, John, Simon and William S. Edsall became identi- 
fied actively in the development of the city and the county. 

Benjamin Archer, pioneer brickmaker and the head of the 
Archer family, so long identified with Fort Wayne progress, came 
in 1824. Mr. Archer entered immediately upon the manufacture of 



brick, north of town, and it was from the product of his yards that 
the first brick buildings in Fort Wayne were constructed. 

Another, who gave the- imprint of his character to the earlier 
days of the town, was Esquire Smalwood Noel, of Virginia, who 
came in 1824. 

Rev. James Holman, of Wayne county, came to Fort Wayne 
with his family in this year and established a farm home near the 
St. Mary's river, north of the present New York, Chicago and St. 
Louis (Nickel Plate) railroad. He was a Methodist: the people gath- 
ered at his home and his services were continued until a])out 1830. 

Willliam Stewart, who served as street commissioner, council- 
man, mayor and justice of the peace, came in 1824. Other active 


" 'Squire" Noel, as he was familiarly 
called, was one of the valuable citizens 
of his time. As a justice of the peace 
through a period of years, as postmaster 
of Fort Wayne beginnins in 1841, as one 
of the two first elders of the First Pres- 
byterian church and in active positions 
of many kinds, 'Squire Noel exerted a 
wholesome influence over the commu- 
nity. He was a native of Virginia and 
settled in Fort Wayne about 1S24. A 
son, S. V. B. Noel, was one of the found- 
ers of the Fort Wayne Sentinel. The 
portrait is from a photograph loaned by 
the late William E. Hood, a stepson of 
'Squire Noel. 

Mr. Vermilyea was one of the influen- 
tial and active citizens of the early canal 
days. Born in New York state in 1809, 
he came to Fort W'ayne in the early 
twenties and engaged in farming and 
trading with the Indians. He was one 
of the original directors of the Fort 
Wayne Branch bank, a contractor on the 
middle division of tlie W^abash and Erie 
canal and a pioneer plank road builder. 
In his later years he conducted the fa- 
mous Vermilyea house On the canal, 
about fourteen miles southwest of Fort 
Wayne, where his death occurred in 1846. 
The portrait is from a photograph of a 
painting loaned by Mrs. Littleton Tough, 
granddaughter of Mr. Vermilyea. 

citizens of the time were Charles and Francis Minie, George Hunt, 
John Bruno, Richard Chobert and Joseph Barron. 

Mention has been made of the first brick building erected in 
Fort Wayne. This small structure, owned and occupied by James 
Barnett, stood on a site on the north side of East Columbia street, 
just east of Clinton. The building was known latterly as Schwieter's 
bakery, and it stood until 1909. The brick for its construction were 
made by Benjamin Archer. 


An incident of the fall of 1824 brings forcibly to the mind the 
true frontier atmosphere of the place even though it had risen to the 


dignity of a county seat. One day, while a large number of Indians 
were gathered about the fort to receive their annuities, several of 
them became intoxicated. While in this condition, a young Miami 
stabbed and killed an Ottawa. 

John "W. Dawson, who came to Fort Wayne fourteen years after 
the threatened outbreak and who secured his information from per- 
sons concerned in it, gives the following interesting details of the 
aflFair: The murderer was a member of White Raccoon's (iliamii 
party. After the commission of the deed, he brandished a long 
knife and defied anyone to attack him. The enraged Ottawas spread 
the news to their camps on the Auglaize river and at Flat Rock, and 
soon large numbers, under the leadership of their chief, Oquanoxas, 
advanced toward Fort Wayne and camped for the night on the south 
bank of the Maumee about one mile east of the fort. In the morning, 
Oquanoxas and a few followers came to the village and sought out 
Chief Richardville, of whom they demanded the payment of $5,000 
in silver in atonement for the crime, this amount to be paid out of 
the next annuity consignment from the government. In default of 
meeting with these terms, the Ottawas threatened to attack the 
Miamis without further parley. Richardville and his leaders, with 
the white settlers, held a hurried council and decided to meet the 
will of the angered Ottawas, wlio were fully armed and prepared to 
wage a devastating war against the offending tribe. While this 
council was in session, the Ottawas determined to revise their de- 
mand by substituting merchandise for cash, fearing that through 
some miscarriage of plans they might be cheated out of their ricli 
prize. It was arranged, then, that articles to the value of $5,000 
should be selected at once from the store of Samuel Hanna and James 
Barnett, the payment therefor to be taken from the government an- 
nuities of the ]\liamis. The exulting Ottawas, laden with their prop- 
erty, returned to their camps to the eastward. 

"This adjustment," says Mr. Dawson, "put an end to this fear- 
ful excitement which prevailed among the whites, created by the 
fear that Oquanoxas, who was noted for his bravery and impulsive- 
ness, would begin a bloody war on the Miamis. This fear may be 
justly measured when it is known that there was no military force 
nearer than Newport, Kentucky, and that before relief could come 
from that place, extermination would have been the fate of one or 
the other, and that, in the blind and bloody carnage, many whites 
in the village and in feeble settlements would have suffered death or 


Richardville, the civil chief of the Miamis, had gained his high 
position while a yoiith through the sagacity of his mother. An 
interesting character study of this Indian mother and her half-breed 
son is given in the words of Henry Hay in Chapter X of this work. 
The story of his election to the chieftainship, as told to the late Allen 
Hamilton by Richardville. harmonizes smoothly with tlie later reve- 
lation of the characteristics of his mother. 

It appears that during the period of raids upon defenseless white 
settlers, a captive was brought to the site of Fort Wayne and tied 
to the stake for torture and death. At this time, Richardville, 


although a youth, already was looked upon as a future leader of 
the tribe. His selection needed but the display of daring which 
the occasion of the torture of the white prisoner provided. When 
the torch was applied to the inflammable material about the feet of 
the prisoner, Riehardville and his mother were some distance away 
from the circle of yelling savages. Suddenly, the mother, placing 
a knife in the hands of her son, bade him rescue the prisoner. With- 
out hesitation, the youth dashed toward the crowd, forced his way 
to the captive, severed his bonds and set him free. The audacity 
of the act of the youth astonished and surprised the savages, but 
they bowed to his will and allowed the prisoner to return to his 

After the death of Little Turtle, Riehardville was made to serve 
as his successor. It was he who, in 1818, signed the treaty of St. 
Mary's as the leader of his tribe. 

CHAPTER XXni— 1825-1828. 
Beginnings of the Wabash and Erie Canal. 

How the authorities obeyed the laws — The first murder case — The log jail 
on the court house square — The debtors' prison a faulty bastile — The 
county seminary — Allen Hamilton, postmaster — The canal "fever" — Judge 
Hanna reveals a plan to David Burr — The canal survey is authorized — 
Engineers succumb to attacks of fever— Judge Hanna in the legis- 
lature — Congress passes the canal hill— A close call— The "feeder" canal — 
An early lawyer's story — The first gristmill— Pioneer enterprises — A 
disastrous flood— The Ewings establish an extensive fur trade — Fort 
Wayne loses the government land office. 

THE YEAR 1825 found the village of Fort Wayne risen to a 
town of nearly two hundred population — that is to say, of 
persons considered more or less permanently settled. The 
town was in the pathway of many who traveled by way of the 
rivers, passing e-liieHy to the southwest; so there was a closer busi- 
ness and social connection with the busy eastern centers than had 
prevailed during the earlier years. 

Henry Cooper came in 1825. Born at Havre-de-Graee, Mary- 
land, in i783, he became a pioneer teacher, and rose to fame as 
one of Indiana's most prominent members of the bar. Others who 
dated their residence from this year were Peter Kiser, who opened 
a meat market and issued rations to the Indians and became an 
active figure in political and municipal life, and Francis D. Lasselle 
who attained i)rominence in business circles. Peter Kiser made his 
first visit to the town in 1822. He was then a lad of twelve years, 
muscular and well accustomed to hard work. He had brought a 
drove of hogs to Fort Wayne from Grant county, Ohio. 

The hardships of transportation of the period are impossible 
of realization in modern days. Traveled roads were few and usu- 
ally deep with mud. winding through the wilderness of i)rairie 
and forest — and these merely the Indian trails widened when neces- 
sary to accommodate the covered wagons of the hardy pioneers. 
But few bridges had been constructed and it was the common 
practice for a horseman to "swim" his faithful steed across a 
swollen stream, while the traveler with the cumbersome wagon was 
compelled to risk life and property in many cases in fording the 
numerous rivers and creeks of the west. The prevalence of wolves, 
often driven by hunger to invade the settlements, the fierce bliz- 
zards and the menace of drink-crazed Indians, added to the perils 
and sufferings of the traveler. However, many brave-hearted wives 
and mothers left comfortable homes in the older settlements to 
east their lots with their stitrdy protectors on the edge of the wil- 

Pioneer .iustice in Allen county at this time appears to have 
been dealt out with no show of favoritism. At the 1825 session of 
the circuit court, in November, Judges Hanna and Cushman found 



General Tiptou guilty of assault, and he was fined $3 "for the 
use of the county seminary." The prosecuting attorney, Calvin 
Fletcher, was found guilty of contempt of court, and there were 
many cases of illegal liquor selling, assault and battery, larceny, 
affrays, defamation of character, gambling and the like. 

At the second term of the court, which convened June 6, 1825, 
at the home of William G. Ewing, Bethuel F. Morris, of Indianapolis, 
president judge, elected to succeed Judge Wick, presided, with 
Samuel Hanna as his associate. Henry Cooper, of Fort Wayne ; 
James Rariden, of Richmond ; Calvin Fletcher, of Indianapolis, 
and Arthur St. Clair Vance, of Dearborn county, were admitted 
to the bar, Mr. Cooper being the second man in the county to be 
so honored. Mr. Fletcher was appointed to serve as prosecuting 
attorney, and Robert Hood as constable. The grand .jury, consist- 
ing of William N. Hood (foreman), Thomas Robinson, Alexis Co- 
quillard, Joseph Troutman, Alexander Millar, Francis Comparet, 
Thomas Forsythe, James Wyman, Israel Taylor, Charles Weeks, 
Paul Taber, Hugh B. McKeen, James Hackley and Alexander Ewing, 
returned true bills against seven prominent citizens, chiefly for 
selling liquors illegally. Evidently, the pioneers found it of greater 
financial benefit to sell liquors and pay three-dollar fines than to 
refrain therefrom. At this session John P. Hedges won a trespass 
suit over William Suttenfield, and the jury awarded him 25 cents 
damages. Elisha B. Harris, commonly known as "Yankee Harris," 
who had been adjudged guilty of larceny at the first term of the 
1825 session and who was later indicted for horse stealing, was 
found guilty of trespass in a suit brought by Thomas Robinson. 
William Caswell, George Ayres and John Forsythe, recently from 
Canada, were granted naturalization papers. The associate judges 
under the provisions of a new law, became ex officio judges of the 
probate court. 

The first indictment for murder was that of Saganaugh, "an 
Indian late of the county of Allen aforesaid, of sound memory and 
discretion, not having the fear of God before his eyes, but being 
moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil," did stab and 
kill another Indian named Natawine. The crime caused much 
excitement at the time, but the case was continued several terms 
and finally dropped from the docket. 

In 1824, General Tipton entered into a contract with David 
Irwin, of Darke county, Ohio; Robert Douglas and William N. 
Hood, to erect a log jail building on the southwest corner of the 
"publick square." The walls were to be "three feet thick, composed 
of tiers of oak timber, each piece to be one foot square; the logs 
of the inner wall to be sixteen feet long, and the timber of the 
middle wall to be set on end, the inner and outer walls to be laid 
and notched in manner commonly called dough-tailed, until the 
logs touch each other." The building was to be two stories in 
height, the rooms to be eight feet from floor to ceiling. The win- 
dows were to be provided with gratings made of half-inch iron. 
The building was erected in 1825. The lower floor was used for 
the confinement of criminals, while the upper floor was used as a 
debtors' prison. 


That this building was not entirely suited to its purpose is 
suggested in the report of the grand jury of 1826, of which John 
P. Hedges was the foreman. It read : 

"We, the grand jury, empanneled for the county of Allen and 
state of Indiana, after examining the county jail, are of the opinion 
the criminal's room of said jail is not a place of safety for persons 
committed thereto, that the debtors room or upper department of 
said jail is not in suitable condition for the reception of debtors, 
from the want of locks, floors and bedding." 

The late John W. Dawson says of this old log jail and the 
sheriff's residence : 

"The jailor's house was a low frame, attached to the north 
side of the jail and fronting on Calhoun street. The jail was of 
square, hewn logs, strongly fitted together, two stories high, stairs 
on the outside, west side, and a high, strong upright board fence 
enclosing it, running along Berry and Calhoun streets." 

In May, 1844, the town council ordered William Stewart, high 
constable, to "fit up the upper part of the jail house for the purpose 
of a watch house," and to call to his aid at any time "any four 
citizens to act as police." Mr. Stewart reported shortly afterward 
that he had carried out the instructions. 

This log jail stood until 1847, when it was destroyed by fire. 
(See Chapter XXXII.) "It is well enough that it was burned," 
observed the Times of February 8, 1847, "as it may have the effect 
of replacing it with a respectable building." 

"I remember being told of a man by the name of Alexander. 
who was often imprisoned for debt," observed the late Mrs. Lucien 
P. Ferry. "As soon as he was incarcerated he would mysteriously 
appear on the street. It was found that he could lift out one of 
the logs, step out and replace it." "Silas Doty [a well-known law- 
breaker of the time] was then in the prime of life and was frequently 
the occupant of this antiquated prison," wrote the late William B. 
Walter. "He was a shoemaker by trade and we could often see 
him and hear him hammering away at his bench. Whatever may 
be said of him as a horse thief or other bad things, he was not 
ashamed to work, and he made more than one pair of boots while 
spending his time in jail." A. 6. Barnett observes: "I well remem- 
ber seeing Doty brought to this old log jail. He always could 
remove his handcuffs with ease. After his final escape he went 
to Oregon, where he wrote and published the story of his life." 

It is related of Doty that he once was captured at Peru, Indiana, 
and placed on a canal boat to be brought back to Fort Wayne. 
He escaped from the boat, ran on ahead to Fort Wayne, reaching 
here after dark. He sought out his attorney, D. H. Colerick, held 
a hasty conference with him and escaped from the to^^^l before the 
boat arrived and his absence was discovered. 

In 1840, the late Franklin P. Randall, chairman of a special 
legi-slative committee, prepared a bill to abolish the imprisonment 
of debtors. In his argument, as revealed in the original document, 
found in 1916, by his daughter, Mrs. Clark Fairbank, Mr. Randall 

"Personal liberty is the dearest birthright of an American 



citizen. But so long as the body of the debtor is subject to arrest, 
there is no security but that the most worthy and meritorious cit- 
izen, after being reduced to penury and want, by the force of cir- 
cumstances beyond his control, may be doomed to end his days in 
a loathsome jail. The man who applies the midnight torch to his 
neighbor's dwelling is not condemned unheard. The highway rob- 
ber has a right to demand a trial by a jury of his county. And 
even the murderer himself claims the high privilege of calling upon 
twelve of his peers to pronounce upon liis innocence or guilt. Not 
so the unfortunate debtor. The law has no tender mercies in store 
for him. He is at once delivered up to the merciless and gripping 
hand of avarice and, without an oath, without a trial of any kind. 
may be both arrested and imprisoned." 


In accordance with the provisions of the Barr and ileCorkle 
grant to the county, a brick sehoolhouse, the first in Fort Wayne. 


Miss Margaret M. Colerick, Ubrarian 
of the Fort 'Wayne public library, has, 
in daily use in her home on West Wayne 
street, tlie first rocking chair brought to 
Fort Wayne. Its story is an interesting 
one. In the summer of 1S26 a party of 
immigrants from England, bound for the 
west, encamped at Fort 'U'ayne for a 
niglit. Among tlieir effects was a liick- 
ory rocking chair, brought from Europe, 
wliich was fastened with other substan- 
tial belongings to the outside of one of 
their coyered wagons. Among tlie resi- 
dents of the abandoned fort were Mr. 
and Mrs. Thomas Forsythe, who had 
been married in the fort in 1S25, and 
their infant daughter. At the time of 
the arrival of the travelers "Old Kittie." 
a nurse, who had the care of the child, 
saw the rocking chair and expressed the 
wish that she might have the use of it 
in caring for the child. Mr. Forsythe 
bought the chair. The baby, grown to 
womanhood, became the wife of Edward 
F. Colerick. The treasured piece of fur- 
niture passed to the possession of the 

■^^'illiam Rockhill came to Fort Wayne 
from Burlington. New Jersey, wliere he 
was born February 10. 1793, and entered 
the large tract of ground In the western 
portion of the present city recorded as 
tlie Rockhill additions. He was a mem- 
ber of the first board of commissioners 
of Allen county; he served two terms as 
a state representative; he was one of the 
pioneers in the establishment of the 
present public school system, previous 
to the organization of which he donated 
the site of the Methodist college; he 
served as a member of the first city 
council, as city assessor and, later, in 
1844, as a member of the state senate. 
The people of the Fort Wayne district 
elected him, in 1S46, to represent them 
in the national house of representatives. 
In 1838 he began the erection of the 
Rockhill house, which is now a part of 
St. Joseph's hospital. The death of Mr. 
Rockhill occurred January 15. 1S65. The 
portrait, from a crayon drawing, was 
loaned by Howell C. Rockhill, son of 
William Rockhill. 


called the "County Seminary," was built on the west side of Cal- 
houn street, north of Water (Superior) street, on the site of the 
present county jail. 

"In this old schoolhous(j many » * * hgfj their early train- 
ing for usefulness, and many there experienced that joy only once 
to be enjoyed in a lifetime. * * * This old schoolhouse was 
built of brick, in 1825, and was then quite large enough for all 
needed purposes. It was only one story in height and served for 
many years, not only as a schoolhouse, but as the place for religious 
worship, town meetings, IMasonic installations and political speech- 
es," says the Fort Wayne Times, in 1858. John P. Hedges was the 
first teacher of this school. At about the same time, possibly earlier, 
Henry Cooper opened a school in the debtors' room of the jail, on 
the courthouse square. Mr. Hedges was succeeded by Joseph 0. 
Boggs, Jesse A. Aughinbaugh, Smalwood Noel, James Requa, Myron 
F. Barbour and John C. Sivey. 

John W. Dawson says that in 1838 the county seminary "was 
an old brick schoolhouse" M-ith "a cemetery surrounding it. with 
rude palings and other plain marks of affection around the graves 
of the buried pioneers." 

At the January (1825) session of the board of justices Joseph 
Holman, county treasurer, gave the first complete report of the con- 
dition of the finances of Allen county, as follows : Total receipts, 
.$437.983/i; disbursements, $406.40; balance on hand. $31.58%. At 
the July session of the board Sheriff Allen Hamilton was allowed $20 
for six months' service; Anthony L. Davis, clerk of the circuit court 
and clerk of the board of justices, one year, $45 ; each of the grand 
and petit jurors received 50 cents per day for their services. The 
American Fur Company was required to pay a license of $25 per year 
to "vend foreign merchandise." 

By appointment of John McLean. postma.ster general, Allen 
Hamilton succeeded Samuel Hanna as the postmaster of the village 
to serve during the administration of John Quincy Adams. 


With the daAvn of the year 1826. the Wabash and Erie canal 
loomed prominently above the horizon of public interest. 

In 1818. Captain James Riley, who had surveyed a route from 
the Maumee to the Wabash, had aroused much interest, especially 
in Ohio, where the legislature, four years before, had taken action 
upon several important canal projects. 

Four years later, the states of Indiana and Illinois entered 
conjointly upon a plan to connect the ]\Iaumee and the Wabash. 
Governor Hendricks, in his message of December, 1822. had. refer- 
ring to the improvement of the Wabash for navigation purposes, 
urged that the state husband its resources "for the great work to 
be done." 

Interest in the proposed waterway rose to fever heat during 
the year 1824. It is related that Judge Samuel Hanna, in 1823 
while in conversation with David Burr, of Jackson county. Indiana, 
in the summer house attached to the home of Judge Hanna, at the 
northwest corner of Barr and East Berry streets, had given expres- 


sion to the belief that the project could be made a reality if the 
people of the village of Fort Wayne and of other new settlements 
of Ohio and Indiana could be brought to work in harmony on the 
project. The plan appealed to Mr. Burr and the two enthusiasts 
opened correspondence with the Indiana representatives and sen- 
ators in congress. Both of these men devoted years of attention to 
the development of the canal plans and the completion of the great 
work. In January of 1823, Representative Jennings, of Indiana, 
had reported a bill in congress favorable to a canal, and now, on 
the 26th of May, 1824, congress, after a spirited debate, gladdened 
the enthusiastic promoters of the great engineering task by passing 
an act authorizing the state of Indiana to survey and mark through 
the public lands the route of a canal to connect the Maumee and 
the Wabash. Ninety feet of the ground on each side of the canal 
was reserved from sale on the part of the United States. 

In this same year, Micajah T. Williams, an elder brother of 
Jesse L. Williams, surveyed the route of the Miami and Erie canal, 
to connect Lake Erie and the Ohio river, by way of Defiance. Con- 
gress already had granted to the state of Indiana 3 per cent on 
sales of all public lands "to be reserved for making public roads 
and canals." Through the efforts of Judge Hanna and David Burr, 
congress next assigned a corps of engineers to Fort Wayne to make 
a preliminary survey. This corps, under Colonel Janies Shriver, 
extended the line from the mouth of the Tippecanoe, in Indiana, 
to the head of the Maumee rapids in Oliio. However, Colonel 
Shriver and his successor. Colonel Asa Moore, fell victims to malaria 
while engaged in the work, but the task was carried on to its 
completion two years later by Colonel Howard Stansbury. 

The matter of great internal improvements now became the 
subject of debate throughout Indiana and Ohio, and in the succeed- 
ing elections for years the Indiana canal program was a hot political 
issue. In recognition of his ardent support of the canal and other 
internal improvements. Judge Hanna, with John Wright, of Win- 
chester, as his opponent, was elected by the people of the Fort 
Wayne district to represent them in the state legislature, and here 
he fought valiantly for the big enterprise. Again, in 1831 and 1836, 
Judge Hanna was a member of the lower house. He was elected 
to the state senate for two terms, in 1837 and 1840. 

Late in the year 1826 a board of canal commissioners was 
appointed, composed of David Burr, Samuel Hanna and Robert 
John, the latter of Franklin county. After some delay, the com- 
missioners held a preliminary meeting at Indianapolis, and then, 
in 1828, a conference was held at Fort Wayne where matters ap- 
peared to be at a standstill, because of the fact that no provision 
had been made for the services of a surve.yor or the procuring of 
the necessary instruments. Only $500, had been appropriated for 
the preliminary work. Taking matters into his own hands, Judge 
Hanna rode on horseback to Detroit and then took boat for New 
York, where he purchased the needed surveying equipment and 
returned to Fort Wayne in an incredibly short period of time. 

March 7, 1827, was a "red letter" day for the canal. For 
weeks the debate in congress had waxed warm. The opponents of 


the proposition in the senate fought the plan to grant to the state 
of Indiana the right to sell all of the lands bordering the proposed 
right-of-way, but they finally agreed to give the state alternate 
sections of land for five miles on each side of the canal as at first 
projected, thus providing a total of about three thousand two hun- 
dred acres. After the action of the senate, the measure did not 
come up in the house, until one day before the close of the session, 
March 2, and it passed at midnight of that day. It was a fortunate 
day for the project, for the next congress, composed of Jackson 
adherents, was strongly opposed to the internal improvement pro- 
gram. Up to this time it was supposed that the eastern end of the 
canal would be confined within Allen county, a.s the navigable point 
of the Maumee was believed to be inside its limits. From the time 
of the discovery of the error, Ohio l)ecame an important factor in 
the procedure. 

Civil engineers were scarce, but the Indiana commissioners 
managed to secure the services of a skilled man, John Smythe, who 
immediately entered upon the survey of the route from Fort Wayne, 
with the special duty of ascertaining tlie measure of the water 
supply for the summit level of the canal on which portion Fort 
Wayne was located. The survey, from the town to tlie St. Joseph 
river, six miles above Fort Wayne, at a point below the present 
Robison park, where the "feeder" dam was later built, first was 
undertaken. On the second day of his efforts, Mr. Smythe was 
fatally stricken with fever, and David Burr, as rod-man, and 
Samuel Hanna, as ax-man, finished the survey of the feeder canal 
southward to a point near the present Wayne Knitting Mills. With 
the detailed report of the survey, Judge Hanna returned to his 
seat in the state senate and "captured" the legislature with the an- 
nouncement that the St. Joseph river was capable of supplying an 
adequate amount of water for the summit level of the canal. 

At about this time, some influence was brought to bear upon 
the proposition to abandon the canal plans and turn attention to 
the construction of a railroad. Governor James B. Ray. a short 
time afterward, declared that a railroad would cost less than one- 
half as much as a canal. On the other hand, the commissioners 
showed that canals require "labor and such material as this state 
affords; the latter [the railroads] iron, which constitutes a large 
item of expense, and uuist come from abroad." Viewed through 
the perspective of the years, it is evident that although the canal 
failed in some of its great purposes, the attempt to build a railroad 
at that time would have been a still more unsatisfactory under- 
taking. In the meantime, the officials of the middle western states 
were busy with negotiations with the Miamis to secure additional 
tracts of the remaining Indian reservations. By the terms of a 
treaty between the Indians and Governor Lewis Cass, Governor J. 
B. Ray and General Tipton, the United States secured a large amount 
of new territory to the north of Fort Wayne, in exchange for goods 
to the value of $30,547.71, and an annuity for twenty-two years 
of $2,000 in silver; the government also agreed to provide a black- 
smith, a miller to operate a gristmill to be established on the Tippe- 
canoe river, and 160 barrels of salt annually, besides $2,000 for 


educational purposes. All of the goods and the money were dis- 
tributed from the Indian agency quarters in the old fort. Later, 
other large tracts to the southward were secured. At the time of 
the payment of the anniiities, only a few of the Indians were 
allowed to enter the fort. Each of the visitors represented a number 
of members of the tribe. This number, in each instance, was indi- 
cated by the delegate in laying upon the ground a short stick for 
each of the company for whom he was securing the annuity. 

Many men of many types were added to the personnel of the 
citizenship of Fort Wayne during this periotl. John Brown, of 
Dayton, Ohio, and Orran Rogers, of the same state, came in 1825. 
Hugh Hanna, brother of Samuel Hanna, followed in the next year. 
Dr. Lewis G. Thompson, physician and legislator, came in 1827, 
and other valued citizens sought homes in the settlement which 
seemed to offer much to attract men of brain and brawn. A picture 
of life on the frontier, as it applies to the earlier members of the 
legal profession and the circuit court judges, comes from the pen 
of Oliver H. Smith, of Connersville, Indiana, who relates an episode 
of the early fall of 1825. Mr. Smith, who was a frequent practi- 
tioner before the Allen circuit court, joined Judge Miles C. Eggles- 
ton, of Madison, and James Rariden, of Centerville, in their ride 
to Fort Wayne. The three proceeded on their horses northward 
as far as the crossing of the Wabash, where they dismounted for 
relief from the severe heat. The river was almost drj. but the 
banks provided pasturage for the horses. Suddenly, Rariden's 
horse, irritated by a swarm of flies, ran away, followed by the other 
steeds, and all three soon disappeared from sight. The lawyers hid 
their blankets and saddles in the trees above the reach of wolves, 
and carried their saddlebags a distance of ten miles to Thompson's 
tavern, on Townsend's prairie. "The heat was intense," writes 
Mr. Smith in his "Early Indiana Trials and Sketches." "None 
of us had been much used to walking. I am satisfied we must all 
have broken down, but most fortunately there had fallen the night 
before a light rain, and the water lay in the shade in the horse 
tracks. We were soon on our knees, with our mouths to the water. 
Tell me not of your Croton, ye New^ Yorkers, nor of your Fair- 
mount, ye Philadelphians — here was water that was water!'' Finally 
they reached Thompson's place, a low, one-story cabin about twenty 
feet sqi;are. For supper corn dodgers, boiled squirrels and sassa- 
fras tea were served. Arriving at Fort Wayne on horses provided 
by the landlord, the court and attorneys found but little business 
on the docket, so "we all went up the St. Mary's river, to Chief 
Richardville's, to see an Indian horse race. The nags were brought 
to the ground, a gray pony about twelve hands high, and a roan 
rather larger, to conte^st the superiority of stock between the bands 
of the Miamis and the Pottawattomies. Six Indians were selected 
as judges, two placed at the starting point, two at the quarter stake 
and two at the coming out places. 'Riders up — clear the track,' 
and away they went under whip and spur. The race over, the 
judges met, the spokesman, a large Miami, says, 'Race even — the 
Miami grey takes first quarter, Pottawattomie roan last quarter' — 
and all are satisfied." 




At the February (1826) session of the circuit court, held at 
Ewing's Washington Hall, Hiram Jones and Moses Cox were admit- 
ted to the practice of law. Cyrus Taber was allowed the sum of 
$25,121/0 for "guarding jail and dieting prisoners." Judge Eggles- 
ton, with Benjamin Cushman, presided at the fall term, held in 

At the session of the court of August. 1827. Judge Cushman 
was indicted for carrying concealed weapons. He had already been 
convicted on another charge, and it is curious to note that he was 
generally regarded as a good citizen and had the confidence of 
the voters of the countv witliout regard to the indictments which 

In IS37, as a young man. Judge Car- 
son came to Fort Wayne from Canada, 
where the family had settled, and en- 
tered the employ of Marshall S. Wine.s. 
then a large contractor. In 1846 he 
entered upon his career as a lawyer, but 
took the time for a course In the state 
university, from which he was gradu- 
ated in 1S49. In this year he was elected 
prosecuting attorney for Adams county. 
Subsefiuently he became city attorney of 
Fort Wayne, county attorney, state sena- 
tor, judge of the court of common plea.s. 
and judge of the thirty-eighth judicial 
district. Judge Carson was the author 
of several important laws, chiefly that 
regarding city charters, which regulate 
many of the municipalities of Indiana. 
He traveled extensively, his tours Includ- 
ing three visits to Europe. 


Mrs. Griggs was the granddaughter of 
Chief Little Turtle and the daughter of 
Captain William Wells. Probably in 
1828 she married John H. Griggs at Fort 
Wayne. Mr. Griggs had come from the 
vicinity of Piqua, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. 
Griggs removed to Peru, Indiana, soon 
after the marriage. One of their chil- 
dren was Charles F. Griggs, whose son, 
Warren Griggs, still is a resident of 
Peru. Indiana (1917). Other children 
born to Mr. and Mrs. John H. Griggs 
are listed in a note on page 264 of this 
work, where also, other information of 
the Wells family is detailed. 

were found against him. Judges Cushman and Hood, sitting as 
a probate court, at the tavern of William Suttenfield, appointed 
Joseph Holman as the guardian of Andrew H. Stinson, a minor. 
Allen Hamilton was named as the guardian of Jane T. Wells, .suc- 
ceeding Benjamin B. Kercheval, who had removed to Detroit. 

At this time, William N. Hood, who had received his appoint- 
ment from Governor Ray to succeed Samuel Hanna, served with 
Judge Cushman. Judge Eggleston presided. Abner Gerard served 
as .sheriff, and Oliver H. Smith, of Connersville, as prosecuting attor- 
ney. William Quarles, afterward a prominent Indianapolis attor- 
ney, was admitted to practice. 


Joseph Doane, convicted of a felony by the Allen circuit court, 
over which Judges Benjamin Cushman and William N. Hood pre- 
sided, in 1828, was the first man to receive a penitentiary sentence 
from Allen county; he was given a term of three years. The 
prosecuting attorney who secured Doane 's conviction was David 
Wallace, later governor of Indiana. On the occasion of the second 
session of the 1828 court, Charles H. Test, later president judge, acted 
as prosecuting attorney. Andrew Ingham was admitted to the practice 
of the law. The first will recorded in the probate court was that 
of Abraham Burnett. In 1828, Anthony L. Davis was elected to 
represent the Fort Wayne district in the state legislature. 

In 1827, Major Samuel Lewis, appointed by President John 
Quincy Adams to act as sub-agent in the Indian service at Fort 
Wayne, took up his residence here. Major Lewis built a handsome 
double-hewn log house on the present Montgomery street, which 
became one of the sights of the village because it was covered, in 
the summer, with roses. Major Lewis was a relative of Jleriwether 
Lewis, of Lewis and Clark expedition fame. 

To the home of Major and Mrs. Lewis came General Lew 
(Lewis) Wallace, from his home at Brookville ; Mrs. Lewis was 
an aunt of the general. The father of General Wallace — Governor 
David Wallace — lived in Fort Wayne from 1848 to 1850, following 
his service in the state house, but his brief residence here was ren- 
dered unpleasant by unfortunate investments. To General Wallace, 
in addition to high honors won in the Mexican and civil wars, came 
world-wide fame as a novelist, his "Ben-Hur" having experienced 
the largest sale of any work by an American author, with one excep- 
tiou — Harriett Beeeher Stowe's "Uncle Tom's Cabin." 

With the progressiveness which characterized their movements 
in many directions, Samuel llanua and James Barnett erected in 
1827 the first gristmill near Fort Wayne. The importance of this 
pioneer enterprise is realized only when one reflects that up to this 
time the nearest mills were located in Ohio, and that all meal, flour 
and "cracked corn" of the preceding years was brought through 
a wilderness a great distance, which rendered the commonest of 
foodstufi's highly expensive. The Barnett and Hanna mill was 
located on the west bank of the St. Mary's river, directly south of 
the present Broadway bridge, where a dam was constructed. This 
mill was later sold to Louis H. Davis, who was succeeded by Asa 
Fairfield and S. C. Freeman. Subsequently A. C. Beaver became 
the proprietor. George Esmond was the owner of the mill for 
several years, previous to its destruction by fire in February, 1878. 
Mr. Esmond then erected a large brick mill on the site; this, in 
later years, was sold to Tevis and Proctor, and, like its predecessor, 
was destroyed by fire in 1888. 

Other enterprises of the period were the tannery established 
in 1828 by Absalom Holcomb and Isaac Marquis, at the west end 
of Columbia street, where the Randall hotel now stands ; the cooper 
shop of Madore Truckey; the blacksmith shop of Holloway Cush- 
man, on the south side of Berry street, east of Calhoun street; the 
general trading establishment of Zenas Henderson, at the northeast 
corner of Calhoun and Columbia streets, and the store of James 



Aveline for trade with the Indians. John Cook and his brother 
Philip, blacksmiths, located in the village. 

At this time, when the re^'ion throbbed with new life, and trans- 
portation facilities over the rivers by means of the more numerous 
pirogues and other types of boats reached a more improved state, 
the Ewing brothers — George W. and William G. — opened their 
extensive fur trading operations. This business extended its oper- 
ations throughout a vast area of the middle west. William G. 
Ewing maintained his home in Fort Wayne, where he erected the 
mansion at the corner of West Berry and Ewing streets, which 
stands today a credit to the handsome residence section in which 
it is located. The Ewing house was purchased in ini5 by Dr. Albert 
E. Bulson, Jr. George W. Ewing established himself at Logansport, 
later at Peru, and finally in St. Louis. After the death of William 
G. Ewing he spent much of his time in Fort Wayne. The original 
Ewing office stood at the corner of Calhoun and Columbia streets. 
The later headquarters of the firm, remodeled for residence purposes, 
stands on the south side of West Main street, between Webster and 
Ewing streets. 

In the spring of 1828, General Tipton secured the removal of 
the land office from Fort Wayne to the mouth of the Tippecanoe 
river, the site of the present Logansport. Here a large portion 
of the annuities of the Indians were distributed. At the treaty 
grounds here were gathered each year the' traders of the entire 
region. The occasion was made especially attractive to them since 
the law of 1819 gave to the Miamis an annuity of $15,000, while 
the Weas, Pottawattomies and the Delawares received a total of 
$9,500 — certainly a "stake" worth plaj-ing for. 

Not less than fifty traders were attracted to the place on the 
occasion of the treaty of October, 1832. Goods to the supposed 
value of $365,729.15 were distributed in three days' time. Charges 
of extortion brought an investigation of the government, and J. W. 
Edmunds, sent to investigate the claims, found that the Indians 
had been cheated out of the greater part of their annuities. 

Blankets were sold for eight and ten dollars each ; red flannel 
brought 57 cents per yard; bleached shirting, 971/4 cents; tin cups, 
I2V2 cents; red cotton handkerchiefs, 40 cents; calico, 25 cents; silk 
vests, $4; coffee boilers, 75 cents; thread, $2 per pound; hats, $5; 
knives, 40 cents; powder, 40 cents a pound, and other articles and 
commodities at prices entirely out of keeping with the prevailing 

CHAPTER XXIV— 1829-1831. 

The Village Incorporated — "Underground Railroad" — 
The First Courthouse. 

The village decides to incorporate — The original town trustees — Swamps and 
underbrush — Laws governing the river ferries — Fort Wayne, a station on 
the "underground railroad" — The slaves pass through the village — Earli- 
est permanent Catholic and Protestant churches — The Big Leg murder— 
Keel boats on the Maumee — Trade over the St. Mary's— The government 
authorizes the state to sell the military tract at Fort Wayne — The doom 
of the old fort — Taber's addition platted — The first court house — Cheap 
rent at the "transfer" corner — The steamboat from Defiance — A cruel 

FOR SOME TIME, previous to 1829. the more enterprising cit- 
izens of the village of Fort Wayne had given serious thought 
to the question of incorporating the town. The matter had 
occupied a good deal of attention during the summer, and the 
opposition to the plan seems to have faded away by the autumn time, 
for, on the 7th of September, in response to the call of leading cit- 
izens, a meeting was held to take final action. The debate was 
brief and enthusiastic. Judge William N. Hood presided over the 
session, and John P. Hedges, as secretary, recorded the decision of 
the vote to the effect that "there was a majority of two-thirds of 
the persons present in favor of incorporating the town of Fort 
Wayne in the county of Allen, state of Indiana." 

" The next step was the election of officers held just one week 
following the mass meeting, and the brief but lively campaign for 
the honor of holding the first official positions of the newly-created 
town, resulted in the choice of Hugh Hanna, John S. Archer, William 
G. Ewing, Dr. Lewis G. Thompson and John P. Hedges, to serve as a 
board of trustees for one year. Benjamin Archer served as presi- 
dent and John P. Hedges as secretary of this first election. 

Fort Wayne continued under its primitive form of government 
for a period of about eleven years. During this time, the following 
citizens, in addition to the original members, served on the board of 
trustees: Samuel Hanna, Zephaniah B. Tenney, Francis Comparet, 
James Hudson, William N. Hood, Moses Scott, Isaac Marquis, 
Matthew Griggs, Abner Gerard, William Rockhill, John E. Hill, 
Joseph Holman, Robert Brackenridge, John Spencer, Joseph Mor- 
gan, David Rankin, Henry Work, Nathan Farrand, William Luckey 
(removed), Lazarus B. Wilson. William Suttenfield, Hugh 'Mc- 
Culloch, Joseph Berkey, Samuel Edsall, John B. DuBois, James 
Post, Robert Hood (removed), Joseph Ensworth, C. H. Hubbard, 
Joseph Siuclear, William L. Moon, John Reese, Benjamin Smith, 
George W. Wood, L. B. Bellamy, Daniel Reed and I. D. G. Nelson. 


The first town officers named by the trustees of the "Fort Wayne 
Corporation," as it was known officially, were: Assessor, David 



Pickering, salary, $5 per year ; treasurer, Joseph Holman ; collector 
of taxes, Abner Gerard; marshal, James Barnett, salary, $2 per 
year; supervisor of streets, Matthew Griggs, salary, $6 per year. 
Succeeding assessors to 1840 were John P. Hedges, Anthony L. 
Davis, Joseph Morgan, Joseph H. McMaken, Henry Work, G. P. 
Wright, Joseph Ensworth and S. M. Black. Those who served at 
later times in the office of treasurer were Henry Rudisill, James 
Daniels, James Hudson, Henry Cooper, Joseph Morgan, Henry 
Colerick and George F. Wright. Collectors of taxes succeeding 
Abner Gerard were Thomas Rice, Thomas VanAnda, Samuel Cas- 
sady, Wilson B. Barlow, Samuel Stophlet, Joseph C. Silvers, Humph- 
rey Roberts, Lysander Williams and S. S. Morss. The following 
marshals succeeded James Barnett: David Pickering, Lewis Arm- 
strong, Thomas VanAnda, Samuel Cassady (removed), Wilson B. 
Barlow, Thomas Pritchard, Samuel C. Stophlet, Joseph C. Silvers, 
Humphrey Roberts, Lysander Williams and S. S. Morss. 


One of the most trying problems which confronted the trustees 
during the period of the years preceding 1840 was the elimination 
of swamps and underbrush which covered a large poi-tion of the 
present downtown section of Fort Wayne. Even as late as August, 
1834, a "vigilance" committee composed of John B. Bnurie, James 
Wilcox, John P. Hedges, Allen Hamilton, John B. Bruno, F. D. 
Lasselle, Samuel Hanna, Joseph II. McMaken, Thomas Pritchard, 
Samuel Hunter, William Luckey, John B. DuBois, Horatio N. Clark, 
Moses Young and James Post, appointed to examine into the general 
conditions, reported that it was thought advisable to proceed "with- 
out delay to fill up the low places and drain the same, and also to 
grade the streets for the general benefit of the health of the town." 
Immediate action was taken to drain a swamp on Calhoun street 
and "cut down or grub all the brusli in the streets soutli of Berry 
street." Henry Work and F. D. Lasselle were allowed "twenty-five 
cents per rood, lineal measure, for cutting off the brusli on Wayne, 
Barr and other streets." 

In March, 1837, John B. DuBois was authorized to circulate a 
petition to secure funds to drain the streets "according to a profile 
drawn and prepared by David Quinn, engineer." A. F. Frink, John 
Ritchie and others were engaged to prepare plans for a general 
system of drainage. 

Among the earlier undertakings were the removal of "swamps 
or mud-holes" at the north end of Clinton street, on Calhoim street 
just south of Columbia, and on Barr street. The latter was drained 
by the construction of a ditch "along the south side of Berry street 
to the west side of Clinton and to the dam." In December, 1836, 
the town trustees met "in a committee of the whole to take up con- 
sideration of the means to drain the cellars and remove the nuisance 
of dead matter in this corporation." 


That the earliest records failed of completeness is shown by 
the report of a special auditing committee, appointed in 1832, com- 
posed of John Spencer and Josej)li Holman, who said: 


"The records of the years 1829 aud 1830 were well made up, 
with the exception that there was no expose made of the receipts 
and expenditures during those years." 

The report adds that while the books show that fines and fees 
were collected for various reasons, no record of the amounts of 
money received was made. 

The members of the town board received fifty cents for each 
session attended, and were fined a like amount for being absent, 
except in the ease of the president of the board who was required 
to pay seventy-five cents. James Post, for the use of his house as a 
meeting place for the board during the greater part of the eleven 
years of the existence of the town as a corporation, was paid "two 
dollars for candles and room rent" per year. 


With the increase of the population of the adjacent lands the 
need of a ferry across the St. Mary's river caused the board of 
justices to encourage the establishment of such a convenience by 
placing a low license fee of one dollar annually for its maintenance, 
and establishing regulations to protect the proprietors. It also fixed 
the rates of service as follows : Footmen, 6 '4 cents ; man and horse, 
121/2 cents; horse or cow, 6^4 cents; hog or sheep, 3 cents; oxen, 
25 cents ; wagon and two or more horses, 50 cents. Zenas Henderson 
and Company, the first to apply for a license under the new regula- 
tion, in 1831, were permitted "to keep a ferry across the St. Mary's 
river, at the crossing at the old ford, where the county road crosses 
leading to Pigeon prairie, in Michigan territoiy [near the site of the 
Wells street bridge]." Mr. Henderson was required to give bond 
in the siim of $500. The law required that the operators of a ferry 
be the owners and proprietors of the land on both sides of the river 
or creek on which such ferry was established. No other ferry could 
be situated witliin one mile either above or below unless deemed 
necessary for the public convenience. The ferryman was required 
to "give passage to all public messengers and expresses, when re- 
quired, without fee or reward for the same, from time to time. The 
ferryman was subject to a fine of $40 for demanding or taking a 
greater sum for ferryage than that fixed by law, but he could charge 
a double fee if required to be broken of his rest in the night to give 
a lift to a late traveler. All men employed with ferries were ex- 
empted from militia duty and from serving on juries. 


On the 10th of October, 1829, a strange and motley company of 
negroes and whites passed through the streets of the town of Fort 
Wayne — a procession made up of the "passengers" and "conduct- 
ors" of an "underground railroad." Probably it was tlie first of 
its kind in this portion of the middle west. Later, many willing anti- 
slavery advocates in the north gave systematic aid and protection 
to many escaping slaves of the south, who were safely landed across 
the Canadian border. The story of this "underground railroad" 
is preserved in a unique manuscript record, now yellow and crum- 
bling with age, written by Frederick Hoover ; it is owned by his 
great-granddaughter, Mrs. Charles A. Dunkelberg. It bears tlie 


date 1829. Mr. Hoover was a member of the prominent Quaker 
family whose head was Andrew Hoover, a member of the Society 
of Friends included in the exodus from Pennsylvania to North 
Carolina. In 1806, Andrew Hoover and others came to Indiana 
and established the settlement which became Richmond, in Wayne 
county. Samuel Hoover's story is given in the biblical language 
employed by many of the Quakers even to the present day. 

"Now it came to pass that in the first year of the reign of John 
[John Quincy Adams], who was governor of tlie united provinces 
and territories of North America, that the Ethiopians in the province 
of Kentucky were sore vexed by reason of their taskmasters," reads 
the manuscript which tells of the flight, "and they lifted up their 
eyes toward the land of Indiana, which lieth toward the north 
country, over the great River Ohio, as thou goest toward the city 
of Brookville [in Franklin county, founded in 1807]. Now Indiana 
is a land flowing with milk and honey, and they said, therefore, let 
us flee thither, peradventure the people of the land will deal kindly 
with us and deliver us out of the hands of the oppressor. So the 
people gat them away hy stealth and fled into the land of Indiana 
and gat them possessions in the land. Howbeit they were sought 

7>t.a.n_ cr^-n.tnji jf /O/Cu^^C^ Tru^^^^-a^ AjZ^a-tji^t^^ 
yXi<n*eJi ^^Ji^ VTTTjeCe/t^ IrunJxnrt^ , /iJity i.<i^ Z:^^ i^^^ 

^^ 7'S^< ayyu^ //C^ A*n^'^->-^^^-Z^'^ '^"'^'^-^■^^^/t^i-. 

The abo\'e is a fac simUe reproduction of the Hoover manuscript describing 
the escape of runaway negroes, on their way from Kentuclvy to Canada in 1829. 
The original is owned by Mrs. C. A. Dunltelberg, whose great-grandfather, Fred- 
erick Hoover, a member of the Society of Friends, led in the rescue. (See 1829). 


by the negro-hunters." The narrative relates that these negro 
hunters, "sons of belial," caught "Saby, wife of Isom, and fled, 
but certain men of the land pursued the men of belial and delivered 
Saby." In like manner these "certain men" rescued two other 
slaves, George and Jacob, but "the children of Ethiopia said there- 
fore one to another. Wot ye not that if we tarry in this land we 
shall be spoiled of our possessions ; let us, therefore, make ready and 
flee even unto the land of Canada." 

The story of the departure of the slaves, under the protection 
of their deliverers, relates that "the people murmured because of 
the bitterness of the waters of the brook Mississinnewa, " and gives 
a detailed account of the journey across the Wabash and to the St. 
Mary's. When they reached the neighborhood of the city of Fort 
Wayne the fear of the people lest the town should contain "men of 
belial" who would "evil entreat them," caused a halt while the 
Quakers conferred with "the chief men of the city," and made an 
agreement that if the procession be allowed to pass through the city 
the strangers "would not turn to the right hand nor to the left 
hand, and if they took anything from thence they would give them 
pieces of silver." 

After the procession had i)assed through the village the people 
encamped on the Maumee and there the people sang songs of praises 
to the Lord for his mercies in delivering them from their enemies. 

Before the slaves were safely placed in Canada, the party 
encountered many interesting adventures. "Sarah, the wife of 
James, chode with Nancy, the wife of Robert, concerning their stuff," 
but when the leaders cautioned tliem that their conduct would bring 
reproach upon the whole congregation, Robert, whose surname was 
Hopkins, "spake unto the leaders, saying. We have divided the 
stuff and have settled the matter. Howbeit, they lodged no more 
together even on the whole journey." The narrative records that 
when "Thomas went to help Saby and her daughter Nancy over 
the water and over the mire they all together fell into the water 
and into the mire ; howbeit they drew them out all together and 
when they had put on changes of raiment the people journied for- 
ward." Arriving at the outskirts of Detroit, after passing through 
Defiance, Ohio, and Monroe, Michigan, the leaders "spake unto 
them, saying. Tomorrow we must pass through City Detroit, over 
the great river into Canada. Ye must, therefore, shave off your 
beards and purify yourselves with water; ye must also put on 
goodly raiment so that haply ye may find favor in the eyes of the 
men of the city and they may let you pass peaceably through the 
city into the land of Canada to inherit it." The passage was made 
succes.sfully, and "the people rejoiced greatly because of their 
deliverance from their enemies and from the hands of those who 
sought to deliver them into bondage." After they had "imparted 
good counsel," the Friends bade farewell to the fugitives and re- 
turned to Richmond. 


We now turn our attention to the consideration of the first 
permanent Catholic and Protestant churches in Fort Wayne. It 
is of more than passing interest to note that while the Jesuit fathers 


were the first representatives of the religious orders to visit the site 
of Fort Wayne in the sixteenth century, their labors left no perma- 
nent results; it was not until the year 1830 that any Catholic leader 
visited Fort Wayne and stamped his name in the history of the 

Near the opening of the year Very Rev. Stephen Theodore 
Badin, the first priest to be ordained in the United States, made a 
visit to the Catholics who had settled here, and offered mass in 
the home of Francis Comparet. Father Badin was vicar general 
of the diocese of Bardstown (near Louisville), Kentucky, and of the 
diocese of Cincinnati, under the jurisdiction of which Fort Wayne 
was placed. Father Badin came to Fort Wayne in the following 
year to assist in the purchase of a site for a church which later 
became St. Augustine's. It is now the widely-known Cathedral of 
the Immaculate Conception, and its site, which contains several of 
the schools of the denomination, as well as the bishop's residence, 
is a property of immense value. 

On the occasion of this second visit Father Badin performed 
the ceremony of baptism over Peter Gibaud, infant son of Peter 
and Mary Gibaud ; the sponsors were John Baptist Becket (Be- 
quette) and Theresa Duret, his wife. 

Rev. Father Pecot, of Vinceunes, visited the parish in 1832. 

Among the noted Catholic visitors of 1835 was the Rt. Rev. 
Simon Gabriel Brute, first bishop of Vincennes. Fathers S. P. 
Lalumiere, Felix Matthew Rufi', .1. F. Tervooreii and M. Jeancoir 
also preceded the first regular pastor. Rev. Louis Mueller, who came 
in the following year. In this year was completed the purchase of 


Henry RudisUl. one of the foremost Fort Wayne men of his time, came 
to the city in 1830 to care for the interests of Barr and McCorlile, the original 
proprietors of the town. The above fragment of a letter preserved by Miss 
Eliza RudlslU was written to John T. Barr. of Baltimore, Maryland. 


a portion of the present Cathedral site. The preliminary arrange- 
ments for the transfer were made on July 18, 1831, when a large 
part of the property was purchased for $100, although the transfer 
appears not to have been completed until 1835, when the property 
was deeded by Samuel and Eliza Hanna to the church authorities. 
The preliminary purchase was made in the name of Francis Com- 
paret. but subsequently the property was deeded to a eoiiimittee com- 
posed of Mr. Comparet, Francis D. Lasselle, John B. Bruno, Charles 
Hillsworth and Michael Hedekin, by whom it was later transferred 
to the ecclesiastical authorities of the diocese. The canal laborers 
were liberal contributors to the purchase fund. The first building 
was not erected until two years later. 

In a case at law entitled "Saint Augustine Cluireh vs. Samuel 
S. Barr and the unknown heirs of John T. Barr, deceased," filed 
in 1831 by the church, the latter sought to have a deed executed for 
the property from John T. Barr, who had died before executing 
the deed. In this document the property is described as follows : 
"One acre of land on the south part of the town of Fort Wayne, 
adjoining the laud of Allen Hamilton on the north side of Hamilton's 
land and on the east side of the road leading from Fort Wayne 
to Piqua [later called the Piqua road, and now known as Calhoun 
street, Fort Wayne's chief business thoroughfare], being an acre 
of land where the Saint Augustine church now stands." 

The successors of Rev. Louis Mueller were Revs. Julian Benoit, 
J. H. Brammer, J. H. Guendling, P. F. Roche and John R. Quinlan. 
(See Chapter XXVI.) 

Coincidental with the establishment of the first Catholic ehurch, 
a Protestant organization of the Methodist Episcopal faith was 
founded. Although Rev. James Holman, a Methodist preacher, had 
located at Fort Waj^ne and diseoiirsed on the Bible teachings as 
early as 1824, it was not luitil 1830 that Methodism began to secure 
a foothold in the town. In this year, Rev. Alexander Wiley, a 
presiding elder of the Ohio conference, came to Fort Wayne to 
establish a mission which formed a part of his conference district. 
Rev. Nehemiah B. Griffith was placed in charge of this little branch 
organization which was known as the Maumee mission. In 1836 
an attejnpt was made to build a church. A lot on West Main street, 
between Webster and Ewing streets, was secured, and a large 
frame structure was erected, with an imposing steeple and gothic 
windows. The congregation was unable to secure the funds mth 
which to complete the building, so it was torn down and the prop- 
erty reverted to the Ewings. Several places of worship were used 
until the first permanent building was erected in 1840, at the corner 
of Harrison and Berry streets, site of the Anthony hotel. In 1835 
the Indiana Methodist conference organized the Fort Wayne circuit, 
with the Maumee mission as its principal charge. 

The pastors of this mission and its successors, the Berry street 
ehurch and the First Methodist Episcopal church, liave been Nehe- 
miah B. Griffith, Richard S. Robinson, Boyd Phelps, Freeman Farns- 
worth, James S. Harrison, S. R. Ball, James T. Robe, Jacob Colcazer, 
B. A. Conwell, George M. Boyd, Hawley B. Beers, J. S. Bayless, 
J. W. Smith, Samuel Brenton, Amasa Johnson, William Wilson, 
Homer B. Benson, C. W. Miller, J. D. G. Pettijohn, Milton Mahin, 


Milton Beaver, John Hill, N. H. Phillips, W. S. Birch, A. Marine, 
Jacob Coleazer, Frost Craft, C. G. Hudson, J. K. Walts, D. C. Wool- 
pert, J. M. VanSlyke, M. S. Marble, C. C. Cissel, H. J. Norris, J. K. 
Walts, C. A. Rowand, J. K. Cecil, D. H. Guild and A. G. Neal. 

The Presbyterians, too, were awakened to the opportunity of 
establishing a place of worship in the village. In 1829, Rev. Charles 
E. Fuhrman, in response to an appeal issued b.y citizens headed b>' 
Allen Hamilton, was sent to the frontici- town by the Presbyterian 
board. In his report, Rev. Mr. Fuhrman said: "The people are 
hospitable and have more intelligence and liberality of feeling than 
any similar town I have found in the country." (Jesse L. Wil- 
liams's "History of the First Presbyterian Church of Fort Wayne"). 
The visit of Rev. Mr. Fuhrman resulted in the sending of Rev. 
James Chute, in the year 1831. On the 1st of July, under a rude 
shelter of boards near what is now the junction of Columbia and 
Harrison streets, he organized the First Presbyterian church, with 
twelve members. Smalwood Noel and John Mcintosh were chosen 
to serve as elders. Among these charter members were Mrs. Ann 
Turner and Mrs. Rebekah Hackley, daughters of Captain William 
Wells and grand-daughters of Chief Little Turtle; both had been 
baptized during the service of Rev. Isaac I\IcCoy. Mrs. Turner and 
Mrs. Hackley had attended a Catholic seminary at Bardstown, 
Kentucky, and were women of culture and intelligence. Forty-four 
citizens united in subscribing an amount suiificient to guarantee a 
yearly salary of $258 for the pastoi'. The signers of this paper were 
Samuel Hanna, James Barnett, Anthony L. Davis, William Rockhill, 
Samuel Lewis, Abner Gerard, J. L. Britton, Samuel Edsall, Dr. 
Lewis G. Thompson, Mrs. Ann Turner, William Suttenfield, Samuel 
Brown, Thomas Daniels, James Mcintosh, Jr., James Daniels, Philij) 
Klinger, James D. Klinger, John D. Klinger, William Caster, Robert 
Hood, Henry Rudisill, Rebekah Hackley, Matthew Griggs, Mason M. 
Meriam, John Jeffcoat, Hill and Henderson. Lewis II. Davis, 1s:im • 
Patterson, Francis Alexander, Hiram Weese, Simon EdsaU, John 
B. DuBois, Charles S. Griggs, William Wilson, Lewis Armstrong. 
John Mcintosh, Hugh Hanna, Smalwood Noel, David Archer, Wil- 
liam N. Hood, Z. B. Tenny, J. H. Griggs and Allen Hamilton. 

Between 1831 and 1837, the church held its meetings in the 
school house, the Masonic hall, a carpenter shop, store rooms and 
the cotirt house. The pastors of the First Presbyterian church, 
succeeding James Chute, have been Daniel Jones, W. C. Anderson, 
H. S. Dixon, Lowman P. Hawes, J. G. Riheldaffer, Jonathan Ed- 
wards, John M. Lowrie, Thomas D. Skinner. David W. Moffat anil 
Henry B. Master. 


One of the memorable criminal cases of the period was the 
trial before Judges Test, Hood and Thompson of an Indian chief 
known as Now-ee-ling-qua, or Big Leg, charged, in 1830, witii 
the murder of Wish-mah, his slave, a woman half Indian and half 
negro. The woman had disobeyed her master while intoxicated 
and he had stabbed her to death. The murder took place in a 
cabin near the corner of Barr and Columbia streets. During his 
confinement in jail the murderer was told that he might suffer the 


death penalty by hanging, or "weighing." He asked for a rope 
with which he hanged his dog, to witness its death struggles to 
determine whether or not he would prefer hanging to shooting ; he 
pleaded to be shot. A party of friends of the condemned man 
sought to substitute a worthless member of their tribe in place of 
the chief. At the trial, John B. Bourie and Chief Richardville acted 
as interpreters. The Indian was convicted, but, being recommended 
to mercy by the jury, the governor subsequently granted him a 
pardon. Two of the jurymen, Jean Baptiste Godfroy and Henry 
Ossem, were of Indian blood. 

"I remember this Indian distinctly," said the late Mrs. Lucien 
P. Ferry. "While he was confined in the log jail on the court house 
square I took his food to him. He would reach out through the bars 
of the window with his tin cup, and into this I poured his coffee. 
I was then a girl of seventeen. When the members of his tribe 
were taken to the west this man went with them. I remember the 
scene very well — how many of them were bound by the hands with 
ropes. The younger ones were willing to go, biit the older men and 
women fought against leaving their old homes. This man, as he 
looked around at the crowd, saw me and recognized me as the girl 
who had been bringing his food. He came and thanked me for what 
he thought was my great kindness." 


With the passage of time, and before the Wabash and Erie 
canal came into use, the rivers became of growing importance as 
routes of travel and commerce. A lively trade had sprung up by the 
early thirties and several established boat lines were operated over 
the Maumee. In 1902, A. C. Comparet, of Hicksville, Ohio, said of 
this pioneer means of traffic: 

"The goods sold by the traders were brought up the Maumee 
by keel boats and pirogues owned and run by different parties. On 
the river, Patrick Ravencraft and John Barber owned two keel boats 
that would carry more freight than the pirogues at a good stage of 
water, and, being decked over, would protect the crew from getting 
wet. It took seven men to run them up the current, as three on 
each side of the boat with long setting poles would run from bow 
to the stern with poles set to their shoulders, pushing it up-stream." 

A suggestion of life on the St. Mary's river at this time comes 
from the pen of the late Edward F. Colerick, who quotes Benjamin 
F. Blosser, former postmaster of Decatur, Indiana. Mr. Blosser 
was a frequent visitor to Fort Wayne as early as 1831. In the fall 
of 1823, he assisted Paxil Taber and family on their way to Fort 
Wayne over the St. Mary's. Said Mr. Blosser: 

"One evening in 1838, I remember a pirogue with three persons 
on board, making its appearance, coming slowly up the stream, 
which soon hauled to for the night. We found it to contain the 
trusty Amos Compton in charge of a load of specie which he was 
taking to Dayton, Ohio, there to be deposited to the credit of the 
government by Colonel John Spencer, the receiver of public moneys 
at Fort Wayne. The boat was run across the river and secreted in 
a willow jungle, and in the morning it was found to be all right. 
There were but few thieves in the country then." 




Congress, in 1830, authorized the associate judges of the circuit 
court to enter at the land office at $1.25 per acre for the use and 
benefit of the county such a portion of the military tract of forty 
acres about the old fort, "including Fort Wayne [the blockhouses 
and palisades] and the reserve for the use of the Indian agency 
established there," as may not fall to the state of Indiana, under 
the canal act of March 2, 1827. This act sounded the death-knell 
of the historic structure. Under the right of pre-emption acquired 
by act of congress of May 31, 1830, twenty acres of the west side 
of the fort reserve were entered by the county at $1.25 per acre. 
The county agent, Francis Comparet, was directed to borrow for the 
county the money needed for the purchase ; Henry Rudisill provided 
the required amount. The county addition was then platted and 

Henr.v RudisUl was born fn Lancaster. 
Pennsvivania. in 1801. He was a resi- 
dent of Lancaster, Oliio, at the time he 
engaged with John T. Barr. one of the 
original proprietors of the land on which 
Fort Wayne stands, to remove to the 
village and manage the Barr interests. 
The family arrived on Christmas day, 
1829. Mr. Rudisill became postmaster 
of Fort Wayne and a leading manufac- 
turer. He was a strong factor in the 
establishment of the Lutheran church 
and in inducing German immigration to 
Allen county. His death, in 1858. was 
the result of an injury received In a fall 
while superintending some work at one 
of his mills. 


David H. Colerick, one of the most fa- 
mous of the lawyers of Allen county, 
and the progenitor of a line of leading 
men of the profession, was a native of 
Washington, Pennsylvania, where he 
was born in 1805. His father. John 
Colerick. was a distingul.shed Irish pa- 
triot, who escaped to America to pro- 
mote the cause of Robert Emmett and 
his followers. David H. Colerick settled 
at Fort Wayne in 1829. He served In 
both houses of the legislature, but de- 
clined further experience as an office- 
holder. In politics he was a whig until 
1854. when he joined the democratic 
party. His death occurred in 1887. 

the lots offered for sale. A land company at New Haven, Connecti- 
cut, acting through Franklin P. Randall as agent, purchased the 
site occupied by the fort and the surrounding grounds. Twenty 
acres of the west portion of the tract was platted in 1830 and re- 
corded as the County Addition, and it soon became the building 
spot of the pioneers. 

In 1852 John Fairfield demolished the final remaining block- 
house of the old fort. 

The second addition to the original plat of Fort "Wayne was 
laid out in 1835. Cyrus Taber purchased from the government the 


remaining portion of the military tract about the old fort site, 
platted it into forty building lots and placed it on file as Taber's 


Until the year 1832, aU sessions of the courts and of the county 
commissioners and boards of justices were held in private residences 
or in the taverns of William Suttenfield and Alexander Ewing. At 
the May (1831) session of the commissionei's, however, the board 
decided to erect a court house on an unoccupied portion of the 
public square, and the clerk was authorized to advertise for bids. 
As a result, the board let to John S. Archer the contract to furnish 
the brick ; to " James Hudson to lay up the brick and furnish the 
lime and stone, and to Hanna and Edsall to do the carpenter work 
and furnish all lumber, timber, nails, glass, etc., for $3,321.75." The 
citizens of Fort Wa3Tie subscribed $499 in material and labor and 
$149 in cash toward the erection of the first court house. The 
remaining portion of the cost was paid out of the county treasury. 

The building was first used just one year later than the time 
of the letting of the contract. It was poorly adapted to the use 
for which it was intended. Some of the rooms were left in an unfin- 
ished condition, and tln' citizens feared, on occasions of severe storm 
that the building would collapse. The courthouse faced northward and 
stood about midway between Calhoun and Court streets. It was 
forty feet square and two stories in height, surmounted by a cupola, 
or steeple. The lower floor was used for court purposes: it had 
been the intention to partition the second floor for offices, but this 
was never done. The upper room served as a general public meet- 
ing place ; here were held amateur theatricals, mock trials, religious 
services and sessions of private schools. This structure was used 
for ten years; in 1841 it was removed to make way for the third 
court house. In his "Charcoal Sketches," the late John W. Dawson, 
in description of this court house, says: "It was so insecure 
when I first saw it [in 1838] that it was not occupied for court pur- 
poses. Still, several terms of court were afterward held there, and 
some political and religious meetings were also held in it. This 
old court house and the frame building built by Colonel [John] 
Spencer were sold to him by the county for $300 in the early part 
of 1843, and both were then removed preparatory to the building of 
a common one on the south part of the square." The frame building 
of Colonel Spencer, receiver of the land office, to which Mr. Dawson 
refers, was located on the northwest corner of the court house 
square — the present "transfer" corner. It had been erected by 
Colonel Spencer on a leasehold from the county, and there the re- 
ceiver lived for several years. 

A picture of the court house square as it appeared in 1831 may 
be gained from the proceedings of the board of commissioners, who 
directed the county agent, Francis Comparet, to "cause the cutting 
off of the brush and stumps from the public square," by letting a 
contract to the lowest bidder at public sale. 

In this year the board of commissioners leased to James Wilcox 
for four years "a remote piece of the court house square." thirty 
by forty feet, at the southeast corner of Calhoun and Main streets 




— the transfer corner of today — for $10 per year. A like piece at 
the corner of Main and Court streets rented for $8 per year, and 
the piece at the corner of Berry and Court streets for $6. David H. 
Colerick, in 1834, leased one of these corners for a period of years 
at $10 per annum. 


With the 1829 session, the county board of justices went out of 
existence, the law having been changed to restore power to a board 
of commissioners, such as had served at the time of the organization 

The photograph i.s an early view of the Rudlsill gristmill erected in 1S30 by 
Henry Rudisill and Henry Johns. It fronted on the present Spy Run avenue, 
nearly opposite the powerhouse of the Fort Wayne and Northern Indiana Trac- 
tion Company. In Its latter years the mill was owned by Henry J. Rudisill and 
operated by John E. Hill. The view is from a photograph loaned by Miss Eliza 
C. Rudisill. 

of the county. At a special election held in October, Nathan Cole- 
man, William Caswell and James Ilolman were named to compose the 
new board. The commissioners fixed a rate of taxation for the 
year 1830, as follows: Forty cents on every 100 acres of first-rate 
land; thirty cents on second-rate land, and twenty cents on third- 
rate land. . . . During a period of high water a steamboat from 
Defiance succeeded in reaching Fort Wajaie. The town welcomed 
the strange craft with rejoicings, and several excursions were run 
on the rivers before the boat found it necessary to return to the 
lower portion of the Maumee. . . . Henry Rudisill (born at Lan- 


caster, Pennsylvania, in 1801), who was later to become one of the 
strong men in the varied life of the city, came to the town as the 
representative of John T. Barr, one of the original proprietors of 
the town. Mr. Rudisill was the first member of the Lutheran church 
to locate in Fort Wayne, and it is largely through his efforts that 
the denomination is so strong in this city today. One of the city's 
public schools is named in his honor. A portrait tablet of Mr. 
Rudisill, erected at this school, was dedicated in June, 1916. 



In the fall of 1830, Captain Robert Braekenridge, ajipointed by 
President Jackson, register of the land office at Fort Wayne, took 
up his residence at the village. He was born at Springfield, Penn- 
sylvania, in 1783, lived at Cincinnati ten years, and came with Harri- 
son at the time of the siege in 1812. He lived for a time at Brook- 
nlle, Indiana, and was assigned from that place to Fort Wajaie. 
Robert Braekenridge (a nephew of the captain, who became a 
prominent jurist), accompanied the register as his clerk. . . . 
Jonathan McCarthy was appointed receiver of public moneys. 
. . . The legislature of 1830 created a new judicial district, the 
Sixth, including the counties of Randolph, Henry, Wayne, Union, 
Delaware, Fayette, Rush. Elkhart and Allen, with Charles H. Test 
as the first president judge. At this time there were 250 voters in 
Allen county. With Judge William N. Hood as his associate. Judge 
Test opened the tenth term of the Allen county circuit court ; James 
Perry, of Centerville, was the prosecuting attorney, and Robert 
Hood, clerk. At tliis term, David H. Colerick, a lawyer of wide 
reputation and the progenitor of a line of famous lawyers, was 
sworn in as an attorney, ex grat>ia. Born at Washington, Pennsyl- 
vania, in 1805, Mr. Colerick, after a residence at Zanesville and 
Lancaster, Ohio, had come to Fort Wayne in 1829. William J. 
Brown and Samuel C. Sample served successively as prosecuting 
attorneys during Judge Test's term of office, and William N. Hood 
and Benjamin Cushman remained associate judges. In this year a 
Riley township was formed from a portion of Wayne township ; this 
was later re-named Orange township, but the organization was 
afterward abandoned. . . . William G. Ewing was elected judge 
of the probate court ; he served until 1833. ^ . . County officers 
elected were William N. Hood, auditor-recorder; L. G. Thompson, 
treasurer, and Abner Gerard, sheriff. . . . Dr. John Evans and 
family arrived from Troy, Ohio, in 1830. Dr. Evans engaged in 
business with John E. Hill. A son, S. Carey Evans, succeeded to the 
business of his father, and he, with his brothers, W. Rush Evans 
and Rinaldo Evans, were actively associated in commercial enter- 
prises when S. Carey Evans became the head of the Merchants' 
National bank. Later S. Carey Evans was associated with Henry 
Rudisill as a railroad contractor. . . . An important manufac- 
turing enterprise which had its beginning in 1830 was the overshot 
gristmill of Henry Rudisill and Henry Johns, on the St. Joseph river. 
Power was furnislied by the construction of a dam across the river 
below the site of the present State street bridge, which was then 
referred to as "one mile north of the town," but which is now well 
within the corporate limits of the city. For many years this estab- 



lishment, known in later times as the Rudisill mill, served a large 
territory. The ruins stood until about the year 1910. . . . Be- 
ginning with November, 1830, and continuing until March, 1831, the 
middle west suffered from the ravages of one of the coldest winters 
in its history. A heavy snowfall early in the season remained until 
the opening of spring and travel was almost entirely abandoned 
for a period of five months. Wolves, driven to desperation through 
hunger, infested the town ; many Indians lost their lives because of 
the insufficient protection against the ferocious beasts. . . . The 
election to select associate .judges resulted in the choice of William 
N. Hood and Dr. L. G. Thompson. » . . . Stephen K. Sithers 


Judge Brackenridge (born at Brook- 
vUle, Indiana, in 1823) came to Fort 
Wayne in 1830, with his parents. After 
his early schooling he studied law with 
his uncle. Robert Brackenridse, and, aft- 
er his admission to the bar in 1846. he 
served as prosecuting attorney for sev- 
eral terms. In 1856 Governor Willard 
appointed him judge of the court of com- 
mon pleas, a position he held for several 
years. During the latter portion of his 
life he won a high reputation as a rail- 
road attorney. 

This small building — forty feet square 
— -served as the first courthouse of Allen 
county for but a brief period, owing to 
its faulty construction, which made nec- 
essary the erection of a temporary wood- 
en building at the southeast corner of 
the public square. Reckoning this tem- 
porary building as one of the number, 
the present building is the fifth to be 
built on the courthouse square. The 
building shown in the view was erected 
in 1831. at a cost of $3,321.75. It wa.s 
torn down in 1841. 

(born in New Jersey in 1816), the builder of more than fifty grist 
mills in Allen and adjoining counties, settled in Fort Wayne in 


Peter Frysinger was paid $6.75 for placing a pump in the town 
well on Berry street, the exact location of which is not a matter of 
record. . . . The total amount of taxes received in 1831 was 
$91,121/4. . . . On account of the prevalence of smallpox, the 
town trustees passed an ordinance requiring all persons afflicted 
with the disease to remain at least one-fourth of a mile outside the 
town limits. . . . The total vote of Allen county in 1831 was 
208 ; the county election resulted as follows : Auditor-recorder- 
clerk, Allen Hamilton ; treasurer, L. G. Thompson ; sheriff, David 


Pickering ; commissioners, Francis Alexander, William Caswell, 
James Holman; state representative, George Crawford. The Third 
congressional district was represented in congress by Jonathan Mc- 
Carthy, of Fort Wayne. Mr. McCarthy was a native of Teiuiessee, 
commonly called "General," because of his connection, when a 
young soldier, with an Indian fight. He served in congress three 
terms, ilrs. Robert Brackenridere, Jr.. ]\Irs. William S. Edsall and 
the first Mrs. Edward F. Colerick were daughters of Mr. McCarthy. 
. . . President Andrew Jackson, on assuming the duties of his 
office, promptly caused the dismissal of all holders of public office 
who were not identified with the interests of the democratic party. 
Henry Rudisill was appointed postmaster of Fort Wayne, to succeed 
AUen Hamilton. Mr. Rudisill served from March 2, 1831, to May 31, 
1841, a period of service of greater length than that of any other 
postmaster of Fort Wayne. . . . Although James Aveline, son 
of Francis Aveline, and Catherine Comparet. daughter of ^lichael 
Comparet, had been united in marriage through a civil ceremony 
performed by William G. Ewing, probate judge. Father Badin gave 
them the nuptial benediction. The marriage record states that the 
civil ceremony was made necessary because the nearest priest re- 
sided 130 miles distant from Fort Wayne at the time. Catherine 
Comparet signed the record with her "mark," as did three of the 
Avitnesses, Francis Reno (Renaud), John B. Bequette and Pierre 
Courveille ; Jean Godfrey was a fourth witness to the ceremony. 


(1) Judge L. G, Thompson, who was room what his initials stood for. 

a man of dignified appearance and not "Why," 'Lord God,' of course; what do 

easily approached, was upon one occa- you suppose?" 
sion asked by a visitor to the court 

CHAPTER XXY— 1832-1834. 

Canal Construction Begins— The First Newspaper— The 
First Fire Company. 

Congress and the canal— The Tndiana legislature appoints a board of canal 
commissioners— Jesse L. Williams, chief engineer— Fort Wayne thrills 
with new life — Beginning of construction work is celebrated by the 
people February 22, 1832— The awarding of the construction contracts- 
Opening of the canal land office— Construction of the "Feeder"— The 
first newspaper, the Sentinel, established by Tigar and Noel— Hugh 
McCuUoch — His first impressions of Fort Wayne — The first fire company 
— "The Phenomenon" — Pioneer mail service, 

THE OPENING month of the year 1832 witnessed the oflScial 
action which gave to the enthusiastic pioneers of the west, 
and notably the people of Fort Wayne, an occasion to rejoice 
in the beginning of construction operations on the Wabash 
and Erie canal. The legislature, in 1831, had found it necessary to 
authorize a loan of $200,000, with the provision that the loan should 
at no time exceed the amount due on the land sales. Certificates were 
issued on thirty years' credit and the lands were pledged for their 
ultimate payment. Judge Hanna led the campaign for state aid. In 
the meantime, Joseph Ridgeway was engaged to direct a corps of 
engineers to complete the survey of the summit level of the canal 
through the Fort Wayne section. 

At this time the population of Fort Wayne was estimated at 
three hundred. 

Judge Hanna. during his period of activity in the state senate 
in behalf of the canal, represented the inhabitants of an area equal 
to one-third of the state of Indiana. As a canal commissioner, fund 
commissioner and chairman of the canal committee, he was enabled 
to exert a great influence in belialf of the enterprise. 

In 1828, congress authorized Indiana to sell her lands in the 
northeastern portion of the state. Ohio had been granted the same 
privilege. The project then became a united work of two states. 
Soon the canal lands in Indiana to the value of $28,000 were sold 
and the money began to pour into the state treasury. Rapidly the 
details of the undertaking shaped themselves for the actual work of 
construction. This welcome consummation came in 1832. 

On the 31st day of January, the Indiana legislature organized 
a board of canal fund commissioners, to have charge of the receipts 
of the sale of lands, from donations, grants, loans, tolls and water- 
power rents. (See Session Laws of Indiana, 1831-1832; chapters 1 
and 108.) The fund had now reached the amount of $58,651. The 
commissioners designated the canal route to extend "from the foot 
of the Maumee rapids to the mouth of the Tippecanoe river" (Lo- 
gansport, Indiana). Jesse L. Williams, one of the foremost engi- 
neers of his time, was chosen for the responsible position of chief 



For forty years Mr. Williams was prominent in the history of 
public works in Indiana and Ohio. At this time he was twenty-five 
years of age. His parents were Jesse and Sarah T. Williams, mem- 
bers of the Society of Friends. Bom in Stokes county, North Caro- 
lina, in 1807, Jesse L. Williams, after a course in Lancaster seminary, 
at Cincinnati, chose civil engineering as his life work. In 1828 he 
had been engaged to make the final survey of the Ohio canal from 
Licking Summit to Chillicothe, and to construct a division of the 
work. His appointment as chief engineer of the Wabash and Erie 
canal brought to Fort Wayne a man of wide influence in shaping 
the commercial and political history of the region. 

So successful was the work undertaken by Mr. Williams, that 
the Indiana legislature, as an expression of its confidence, gave into 


Edward Stapleford. who came to the 
town in 1S33. was engaged as an auc- 
tioneer until his death in 1861, at which 
time his brother. William R. Staple- 
ford, became identified with the business. 
Upon the death of William R. Staple- 
ford, in 1S64. Henry T. Stapleford, son 
of Edward Stapleford, carried forward 
the business which had borne the name 
of his father and his uncle. Edward 
Stapleford was a native of Newcastle 
county, Delaware, born in 1809. In 1833 
he opened his auction rooms on the site 
of Colerick's hall on Columbia street. 


Fry (born in Northumberland 

county, Pennsylvania, in ISIO) came to 
Fort Wayne in 1S34 and engaged in the 
tanning business in partnership with 
Henry, David and Robert W'ork. After 
several changes in partnerships, during 
a part of which time James Page wa.s 
associated with Mr. Fry, the latter be- 
came associated in 1S51, with Samuel 
Hanna and T. P. Anderson. David Ches- 
man later associated himself with Mr. 
Fry, and with the dissolution of the 
partnership in 1859 the business passed 
into the hands of Mr. Fry's sons. 

his hands the survey of all of the canals in Indiana which were then 
projected. Later, in 1836, under an act for internal improvements, 
he was apointed engiueer-in-chief of all canal routes, and to these 
duties were added those of chief engineer of all projected railroads 
and turnpikes; this gave him the supervision of 1,300 miles of public 


With all the red fire and oratory which the village could muster, 
the people of Fort Wayne gave recognition to the importance of the 
consummation of the preliminary plans for the canal. Heretofore, it 
had been a vague, uncertain dream. But now was hope and faith 
blossomed into realitv- At a mass meeting held in the Masonic 


hall, over which Henry Rudisill presided, and with David H. Cole- 
rick serving as secretary, the birthday of George Washington — 
February 22 — -was selected as the most fitting date for the beginning 
of work on the waterway. It was Washington who, half a century 
before, had declared that here would rise "an important post for 
the Union.'" To him, also, was credited the suggestion of a canal to 
connect the Mauniee and the Wabash. 

On the appointed ilay, the citizens, enth\isiastic in the realization 
that a great work was at last to find accomplishment, gathered at 
the court house square and formed in procession to march to the 
spot selected for the ceremony — the site of the junction of the feeder 
canal and the main waterway, now marked by the crossing of the 
Nickel Plate and the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railways, 
near the Wayne Knitting Mills. Heading the parade was a "mili- 
tary" band of two members, followed by the members of the canal 
commission, and the president and secretary of the meeting. Next 
came the bearer of the national colors, the members of the com- 
mittee on arrangements, •visitors and strangers," and citizens 

Arriving at the scene of the ceremony the people gathered in 
a circle and listened to an eloquent and patriotic address by Charles 


g» ^//j3 cT^-^/^^'^fA- '^^y^ 


The "County Seminary," established by the levying of a regular tax at the 
time of the formation of Allen county, was opened on the site of the present 
county jaii. John P. Hedges was the first teacher, succeeded, in 1832, by Jesse A. 
Aughinbaugh. A receipt of tuition, loaned by Mrs. Laura G. Detzer and here 
reproduced, was issued by Mr. Aughinbaugh to Captain Joseph Brackenridge, 
register of the land office, for the schooling of Joseph Brackenridge and George 
W. Brackenridge, sons, and Robert Brackenridge, a nephew. George W. Bracken- 
ridge was at that time eight years of age. All became prominent in the later 
history of Fort Wayne. The receipt, it will be noted, includes charges for stove 
rent and fuei. 


W. Ewing. Jordan Vigus, one of the canal commissioners, then 
spoke of the difficulties and embarrassments of the project which 
had been overcome. He concluded with the words, "I am now 
about to commence the Wabash and Erie canal, in the name and 
by the authority of the state of Indiana. ' ' He then thrust his spade 
into the soil, amid the prolonged cheers of the crowd. Judge Hanna, 
Captain Elias Murray, of Huntington, and others threw out each a 
spadeful and then the parade formed for its return to town. In the 
evening a spectacular parade and bonfire, together with the general 
illumination of the homes and business buildings by the placing of 
candles in the windows, brought the memorable day to a close. A 
feature of the night demonstration was a float representing a canal 
boat beautifully illuminated, the work of the late Louis Peltier. 

The official proceedings of the day were recorded in the Cass 
County (Logansport, Indiana) Times, of March 1, 1832. 

In June, the canal commissioners let the first contracts, for a 
sti"ip of fifteen miles, and in tlie fall four miles more, including the 
feeder dam, were put under contract. Work costing $4,180 was 
finished before the close of the year. 

The opening of the canal land office in Fort Wayne in October, 
1832, for the sale of the lands, granted by the government along the 
route of the waterway, attracted purchasers in large numbers. The 
government appointed Major Samuel Lewis to the position of land 
commissioner, which place he held for a period of ten years. 

The government's minimum price of $2.50 per acre for land 
had been doubled sinc^ Barr and McCorkle purchased the original 
plat. In 1832 Colonel John Spencer succeeded Jonathan McCarthy 
as receiver of the government general land office, and he held the 
place until 1837. Colonel Spencer was succeeded in turn by Daniel 
Reid, Major Samuel Lewis and I. D. G. Nelson, and during this 
period the following registers served : James W. Borden, William 
Polk and W. S. Edsall. When Colonel Spencer took possession of 
the office there were but 222 entries of sales, and the receipts 
amounted to about $100,000. During the years 1835 to 1837, under 
the impulse of the canal "boom," the increase was of immense pro- 
portions. In one period of eight months the sales amounted to 
$1,620,637, and in one year's period to over $2,000,000. Colonel 
Spencer was a native of Kentucky, where he was born in 1797. He 
become prominent in the afifairs of Fort Wayne. 

In May, 1833, the contract for the remaining thirteen miles of 
the summit level of the canal was let. One of the most important 
problems of the enterprise was solved in the construction of the 
feeder canal. The supply of water conveyed through its channel 
was necessary to provide for that section of the waterway which 
passed through Fort Wayne. Here the altitude was 197 feet above 
the mouth of the Maumee river. Water from this feeder canal also 
provided the contents of the Six-Mile reservoir in Paulding county, 
Ohio, a necessary equipment for the eastern end of the canal. 

The feeder canal, now in a state of disuse (although for many 
years, and until about the year 1909, it supplied water power for 
corporations operating the city electric lighting plants) entered 
the town from the north, paralleling the St. Joseph river. Inter- 
secting Wells street, a short distance north of Sixth street, it ex- 



tended southwesterly through Bloomingdale and Nebraska districts, 
and connected with the Wabash and Erie canal west of the town, 
near the present Wayne Kuittinfr ^Hlls. 

The construction work brought hundreds of men to the bustling 
town. A large portion of the workingmen were Irish immigrants. 
Many of these Irishmen and their descendants rose to higher posi- 
tions in every line of endeavor ; today the foreign-born construction 
workers are almost entirely from southern Europe. 


Says the late D. H. Colerick : 

"In the spring of 1834, the feeder canal being finished from 
the feeder dam [near the present Robisou park] to the town, and 
the water having been let in in the month of June, all were regret- 
ting that there was no boat with which to have a ride on the ap- 
proaching Fourth of July. Then the indefatigable F. P. Tinkham, 
seeing the situation, went to the woods and cut down the trees with 
which to make the hull of the boat, and in two weeks' time, he had 
a staunch craft completeil and afloat, and on the morning of tlie 
glorious Fourth the entire population embarked thereon and pro- 
ceeded to the feeder dam, five miles distant, where, after spending 

Dr. Huxford was Fort Wayne's first 
druggist. He served as mayor of the 
city for three terms, beginning in 1846. 
Born at Conway, Mass., in 1798, Dr. 
Hu.xford came to Fort Wayne in 1833 
from St. Mary's, Ohio. He practiced 
medicine and opened a drug store at the 
corner of Columbia and Barr streets. 
Dr. Huxford was once the owner of the 
tract now known as Lawton park; the 
purchase was made from James Hackley 
and his wife — the latter the daughter of 
Captain William Wells — and the lands 
extended eastward as far as the St. 
Joseph river. The portrait is from a 
photograph by Andrews & Conklin. of 
Fort Wavne, loaned by Mrs. Frances 
Baldwin, a daughter of the subject, 


Although he died at the early age of 
thirty-three. Lucien P. Ferry had attain- 
ed a high rank among the members of 
the legal fraternity of Indiana He came 
to Fort Wayne from Monroe. Michigan, 
in 1831, and rose to political positions of 
importance. The father of Mr. Ferry 
was Peter Pyre de Ferry, a native of 
Provence, France, who served as a chief 
of battalion under Napoleon Bonaparte 
and fled to America as a peasant upon 
the banishment of the emperor. The 
grandfather of Lucien P. Ferry (Rene 
de Ferry) had the honor of naming Lu- 
cien Bonaparte. A brother of Lucien P. 
Ferry. Elisha P. Ferry, also a resident of 
Fort" Wayne, became the territorial gov- 
ernor and the first state governor of 
Washington. The portrait of Lucien P. 
Ferrv is from a photograph of a painting 
bv Rockwell, of New Tork. The original 
painting was destroyed by fire some time 



the day in eating, drinking and making merry, all returned to their 
homes, well pleased with the day's doings and feeling themselves 
under great obligations to Mr. Tinkham for the first ride on the 
canal. ' ' 


In the midst of this period of activity appeared Fort Wayne's 
first newspaper, the Sentinel. 

Smalwood Noel 's son — S. V. B. Noel — was living at Indianapolis 
in January, 1833, when the citizens of Fort Wayne decided to invite 
him and Thomas Tigar, also of Indianapolis, to remove to Fort 
Wayne and to embark in the publication of a newspaper. This 



The honor of yoiiv Compart)/ is respectfullij solicited at a 

^J >-| AMERICAS' lA'UEPEJVEJ^CE, in the Town of Fort, %r 


S^ I adjafftips. 

It ir^.xpectcd that you inll represent the State of © ; 
^ and move in Procession to a^ i^.' 

xi^2jiktTc the Declaration of Independence wilL' J 
^^ - -^" 6c read and aii V'ration detirered. andpartake ofn Dinner pre-* -"^ 
S^'. S §: pared for the occ'aitinn. X '- 


S. V D. NOEL. 

The above i.s a photographic reproduction of an invitation issued bv the 
Fourth of July committee of 1S34 to Miss Susan Clark, aslving her to represent 
the state of New Yorl< in the parade of the Independence day celebration. Susan 
Clark, who was at that time nineteen years of age, became Mrs. Samuel S. 
Morss, whose death occurred in Fort Wayne in 1905, In the ninety-second year of 
her age. The original copy of the invitation was loaned by Mrs. Isaac d'Isay, 
daughter of Mrs. Morss. 


invitation was in the form of an agreement drawn up by Henry 
Rudisill and bearing the signatures of Mr. Rudisill. Dr. Lewis G 
Thompson, Joseph Holman, C. W. Ewing, Allen Hamilton and Fran- 
cis Comparet, which arranged for the payment to Noel and Tigar 
the sum of $500 with which to purchase a press. The subscribers, 
however, were "to hold the press if said Tigar and Noel should fail 
to pay within a year." 

The Indianapolis newspaper men came in response to the agree- 
ment, but, for some reason, they found it convenient to relieve the 
cautious citizens of any anxious fears by declining tlie proffered 

A second-hand Washington hand press, which had been used by 
Douglas and McGuire in the printing of the Indiana State Journal 
at Indianapolis, was purchased, and this press, with other items of 
office equipment, was brought to Fort Wayne with much difficulty, 
six days being required to transport the load over miiddy roads and 
across swollen streams on rafts. The outfit was landed in safety 
and the work of fitting up an office on West Columbia street — 
opposite the present Wayne hotel — was begun in June. On the 6th 
of July, the waiting citizens were given the new and thrilling ex- 
perience of reading the news from their home paper, fresh from 
the press. The first printed matter to be put into type in the Sentinel 
office was the Declaration of Independence, and the first editorial 
detailed the account of the Fourth of July celebration of 1833, on 
which occasion the oration was delivered by Hugh MeCulloch, and 
the Declaration of Independence was read by William M. McCarty. 

The publishers of the Sentinel during these first years received 
with gladness the newspapers from Detroit and Cincinnati, for these 
were their chief source of "telegraphic" news. 

Thomas Tigar, the pioneer editor of Fort Wayne, was a native 
of Beverly, Yorkshire, England, where he was born in 1807. He 
came to America in 1826, having already reached proficiency in the 
printing business. From Ashtabula, Ohio, he went to Indianapolis, 
where he met S. V. B. Noel, also a printer, and the two decided upon 
the newspaper venture at Fort Wayne. Mr. Noel, who was a whig, 
retired from connection with the paper about a year after its estab- 
lishment, but Mr. Tigar remained with the enterprise until 1865, 
except for a period of four years, when its management passed to 
other hands. In politics Mr. Tigar was a democrat and a writer of 
force. His death occurred in 1875. 

Later owners of the Sentinel (also the Democrat, by which 
name it was known for a portion of the time) were George W. Wood, 
I. D. G. Nelson, W. H. Dills, I. W. Campbell, G. W. G. Riley, John 

E. Neff, William Fleming, R. G. Dumm, A. H. Hamilton, R. C. Bell, 

F. Wolke, William R. Nelson, Samuel E. Morss and E. A. K. Hackett. 
Mr. Morss and Mr. Nelson, after their newspaper experience in Fort 
Wayne, founded the Kansas City (^lissouri) Star. ]\lr. Morss re- 
tired on account of failing health and in 1888 bought the Indian- 
apolis Sentinel. Because of his vigorous support of Grover Cleve- 
land for the presidency through the columns of his newspaper and 
on the floor of the Chicago national convention, as well as in recogni- 
tion of his familiarity with foreign affairs gathered during a sojourn 
in Europe, President Cleveland appointed Mr. Morss consul general 


at Paris. It is of interest to note that at this time Mr. Morss was 
given his choice of the consulship or a portfolio in the president's 
cabinet. Mr. Nelson died in 1916. 

The early files of the Sentinel were destroyed. As far as known 
the oldest copy of the paper in existence, and from which the accom- 
panying notes are taken, is dated Satvirday, Jnne 14, 1834. It is a 
five-column, four-page sheet. Most of the news is from Washington 
and foreign cities. Among the local items is a notice of the progress 
of the work on the canal and of the steps to organize the first military 
company to be known as the Fort Wayne Light Infantry. Among 
the advertisers are the following: Lucien P. Ferry, attorney-at-law, 
whose yoke of oxen ("one a dark red, rather tall, horns stag-like; 
the other a light or yellowish red, low set, horns sitting back") had 
strayed away eight months before ; David Coles, who wanted to sell 


In 1S34 Michael Hedekin. a native of 
County Westmeatli. Ireland, located at 
Fort Wavne. In 1S43 and 1844 he erect- 
ed the famous Hedekin house, on Barr 
street, between Columbia and Berry 
streets: it is yet a substantial structure. 
In 1846 the tavern was opened, with Cal- 
vin Anderson as landlord. The portrait 
is from a photograph loaned by a grand- 
daughter. Miss Katherine Macdougal. 

In May, 1832. with the appointment of 
his brother-in-law. Colonel John Spencer, 
as receiver of public moneys at Fort 
Wayne, Reuben J. Dawson came to this 
city, where he resided until 1S41. at 
which time he removed to DeKalb county. 
He platted the town of Spencerville. at 
which place his death occurred in 1869. 
He served in both branches of the legis- 
lature. In 1868 he was appointed judge 
of the circuit court. 

his mill on the :Maumee ; J. A. Aughinbaugh and Company, druggists ; 
Patrick Brady, whose horse had strayed ; Tliomas L. Yates, administra- 
tor of the estate of James Saunders ; John B. Dubois and John Edsall, 
who were dissolving partnership in the tailoring business ; Isaac Spen- 
cer, who had bought the dr>' goods and groci'ry store of Henry Rudisill ; 
Daniels & Jackson, groceries, boots and shoes ; F. P. Tinkham, F. R. 
Ebbert and J. Rhinehart, cabinetmakers: Thomas Johnson, attorney; 
Henry Work and Isaac Cron, tanners, hide-buyers and shoemakers; 
Samuel Edsall, carpenter and joiner ; W. G. & G. W. Ewing, storage 
and commission; Comparet & Coquillard, brewers of "good strong 
beer"; T. Pritchard, grocer and buyer of old brass and copper 
(reading room in connection) ; St. Joseph Iron Works, A. M. Hurd, 
proprietor, manufacturers of tin, copper and sheet iron ware, and 
Samuel and Hugh Hanna, storage and commission. Legal notices, 


rewards for the arrest of jail breakers and for the return of lost 
animals occupy most of the remaining space in the publication. An 
issue of the paper, published in August of the same year, mentions 
the following persons and concerns: Rumsey & Stophlet, F. D. 
Lasselle, Henderson & Kincaid, Jacob Cox, saddlery, and Matthew 
Griggs, real estate. The total vote of Allen county was given as 
358 in 1834. 

HUGH Mcculloch. 

Hugh McCulloch, then a young man of twenty-five years, who had 
ridden his horse into the settlement of Fort Wayne on June 26, 1833, 
became known in after years throughout America and Europe as a 
leading authority on banking methods and national financial policies. 

Mr. McCulloch rose from the obscurity of a small country law- 
yer and banker to the position of the first controller of the currency 
of the United States, and as secretary of the treasury— serving under 
three presidents. 

He came west in 1833. Dr. Lewis G. Thompson, whom he met at 
South Bend,, induced him to locate at Fort Wayne. 

Of his impressions of the town at that time, Mr. McCulloch 
writes in his "Men and Measures of Half a Century," published in 

"Fort Wayne was about as vminviting in every respect except 
its site as any of the towns through which I had passed, but it proved 
to be the end of my journey, which had been long and solitary, 
though by no means lonesome and tedious. • * • Uninviting as 
Fort Wayne was in many respects, it was fortunate in the character 
of its first settlers — intelligent, far-seeing, wideawake men." 

Eight days after his arrival Mr. McCulloch, while delivering an 
oration on the Fourth of July, was seized with a chill, which was 
followed by an illness from which he did not recover until October. 
"As soon as I was able to be on my feet, although little better than 
a skeleton," he writes, "I took possession of a ten-by-twelve office 
which Dr. Thompson had built for me, and hung out my shingle as an 
attorney-at-law. I had not long to wait for clients." His law 
practice, however, was short-lived, for, within two years, he was to 
enter upon his career as a banker and an important figure in the 
national government. The legislature granted the charter of the 
State Bank of Indiana in 1833, and the Fort Wayne branch, of which 
Mr. McCulloch was chosen to be the cashier, was established in 1835. 
(See Chapter XXVI.) 


The first Sunday school in Fort Wayne was established in 1832 
by James Hanna, of Dayton, Ohio, while on a visit with his son, 
Judge Samuel Hanna. 


The first step toward the organization of a fire department in 
Fort Wayne was taken March 1, 1833, when the following petition 
was presented to the town trustees, bearing the signatures of James 
Barnett, Samuel Eds'all, William N. Hood, Dr. L. G. Thompson, 
Henry Rudisill, James Daniels, Joseph Morgan, David Rankin, John 


Forsythe, William H. Henderson, Zenas Henderson, J. B. Bequette, 
W. C. Porter and Lewis Armstrong: 

"To the President and Trustees of the Fort Wayne Corporation: 
The citizens of the town and corporation of Fort Wayne request 
your body to take into consideration the propriety of procuring 
hooks and ladders in order to guard against fire, and also to take 
into consideration the propriety of compelling each owner of a house 
within the corporation to procure a fire bucket, and, as in duty 
bound, will ever pray, etc. ' ' 

In pursuance of the terms of this request, the trustees imme- 
diately authorized the formation of the "Fort Wayne Fire Com- 

i^<^ ^<J'&.,L^ ^ OL ff^^L/, ^-^^W:^^ <hyJi-<<^ 

David Burr, writer of the letter of which the above is a portion, was one of 
the first to enter heartily into the promotion of the waterway project. He was 
later one of the leading canal contractors. The above letter is a personal com- 
munication from Mr. Burr to his friends, Judge and Mrs. William N. Hood, who 
had removed to Peru, Indiana, and into whose home he had been warmly wel- 
comed during their residence In Fort Wayne. The original is among the eftects 
of the late William Ewing Hood. 


pany, " to be equipped with hooks and ladders. On the 2d of June, 
1834, further action was taken to form "an enpine company, a hose 
company and a hook and ladder company," the latter to be provided 
with two twenty-four-foot ladders, two sixteen-foot ladders and 
one thirty-foot ladder, to be made by John Majors, and two fifteen- 
foot hooks and two twenty-foot hooks to be made by John Brown, 
the blacksmith. 


Five years after this latter action, the town leased from William 
G. Ewing for three j'ears, at six dollars per year, a portion of lot 70, 
of the original plat, at the northeast corner of Clinton and Main 
streets, and here the first fire house was erected. 

At this time, the oriciinal fire company, the membership of 
which included the signers of the petition of 1833, was succeeded by 
a reorganized company, which, in 1841, was blended into the famous 
•'Anthony Waynes." The membership of the company in 1839 
included the following well-known citizens: Francis Comparet, 
Hugh McCulloch, Samuel S. Morss, John Spencer, Samuel Hanna, 
W. M. Hubbell, John Embry, Edward Stapleford, George W. Wood, 
Thomas Hamilton, Joseph En.sworth, Philip H. Cook, Peter Baser, 
Joseph P. Edsall, Richard McMullen, John Jamieson, Samuel Edsall, 
Daniel M. Ginius, Egbert V. Boneway. J. B. DuBois, L. Williams, 
H. Hidiker, Robert Brackenridge, Jr.< R. J. Dawson, Robert Dykes, 
Thomas Johnson, Amos Compton, R. W. Taylor, W. S. Edsall, Robert 
E. Fleming. Joseph Scott, C. V. N. Lent, G. Wilson, James E. 
Buchanan, William Rockhill, T. K. Brackenridge, Thomas Staple- 
ford, W. L. Moon, I. Thurman, Thomas F. Lane, Lewis Embry, 
Philip G. Jones, Eli Compton, Pbilo H. Taylor, Benjamin Smith, 
Samuel Stophlet, I. D. Stapleford, Brazille Stevens, Benjamin H. 
Saunders, J. D. Nuttman, Asa Miller and J. William DeNeal. 

The first fire company to be equipped with apparatus was the 
"Anthony Waynes," organized in 1841, which maintained head- 
quarters in the original fire house on the Ewing property. The 
equipment consisted of a Jeffries "gallery" engine, with side brakes, 
and a two-wheeled cart, fitted with about five hundred feet of 
riveted leather hose. 

In November, 1845, the council granted to Mason and Rose and 
0. P. Silver a contract to build a new engine house on city property 
for $337.78. Mayor M. W. Huxford superintended the work, and, 
upon its completion, the original fire house was sold. The fire 
company received $25 each year "for keeping the engine in order." 
In April, 1846, a council committee procured "a carriage for the 
hooks and ladders." 

In June, 1848, the "Hermans," a new fire company, was formed. 
Tlie council voted to put the fire engine "in possession of some of 
our German citizens who are to organize themselves into a fire 
company and work the old engine until the city can procure a new 
one." The headquarters of the "Hermans" was located on the 
west side of Clinton street, north of Berry. 

In August, 1848, Lewis Wolke was appointed as an agent to sell 
the old engine and purchase a new one. This was done in the follow- 
ing year, when an improved type of side-brake hand engine was 


purchased from L. Button and Company, of Waterford, New York. 
In this year, John A. Colerick, appointed to investigate conditions, 
reported that "fire engine No. 1 was greatly out of repair, and 
recommended that it be either materially changed in its internal 
structure or a new engine be purchased." George Buchanan and 
Socrates Bacon repaired the engine for $268. 

In 1849, the city coimcil established fire limits as follows, within 
which no wooden structures could be erected : Main, Barr, Harrison 

^^,TBl^!aGHSEM£NT, Made ^nd concladed Ihii -^T" d.iy of 

party of flip firM pirt, riij dip Com mi'^H oners ©f ihe Stale of Indiana, Tor nod on bt-hnlfof laKj Slati, 
of ihe second pirl, ni4,CfCS^^tl>> Thai llic s.ud party of ihefii -t p;irl conlrariiand Rgrcti tof 
a lood.iubslaniial .inJ wc)rkniaiilikt manoi^r, nil ll>dt pnrt ofLlit tineoilhc Wab.ifh .ind Eric, ulndi is . 

r'^' ^^ C^**^ refcriDce ln.nig hertm had to ihe location and map of said line m;i<Ie by 

^^ . ^ -^-^^-^^J^i^Sc^ ixyV«^-<k-«»y^Jy;^i'3iiitcr, agrceabi;' to the following pbn, that is to say: 

r»nt, Jb all placo wlicre Ifco natural lurfice of iLc eirlli i» .borclhc bo I lorn of llieCaioal ao.l.vhFre lU Iidc rcquif*»c»- 

CHUipo, lEl the iree., loplingl. buil.ei. Hump* nod tools sbill Lc gruLibcd and dug up al least SKW^^ tUal i». /?U^ /^"^ 

.^^ i^-*'^^ •Bl»iei»«,nri,all...deoftl.eccot»e. and ,^*1*-^ ***-£ wideoo ilic oppoftitc iide of ibe centre of 

U« C«n»l, aad lojelh^r with »!' [..gv. hruih and wood of eTerTdeicnplion, iinW be femoved r>K Icm iwenU feci heTond ll.e 
«iit*ir.lliiir «Ji»..lB»onbiBjoo e;i(h tide, and oo the ipacc „t incly (eel on c.^l. iije „r tl,' ^-.H i:ru(,:.,ng ill tl'o lrec< 
••pr.up,l.«.l.e.»od,.,„np. vr.jllbe...i<lo*n elo.e to ae ground, so thai no p^rt o( »«» oOLem ...ill i.r led'e ihauune fool 
l^b..<; li.e n.tuij .utf..c oHI,e rjtih. ir,d shall .Iso. «.tl. all Ior.. h,u,b >nd . uvd .,f c*er, kind, be ren-c 
•d aDiitelf from li.d space. And li.e trees. iaplin~» and bu*l.em,an alau beciildono r.rtcc" ffsi. » loe oo c»cl. wdtof sa-l 
■pacflio to be cleared, .ndalso all trees wLicb in Ijilling iv.ll bo l.ablo to»k ot ir,j„rc Ibe baolt»uf ',„ Cii.iJ 
.. , p, ,^^ ,,^^ ^,j, rrquirc Ihe grubhinc. lo* choppio^ and clcrmc sI.jM be eUcnjed la hr«><lll., so f:.r 

thai oo uncleared land mar be o.tupicd bj the cmh^mltment or rrcavalioD. And no pa.l of the ii 


The above is a photographic reproduction of the opening and closing clauses 
of a contract between William Rockhill and the canal commis;'-ioners for the 
construction of Section No. 2 of the Middle division of the Wabash and Erie canal. 
Attention is directed to the clause referring to the use of intoxicants. 


and the Wabash and Erie canal (now the right-of-way of the Nickel 
Plate railroad). 

It was not until 1856 that the city took ofHcial recognition of the 
department as connected with municipal affairs. At this time the 
city appointed a fire chief — L. T. Bourie — whose supervision ex- 
tended over such volunteer companies as existed or which might 
he formed. Assistant fire chiefs were B. Saunders and A. Wiley. 
The members of these companies were exempted from jury service 
and the payment of poll tax. 

A company called the Alert engine and hose company was 
organized in 1856, and the new body acquired the equipment of the 
Hermans volunteer company, which had disbanded. The officers of 
the new company were L. T. Bourie, foreman ; Samuel Pratt and 
George Messerschmidt, assistant foremen ; C. W. Lewis, treasurer, 
and E. L. Chittenden, secretary. 

In this year also was organized the Mechanics engine and hose 
company, with 0. D. Hurd, foreman ; Martin Nierman and Eli Cone, 
assistant foremen ; Joseph Price, secretary, and A. Oppenheimer, 

In 1858, the Wideawake fire company was organized. In 1859, 
the city coTincil created an organization known as the Fort Wayne 
Fire association, composed of seven members from each of the then 
existing fire companies — the Alerts, the Mochanirs and the Wide- 
awakes — with the purpose of adopting uniform and harmonizing 
rules for fire-fighting. 

The Protection engine and hose company, with Samuel C. Fletter 
as foreman, Henry Gronuman, secretary, and Thomas Burk, treas- 
urer, was organized late in the year. 

A new fire-fighting organization, the Torrent engine and hose 
company, was brought into existence in 1860, with H. W. Fry, fore- 
man ; James Hoagland and James Mahan, assistant foremen ; R. J. 
Fisher, secretary, and Andrew Kalbacher, treasurer. The Second 
ward engine house was erected at the northeast corner of Court 
and Berry streets ; two year.«i later the old engine house at the rear 
was torn down. 0. D. Hurd was chosen fire chief, succeeding George 

In 1861, the city purchased its first steam fire engine from the 
Silsby Manufacturing Company for .$4,800; it was named the "Frank 
Randall" in honor of the mayor. In 1863. the Eagle engine com- 
pany and the Protection engine company were organized as a part 
of the city's fire-fighting organization. Another steamer, the 
"Charley Zollinger," was secured in 1865, from the Clapp and Jones 
Company. In 1867, a third steam fire engine, of the Amoskeag type, 
was purchased from the city of Pittsburg for $3,000. The first 
rotary fire engine — the "Anthony Wayne" — was purchased in 
1872, at a cost of $4,800. The first hose for use on reels was bought 
in 1874. In 1874, also, the Vigilants and the Torrents withdrew 
from the fire department and formed an independent company 
known as the United Vigilants and Torrents. The Mechanics com- 
pany was organized as a part of the city department. The National 
fire alarm system, with fifteen boxes and about eight miles of wire, 
was installed in 1874, at a cost of $5,000. In the same year Frank 



B. Vogel was chosen chief of the fire department, with Robert Crann 
and George Strodel, assistants. 

Among the men prominently identified with the department in 
the earlier years were L. T. Bonrie, Joseph A. Stilhvagon, Hiram 
Poyser, Henry Monning, J. C. Iten, J. Harrington, Adam Clark, 
L. Buehwalter. Charles Kiser, H. Stapleford, T. J. Rodabaugh, and 

Hugh McCunoch, who came to the vil- 
lage of Fort Wayne on horseback In 
June. 18.33, as a young lawyer, has been 
called "the father of the national bank- 
ing system of the United States." His 
brief experience as a lawyer, during 
which time he was appointed judge of 
the probate court of Allen county, was 
followed by his election, in 1S35. as 
cashier of the Fort Wayne branch of the 
State Bank of Indiana. Witli the reor- 
ganization of the central institution at 
Indianapolis, in 1S57. as the Bank of the 
State of Indiana, Mr. McCulloch was 
elected its president. In 1S63, Salmon 
P. Chase, secretary of the treasury under 
President Lincoln, offered Mr. McCulloch 
the position of the first comptroller ol^ 
the currency. His appointment by the 
president followed. Mr. McCulloch as- 
sumed the organization of the national 
bank bureau of the treasury department 
and the management of the national 
banking system, by means of which all 
of the state banks were superseded by 
the national. In the formation of Lin- 
coln's second cabinet, Mr. McCulloch was 
cho.'-en secretary of the treasury. In this 
position, until the close of Johnson's ad- 
ministration and during a portion of Ar- 
thur's administration, he handled the fi- 
nancial problems of years following the 
war with universal satisfaction. In 1S70 
Mr. McCulloch went to London as the 
resident and managing partner of Jay 
Cooke, McCulloch & Company. Upon liis 
return to the United States Mr. McCul- 
loch was prevailed upon by President 
Arthur to again assume the office of 
secretary of the treasury, to succeed 
Walter Q. Gresham. resigned. In 18S7 
and 1888 Mr. McCulloch wrote his inter- 
esting book. "Men and Measures of Half 
a Century." During his residence in Fort 
Wayne he was a leader in the promotion 
of measures for the welfare of the com- 
munity. He was born in Kennebunk, Me., 
December 12, 1S08. His death occurred 
May 24. 1895. 

ilr. ilurgan was a native of Lawrence- 
burg, Ind.. born in 1824. With his father 
— former Mavor Josepli Morgan — he came 
to Fort Wayne in 1832. In 1856 he en- 
gaged in the hardware business and later 
was a member of the widely known hard- 
ware house of Morgan & Beach. He 
served as a member of the city council 
and city recorder, and was for many 
years a member of the board of trus- 
tees of the public schools. He was prom- 
inent in banking and insurance circles. 

Cliristian Parker settled in St. Joseph 
to%vnship. Allen county, in 1S33. Mr. 
Parker was elected a justice of the peace 
in 1834. a county commissioner in 1839 
and 1844, and a representative in the 
state legislature for four successive 


William Schiefer. The Mechanics, the Alerts, the Vigilants, the 
Ed Slocum and the Eagle organizations were rivals for the highest 
honors of the times. 

The first paid fire department came into existence in 1881, with 
Henry Hilbreeht, Jr., as chief. Since then the department has grown 
in equipment and efficiency, and is now very thoroughly motorized. 


For many years the fire department secured water by the laying 
of long lines of hose, connecting with the canal. Later, as the build- 
ing area spread, it was found necessary to construct cisterns at 
points distant from the canal. These increased in number to thirty- 
four and they were employed until the coming of the municipal 
water system, at which time they were abandoned and filled with 


The town trustees in June, 1834, passed an ordinance to the 
effect that "there shall be a watch established to consist of at least 
four judicious men, to be continued as long as may be considered 
necessary, to guard the town from the ravages of fire and to prevent 
disorderly conduct within said corporation, one half to be posted 
at 10 o'clock p. m., and to stand until 1 o'clock a. m., and to be 
relieved by the marshal or some other person authorized by the 
trustees, and the other half, or the remaining two, to stand from 
thence to 4 o'clock a. m., and be discliarged accordingly." Among 
these first watchmen were William H. Wallace, William Brown and 
William Cushman. The watchmen were required to stop all persons 
found on the streets after 10 o'clock, and, in the absence of a reason- 
able excuse, to place them in the "lockup."' A fine of $3 awaited 
the appearance of the culprit in the morning. 

In December, 1853, the council appointed John Hardendorff, 
Patrick McGee, John D. McGrady, and Alexander Wiley (succeeded 
by Henry Klinger) to serve as policemen, each to receive -$1.50 per 
night for his service. All were discharged in the following year, 
and a reorganization brought to the force James Wall, John Harden- 
dorflF, Patrick MeGee and Jacob Lewis, the latter serving as cap- 
tain. Others who served during this period were William McKinley 
(captain of the watch), Barney Hutker and Milton Henry. 

The first regularity-organized police force was formed in 1863. 


Among the prominent men who came to Fort Wayne in 1832, 
were Reuben J. Dawson (born in Dearborn county in 1811), who 
became Allen county's first surveyor, and rose to a place of clistinc- 
tion as .judge of the circuit court; Lucien P. Ferry, an attorney of 
marked ability; Joseph Morgan, from Lawrenceburg, Indiana, who 
served as Fort Wayne's second mayor; Oliver P. Morgan, son of 
Joseph Morgan, a leading hardware merchant, city recorder and 
school trustee ; Lott S. Bayless, prominent in many lines of activity ; 
Philo Rumsey, merchant, and later landlord of the Rockhill house, 
and John M. Wilt, from Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, who 
entered the land office under Colonel John Spencer and served as 



county surveyor and engineer. . . . The vote of Allen county 
which sent Judge Samuel Hanna to the state senate and David H. 
Colerick and William Rockliill to the house of representatives 
totaled 224. 


Early in the spring of 1833 a large, handsomely fitted steamboat, 
called the "Phenomenon," commanded by Captain Daniels, with 
Isaac Woodcock, of Antwerp, Ohio, as pilot, came up the Maumee 
to Fort Wayne. The town gave the craft a glad reception, expressed 
an address by David H. Colerick. A gay party was given on board 

VOL. 1. 


Txa^s^ & WOEI.. 

TPRMS— TtToiollars per annum, if paiil >n 

J3 »l tlie eod «< tilc jear. 

rale of $1 for every IG Imes, »nd -5 «dW lor 

A liberal ducouDl to ibose who adveruse bj 
tho jeac 


Canal Lcttisjg'. 

iEAI.F.D PROPOSALS fnr fhe cnnsiructhin ol 


Will be received at Mi.Tniispoct, Minnii comiiIv, 
(ndiDn:i,o.i theSBlh ilay of July next. ' 

The \vork to bt let extends (real (lie (own of 
Wnbash, \7estw;t.-d to .i point abo-jt I3ini!ci:i 
buve Lo^ansport, nni! viubr-iccs 

Five 01' SLv LOGICS, a nnmhev o^ 
CVLVEHTS, and a LKl.U a- 

cross the Wabash, below the mouth 
of the Mississineica, 8 feet high, 
and near 500 feet Io:ig. 

Plans nntl Specification* of tbe work will be ex- 
hibited for four or five days previous to the lettinj^ 
and all necessary expUnationa ia relation to the 
worit will be given by the Engineer tu)ierinte(id- 
inp (he sane. 

Bidder! not personally known to the Commis- 
sioners or Engineer will be expected to produce 
salisf.-'.ctory ttstiaonialj of character and qualifi- 
catioDs as Contractors. 

D. BURR, 1 Commijsiuners 

SAME. LEWIS, { of the (Codm/i 
JAS. B.JOHNSOr«i & £r,s Cana; 
Treaty GnaawD. 24th.Moy, I8J4. 42 

An OrAlnancte 

of the I'oit il'ci^ne CoTpoialion^ appointing n uatji 

cud ,-egtdalin^ Hair duties. 
CECTION I. Be it orMncd L^ the Prcsiikul 
W anj ■J'rmlies rf the town f/Fart H'ayKC, That 
tliere shall he a we.tch e:-taL]i?l;ed, to consist of at 
IhiisI lour judicious men to be continued as long 
as lony he loa-iderel necessary, to juord the 
towli fmni the lavaces of fire und to prevent dis 
I r.'ccrl/ ccii.;u. ( \ su;u t,i>:i.o:..'.ija ; oiiO-ii<il4 
to he pcs!e'd";it 10 uVllrelt. i>."M. and tottandnn-*' 
I til one o'clock A. ftAlandlie relieved by the Mar- 
I ihal or soiiic iitli.-; '^pr^on author. ?-cd by the Trus-1 
' ices, and l..c olt < r ii;'.'l ot r.^niHiniii^ tivo to stand 
; 'inn ihri cc ur.t.l four o'clott -V. .M. and be dis- 
^,;argc:l acrcr.'r i;ly. ■ , 

I Sec. 2. It sh.ill bo the of the 'guard to 
s'.np all perrons who may be ^oilhd oat uf^er 10 
o'clock P. .M. and take them to (he guard house 
(o heih'a'twith according to liv., .inless such 
I perion or persons can (;ive a satisUctory excuse. 
I And any person or persons so ifVcuillug shull be 
' lined in any sum not excenlini; ttiree dnllarfc 

' .Attpst, 
I Tii.-MAS Johnson, Cih;>yo te 


T-went-j "DoWaTS "Rfc-waTA. 

BROKE JAIL, at Fort Wayie, on Fridny 
fn^ iL .6\h inst WILLUM AVC.^/, 
charged with robbins the United Slate. Mail.-- 
Sa.d M'CoT i« aboyl 17 years of ape, hve feet 
hieh, lithl complexion, blue eyes, .nd when spo- 
ken lo ha. a down look; he had on »hen he went 
away a blue jeans coat and pantaloons lery i«ucb 
worn, and a roram hat about half worn. 

He oroka jail m e.capany with a young man 
named Jacob M.rsh or Boycr, with whom he 
msT probably bo found. 

Yhrabove reward, and all rea.on,,le experi.e. 
will be riven for said M'Coj if bratiRht to f ort 
Wayne, or delivered to the United States Mar- 
itall at Indianapolis, or .!cured in any jail with- 
i„ 150 miles of Fort Wayne. ^^^^_^^^^___^ 

Fort Wayne, May il. I3'i4. *} 

Commission liwsinftss. 

ft H. HAN.N A t Co. will receive in Slor^ag« 

S.^andscn'on Comiiuiion all tin^i of Pro- 
dace, anil attend to the Storage and Forwarding 
buiineat ceaerally. . 

Fort Wayoe, Julys '••>"• '"'f 

. IBtf. 

A copy of the Fort Wayne Sentinel, bearing the date of June 14, 1834, from 
■which the above photographic reproductions were made, is probably the oldest 
local newspaper in existence. It was the forty-fourth issue of the paper. The 
earlier flies of The Sentinel, which first appeared in July, 1833, were destroyed. 


the boat and several hours were spent in dancing. . . . Nelson 
Clark and wife and little daughter, and Miss Susan Clark, a sister 
from Dayton, Ohio, located in Fort Wayne. Susan Clark taught the 
first private school for young children, in 1836, in a remodeled tin 
shop on Columbia street. Miss Clark became the wife of Samuel 
S. Morss ; her death, at the age of ninety-one years, occurred in Fort 
Wayne in 1905. . . . Edward Stapleford came to Fort Wayne and 
opened an auction store in 1833. . . . The associate judges of 
the Allen county court, to 1836, were William N. Hood, Lewis G. 
Thompson, William G. Ewing, David Rankin and Peter Huling. 
Upon the resignation of Mr. Ewing, Governor Noble appointed 
Hugh McCulloch to the vacancy. . . . Joseph McMaken bought 
Washington Hall, corner of Barr and Columbia streets, from Robert 
Hood and Abner Gerard. . . . Dr. Philip G. Jones, later county 
clerk and mayor and a surgeon during the Mexican war, came from 
Manchester, Maryland. ... Dr. Merchant W. Huxford, of St. 
Mary's, Ohio, later mayor, settled at Fort Wayne ; he was the town's 
first druggist. . . . Mail service in 1833 was confined to Chicago 
twice a week, via Niles, Michigan ; to the east via the Maumee river 
once a week ; to the west via Logansport, twice a week, and south- 
west via Winchester, once a week. 


Michael Hedekin, a native of County Westmeath, Ireland, who 
built the Hedekin house in 1843 and 1844, located in Fort Wayne in 
1834, and opened a store. Maurice Cody, also a native of Ireland, 
with an uncle, Patrick Cody, and two brothers, Patrick and Garrett, 
located in Fort Wayne in the latter part of the year. Maurice Cody 
later associated himself with Mr. Hedekin. For twenty years he was 
engaged in the milling business. John Monahan and family also 
came to Fort Wayne from Ireland in this year. . . . Jacob Fry, 
of Pennsylvania, on reaching Fort Wa^Tie, established a tannery 
and conducted the business in partnership with Henry, David and 
Robert Work. . . . James Humphrey establislied marhle works 
on a site near the canal route at the corner of the present Fulton and 
Main streets. . . . County officers elected were: Auditor-re- 
corder, Allen Hamilton ; treasurer, Thomas W. Swinney ; sheritl", 
Joseph L. Swinney; commissioners, David Archer, Joseph Berkey 
and Nathan Coleman. . . . John T. Barr, having become sole 
owner of all of the unsold Barr and McCorkle lands, transferred 
the same to Stephen Gerard, of Philadelphia. . . . William 
Rockhill was appointed superintendent of the poor farm ; the farm 
was leased to Jeremiah Bowers for a term of six years. Dr. L. G. 
Thompson was employed "to attend the poor house for one year 
from date, at two shillings per mile for vLsits, and one shilling for 
each dose of medicine prescribed." . . . Captain Asa Fairfield 
and his brother, Oliver, settled at Fort Wayne. Both were sea- 
faring men, sons of Captain William Fairfield, a Revolutionary officer 
who served as an aide to Lafayette. Captain Asa Fairfield was bom 
in Kennebunk Port, Maine, in 1797. He became a sailor in his 
father's vessel and followed the life of a seaman for several years 
before coming to Fort Wayne. Here Captain Fairchild purchased 
240 acres of land in what is now South Wayne, a large residence 



section, for $12 per acre. The present boundary lines of the farm 
are Taylor street, Broadway, and Hoagland and Organ avenues. 
The Fairfields returned to Maine and brought their families west 
in 1835, accompanied by another brother, Charles, and his family. 
Two months were required for the trip. Carriages were bought at 
Pittsburg; these were loaded into the boat which brought the 
families to Fort Wayne over the Maumee, and are said to have 
been the first vehicles of the kind seen at Fort Wayne. One of the 
carriages shortly afterward was sold to Marshall S. Wines. Captain 
Asa Fairfield built the first frame house in South Wayne. Oliver 
Fairfield engaged in the bakery business ; Asa and Charles became 
farmers. Asa Fairfield operated the first canal boat, "The Indiana," 
on the Wabash and Erie canal. Said Cyrus Fairfield, in 

For a period of forty years Jesse L. 
WiUiams held a position of prominence 
In the history of public works in Ohio 
and Indiana which concerned the develop- 
ment of the entire west. 

A7 .• C^/e^/V .'IT -"^ 

KEH r(JC'<y 

THi )\1 \^ 1 l(_r\R 

Mr. Tigar, who, with S. V. B. Noel, 
founded the Fort Wayne Sentinel in 1833, 
was the first editor of a local newspaper. 

The map shows the route taken by 
the rescuers of the slaves in 1829, as 
described in the Interesting Hoover man- 
uscript. In the state of Ohio many es- 
tablished lines extended between the 
Ohio river and the Canadian border. The 
"conductors" of these lines were usually 
farmers who lived about sixteen to 
twenty miles apart and who conveyed 
the fugitive slaves by night from one 
farm to the next. "I have more than a 
passing interest in the subject of 'under- 
ground railroads,' " observes Judge Rob- 
ert S. Taylor. "At Salem, Ohio, the 
house of my grandfather, William Tay- 
lor, was a station on one of the slave 
routes between the Ohio river and Can- 
ada. From this house for several years 
the sons of my grandfather, working at 
night to elude the pursuers who often 
sought the runaways, conveyed the ne- 
groes in wagons to the next station, the 
farm of Robert Stewart, about twenty 
miles farther north. Arriving usually 
about 3 o'clock in the morning, the young 
ladies of the household arose and pre- 
pared coffee and other comforts for the 
night travelers. The friendship between 
one of these young men, Isaac N. Taylor, 
and one of these girLs, Margaretta Stew- 
art, resulted in their marriage. I am 
their son." The narrative of the passage 
of the slaves is given in Chapter XXIV 
of this work. 


1916, referring to Asa Fairfield: "My father brought more money 
to Fort Wayne than any man who had preceded him. He was an 
old sea captain and had with him $30,000. Mrs. Thompson (formerly 
Ann R. Scott), the wife of Dr. L. G. Thompson, told him several 
times he ought to be careful about the money, so he gave it to her 
for safe keeping. She sewed the money in one of her mattresses, 
where she kept it until my father could look around to see where 
he could best invest it." . . . Ochinig Bird, prominent in canal 
engineering, surveying and the holder of many important places of 

public trust, came from Pennsylvania, in 1834 Jackson 

Valentine, from Ohio, became a permanent resident. . . . Chris- 
tian Parker, wlio wa.s elected .iu.sticc of tlic peace of St. Joseph 
township in 1834, county commissioner in 1836 and 1844 and a 
member of the legislature for four terms, located at Fort Wayne. 
Township trustees elected in 1834 were: Dr. Lewis G. 
Thompson, John B. Bourie, James Barnett, John B. DuBois and 
L. B. Wilson. ... In 1834, the town trustees divided the cor- 
poration into five wards. The First ward was composed of all the 
land west of Calhoun street north from Berry ; the Second ward 
included the strip between Calhoun and Clinton streets north from 
Berry; the Third ward was inaih' up of the hind between Clinton 
and Barr streets north from Berry ; the Fourth ward was the por- 
tion south of Berry street west of Calhoun ; the Fifth ward was the 
portion south of Berry street, east of Calhoun. 

CHAPTER XX\T:— 1835-1837. 

Canal Celebration of 1835— The "Irish War"— The First 


The canal is opened between Fort Wayne and "Flint Springs" (Huntington) 
— A gay Fourth of July celebration — Oratory at the "feeder" dam at 
the St. Joseph river — The feud of the factions of Irish workmen on the 
canal — David Burr summons militia and averts a bloody clash between 
the "Corkonians" and the "Fardowns" — A hastily organized military 
company — The voyage by night to the scene of trouble — The belligerents 
disperse — Establishment of the first bank — "Four kegs of specie" — Charles 
McCulloch's story of the bank — A woman's description of a pirogue 
journey over the Maumee — Hard times in the valley — The first church 
structures — Early taverns — The first cookstove — How the pioneer rats 
came to town. 

TliE YEAE 1835 passed into history with two great events to 
the credit of the enterprise of the people of Fort Wayne — 
the opening of the Wabash and Erie canal from Fort Wayne 
to Huntington, Indiana (then known as Flint Springs), and 
the establishment of the Fort Wayne branch of the State Bank of 
Indiana. The opening of traffic over the Fort Wayne section of the 
canal was made the object of a glorious celebration of the Fourth 
of July. Among the features of the day was a spectacular parade 
in which thirty-three young ladies participated, each representing 
a state of the Union as composed at that time. 

From the account of the celebration written by a Fort Wayne 
correspondent of the Indiana (Indianapolis) Journal, July 31, 1835, 
this extract is taken : 

"On the 2d of July, three boats left this place for Himtington, 
for the purpose of bringing up such citizens of the lower end of the 
line as might Avish to attend the celebration. The arrival of these 
boats in Huntington was hailed with the liveliest demonstrations of 

"The next day, the boats returned to Fort Wa>me and were met 
and saluted by a detachment of militia under command of Captain 
Rudisill; the salutes were returned by Captain Fate's artillery who 
came from Huntington with the boats. On the morning of the 4th, 
a procession was formed in front of Washington Hall, and proceeded 
to the canal, where its members embarked on the boats prepared 
for the occasion, and took a trip to the feeder dam [at the St. Joseph 
river, just below the present Eobison park] seven miles distant. 
No less than five hundred individuals, including a large portion of 
the fair sex, were present on the occasion. Among the guests were 
General [John] Tipton, of the Ignited States senate, and Colonel 
Stansbury, of the United States topographical engineers, who was 
one of the party who first siirveyed the route of the canal. * * • 
The company landed at the dam, salutes were fired by the militia, 
and some toasts were given. On the health of the canal commis- 



sioners being drunk, D. Burr, Esq., returned thanks in a short but 
animated address. • * * General Tipton delivered a short speech. 

"The company then returned to Fort Wayne, where the Decla- 
ration of Independence was read by L. B. Wilson, and an oration 
d-jUvered by Hon. Hugh McCiilloch. A large company afterwards 
partook of a public dinner prepared for the occasion." 

The committee which went to Huntington to meet the guests 
was composed of Dr. L. G. Thompson, Samuel Hanna, Allen Hamil- 
ton, Samuel Edsall, W. G. Ewing, W. S. Edsall, G. W. Ewing, Francis 
Comparet, Captain J. B. Bourie, William Rockhill, Colonel John 
Spencer, Jesse L. Williams, D. H. Colerick, Lucien P. Ferry and 
James Barnett. On the evening of the 4th, a dance was given at 
the tavern of Zenas Henderson. 


We have observed that on this momentous occasion, David Burr, 
contractor for the construction of the canal for the LaGro district, 
was spending the day in Fort Wayne. During his absence, two 
opposing religious factions of Irisli laborers, employed in the work, 
made prompt preparations to settle nil nncient feud by mi'Hns of tin* 
tactics of civil M'ar. The climax of the trouble came six days later. 
One writer describes the condition as follows: "Some were from 
County Cork and others from tlio nortli of Ireland, and they had 
brought their age-old feud with them. The two factions fought 
whenever they met and their conflicts shocked even the Miami and 
Pottawattomie Indians. Contractors kept the factions as far apart 
as possible, but the fights only gained in severity what they lost in 
frequency. Throughout 1835 murders were by no means uncommon. 
Arson was of almost nightly occurrence. Assaults and the driving 
away of cattle lost the quality of 'news.' " The story of the "war" 
is well told in a report from Fort Wayne to the Indiana Journal : 

"There have been some disturbances among the Irish laborers 
on the Wabash and Erie canal, which, but for the prompt and 
energetic measures resorted to for their suppressi(m. would liave 
resulted in a sanguinary conflict between the two factions into which 
the Irish are divided. For some tinu' past, the 'Corkonians' have 
been the stronger party on the canal line, and they have embraced 
every opportunity of maltreating such of the 'Fardowns' as might 
fall into their hands. Nor have our citizens at all times been safe 
from attacks from these ruffians. Tlie 'Fardowns.' liaving lately 
received great accessions to their numbers, resolved upon driving 
their opponents from the canal, and preparations for the contest 
were made by both parties. 

"The Irish were observed by the citizens to be in the habit of 
nightly assembling in the secluded places in the woods, and all who 
could in any way procure arms were providing themselves with them. 
Three kegs of powder were forcibly taken from a wagon on the 
highway ; the houses of some of the citizens were entered and the 
citizens compelled to give up their guns ; and the lives of others 
■were threatened who refused to give up their arms. 

"The contest was intended to have taken place on the 12th 
instant, the anniversary of the battle of the Boyne. On the 10th, 
the 'Corkonians' assembled at LaGro to the number of about three 



hundred; most of them were armed. At the same time, about two 
hundred and fifty armed 'Fardowns' advanced to Wabash, seven 
miles from LaGro, on their way to attack their adversaries. D. Burr, 
Esq., canal commissioner, and some other citizens of the neighbor- 
hood, succeeded in inducing the two parties to suspend their fight 
for two <lays, in order to give them an opportunity to make some 
amicable arrangement. 

"In the meantime, expresses were sent to Fort Wayne and 
Logansport, requesting assistance to suppress the disturbances and 

Soon after his arrival in the viHase of 
Fort Wayne in 1S35 Mr, Barbour became 
a teaclier of tlie county seminary, on tlie 
.site of the present jail. He worked with 
industry to assist in the establishment 
of the free schools of Fort Wayne, and 
was active in the promotion of many 
matters for the public welfare. 

Captain Asa Fairfield, a seafaring man. 
came to Fort Wayne in 1834. He oper- 
ated the first boat on the Wabash and 
Erie canal. Captain Fairfield was the 
owner of the farm which includes a large 
part of the present South Wayne. He 
was a native of Kennebunk, Me., born in 


The origrinal building in which the 
First Presbyterian congregation wor- 
shiped was the pioneer church edifice 
in Fort Wayne, altliough the Catholics 
erected St. Augustine's church, on a site 
within Cathedral square, later in the 
same year — 1837. The building was 
forty feet square and occupied a lot on 
the south side of East Berry street, be- 
tween Barr and Lafayette streets. It 
was used until 1845, when the large 
brick structure was erected on the site 
of the present postoffice, at the south- 
east corner of Clinton and Berry streets. 
The latter building was destroyed by 
fire in 1882. The present building at 
the northeast corner of Washington 
boulevard and Clinton street was com- 
pleted in 1886. St. Augustine's church 
building was a small structure built 
within the present Cathedral Square. 
It was in use for many years, until suc- 
ceeded by a larger structure, the original 
building having been, in the meantime, re- 
moved to a cite near the south line of the 
property, facing Lewis street, where it 
was afterward destroyed by fire. 




to protect the citizens from the dangers to which they would be 
exposed if the two parties should come in contact. 

"The express arrived here [Fort Wayne] on Saturday, the 11th, 
and the appeal was promptly responded to by our citizens. The 
drum beat to arms, and in two hours a company of sixty-three men, 
well armed and furnished with ammunition, was on the march for the 
scene of action. * * * The company embarked on a canal boat, 
and arrived at Huntington about midnight. Next morning they 
marched forward on their route, re-enforced by a company from 
Huntington, under command of Captain Murray. 

"On hearing of the arrival of the volunteers, the Irish dispersed 
into the woods, fully satisfied that they could not trample upon the 
laws of the state with impuuity, ami tliat if they attempted to pro- 
ceed an}- further in their mad career they woidd inevitably meet 
with the punishment due to such lawless proceedings." 

The Fort Wayne Light Infantry, the first military company 
formed of Fort Wayne citizens, "with a view to the suppression of 
difficulties said to exist between parties of belligerent Irish laborers 
on the canal," was officered as follows: Colonel John Spencer, 
captain; Adam Hull, first lieutenant; Samuel Edsall, second lieu- 
tenant; Heiii-v Rudisill, ensign: David Pickering, first sergeant; 


The small map shows the connection of the feeder canal with the Wabash 
and Erie canal and the present-day streets and railroads. The larger map shows 
the route of the feeder canal from its connection with the St. Joseph river, just 
below the present Robison park, to its junction with the main canal. 


Lucien P. Ferry, second sergeant ; Samuel Stophlet, third sergeant ; 
Thomas Tigar, fourth sergeant; Alexander Porter, John Rhinehart, 
Martin Weeks and Christopher Lavely, corporals ; Samuel C. Flutter, 
drummer; Jacob Waters, fifer. 


In the following expressive language, a writer in the Lafayette 
(Indiana) Journal of September 23, 1899, gives a picture of life 
among the canal workmen : 

"In the earlier days the Wabash valley had not been unhealth- 
ful. But the rent earth [referring to the digging of the canal] 
liberated a malarial pestilence. Whisky was the one specific, and 
every gang of workmen boasted a 'jigger boss,' whose duty it was 
to carry a large tin pail of whisky along the line and issue a small 
drink or 'jigger' whenever it seemed needed. His judgment was 
the only limit or guide. I found a former 'jigger boss' at Delphi the 
other day. 'Why, those workmen must have been drunk all the 
time,' said I. He replied, 'You wouldn't expect them to work on 
the canal if they were sober, would you?' " 


• The "Irish war," as it was commonly called, was a transient 
condition and it in no wise pictures the enlightened progress of the 
life of the town, a truth suggested by the fact that in the same year 
Fort Wayne's first financial institution was founded. Following a 
prolonged debate, the Indiana legislature, in January, 1834, passed 
an act creating and establishing the State Bank of Indiana, with 
its central place of business at Indianapolis. Samuel Hanna, of 
Fort Wayne, was the chairman of the committee which prepared 
the original charter. 

This act gave to the state bank the monopoly of the banking 
business in Indiana until January, 1859. This central bank had the 
authority to establish branch banks in ten other tovnis. The Fort 
Wayne branch bank was brought into existence in 1835. On August 
25, the directors of the state bank notified the prospective stock- 
holders of the Fort Wayne branch to pay in specie the first install- 
ments, or three-eighths of the subscription, to Samuel Lewis, William 
Rockhill and Hugh McCulloch. The directors named by the legisla- 
ture were Allen Hamilton, Hugh Hanna and William Rockhill. In 
November, Samuel Lewis, William G. Ewing, Francis Comparet, 
Joseph Morgan, Joseph Sinclear, Isaac Spencer, Asa Fairfield, Jesse 
Vermilyea, David Burr and Samuel Edsall were named as directors 
by the local stockholders, making thirteen in all. On the following 
day, at the home of Francis Comparet — a small brick building on 
the south side of Columbia street, between Calhoun and Clinton — 
Allen Hamilton was elected president of the bank, and Hugh Mc- 
Culloch the cashier and manager. Mr. McCulloch gave bond for 
$50,000 ; his salary was $800 per year. The cashier was instructed 
to give a receipt to Stephen G. Hunt "for four kegs of specie, sup- 
posed to contain twenty thousand dollars, ' ' received from the branch 
bank at Richmond, representing a part of the state's subscription to 
the stock. 




"I had no practical knowledge whatever of banking, and I 
said so to the directors," writes Hugh McCulloch in his "Men and 
Measures of Half a Century," "but they supposed I was better fitted 
for the place than anybody else whose services they could obtain, 
and I did not feel at liberty to decline the appointment. I liked the 
business of banking, and had no disposition to resume the practice 
of law." 

The bank secured from Mr. Comparet the use of his house, at a 
rental of $200 per annum. The rear room and the garden space were 
rented to Smalwood Noel, justice of the peace, for $5 per month. 
This little building was used only until 1837, during the time re- 


As a boy, Mr. Miner walked from Ak- 
ron to Perrysburg. Ohio, and then work- 
ed his passage to Fort Wayne on a pi- 
rogue. This was in 1835 — eight years 
before the opening of the Wabash and 
Erie canal. After his arrival in Fort 
W^ayne, Mr. Miner was variously employ- 
ed until his connection with the great 
trading house of G. W. and W. G. Ewlng, 
with which he was associated as a part- 
ner for many years. He served as a 
member of the city council for a number 
of years, and in the state legislature. 
The portrait is from a piiotograph loaned 
by Mrs. Sarah E. Richey. daughter of 
Mr. Miner. 

I. D. G. Nelson, who came to Fort 
Wayne with his sisters In 1836, pur- 
chased the Fort Wayne Sentinel, but 
shortly afterward turned his attention to 
other fields of endeavor. In 1851 he was 
elected a state representative, and as 
the author of the "Nelson railroad bill," 
a law under which all the railroads of 
the state have been organized, attained 
wide fame. Subsequently he served as 
receiver of public moneys at Fort Wayne, 
clerk of the Allen county circuit court, 
trustee of Purdue university and state 
house commissioner. He was one of the 
organizers of the Wabash railroad. As 
one of the twelve incorporators of the 
Lindenwood Cemetery association, he 
was foremost in the creation of this 
beatiful city of the dead. He gave much 
attention to agriculture and horticulture, 
stoclt raising and landscape gardening. 

quired to erect the bank building constructed by L. G. Tower, con- 
tractor, at the southwest corner of Main and Clinton streets, on the 
site of the building of the present Home Telephone and Telegraph 
company. The building was so arranged that the two banking rooms 
in the front were connected with the living rooms at the rear. In 
the residence portion of the building lived the McCulloch family. 

In a recent public address, Charles ^McCulloch, then president of 
the Hamilton National bank, and son of Hugh McCulloch, said of the 
building : 

"A large fireplace, where good-sized sticks of wood were burned, 
made the back room a most cheerful place. I can see, as if it were 


only yesterday, the familiar faces of the men who came into the 
old branch bank to transact business and discuss the various topics 
of the day, for, in the winter, that old fireplace was an attractive 
spot, and many of the prominent men of the town met there daily 
to talk politics and discuss business affairs, and frequently to make 
plans for the sleighing parties and winter amusements of the time. 
The front room lobby was made comfortable for customers in cold 
weather by a large stove that burned four-foot wood and heated the 
room perfectly. For years my father, as cashier, and W. M. Hubbell, 
teller, performed all" the duties of the bank, even to making and 
keeping up the tires. 

"As the business increased, one boy was taken in at a time and 
trained to be a bookkeeper, and then another, but I do not think 
more than four persons were ever employed at one time during the 
twenty years' existence of that bank. Stephen Bond, then a mere 
lad, was among the first ; afterward, his brother, Charles D. Bond, 
was employed as a bookkeeper, as he had received some clerical 
education in the branch bank at Evansville and in the postoffice 
at Fort Wayne." 

In order to accept the position of cashier with the bank, Hugh 
McCulloch resigned his place as judge of the probate court. Gov- 
ernor Noble appointed Thomas Johnson as his successor on the bench. 
Judge Johnson later served for two terms as prosecutor of the 
circuit court. He was a lawyer of power and wide influence in the 
state of Indiana. 

In 1851 the state constitutional convention refused to provide 
for the extension of the charter of the State Bank of Indiana, be- 
cause of the bitter opposition to the institution as a monopoly. The 
legislature of 1854-1855 then passed an act to establish the Bank of 
the State of Indiana, although the bill was vetoed by Governor 
Wright. The control passed chiefly to the men who had operated the 
original state bank and its branches. It was one of the conditions 
of the arrangement that Hugh McCulloch should become president of 
the bank of the state. The new Fort Wa>Tie branch, with the same 
stockholders, was organized October 25, 1855, with Hugh McCulloch 
president and Charles D. Bond cashier; the directors were Mr. Mc- 
Culloch, Oehmig Bird, William Mitchell, Pliny Hoagland, M. W. 
Hubbell, Hugh B. Reed and B. W. Oakley. In 1863. Pliny Hoagland 
became the president of the branch bank and served until the institu- 
tion was merged in the Fort Wayne National bank in January, 1865, 
at which time the following officers were elected : Jesse L. Williams, 
president; Pliny Hoagland, vice-president; Jared D. Bond, cashier, 
and Mr. Williams, Mr. Hoagland, Oliver P. Morgan, Montgomery 
Hamilton and Stephen B. Bond, directors. 

In 1885, upon the expiration of the charter of the Fort Wayne 
National bank, the name of the institution was changed to the Old 
National bank. 


A woman's description of life in the village and vicinity in 
1836 comes from the pen of Miss Sarah Darrow, who came to Fort 
Wayne with her parents, Mr. and Mrs. Jared Darrow. The family 
traveled in pirogues. Miss Darrow 's letter is addressed to her 




sister, Mrs. Stephen B. (Adelia L.) Bond, at Lockport, New York, 
and is preserved by Mrs. Littleton Tough. She says: 

"We had a delightful journey up the Maumee river. At Fort 
Defiance, we took a pirogue about eighty feet long and wide enough 
for mother's chair, and one sat in front of the other, all in a row. 
You may think how we looked in a wide river. Nights we went 

J I He lias uflcJ. howpvcr. fomr mgcimit/ lo 
trying to divert p'lblic iittcntion, by abming 
others, ns ;i shieM lo hU own vitlaoy. Thu 

uj j device, I can .nssure t!ic gSntleman will not 
answer. Char »ci imi«!iictiing h«s ch^tncter 
have bpen madr, nnd ihcie charges will be 
reiterated until they -ttc proicti fither true or 
f;ilse. ir hfr will not laiiify the public upon 
(Nis poin', lie r.Tn reit n«?ured that charges 
»;-ill be preferred ag.iinst him, and laid before 
the hoiionible body of »-'lu(h he i"^ u OicmScr. 
It cannot be ctpcctcil that a perjott l.ibor- 
inp under the nio»t iiifi'mou'v charge?, su^h ;i* 
dtfraudini; the Iiidinns to im ninounC of flt Au| 
least fori) ur fifty lIioa«and dollnrs, eieculin^ ^, 
notes for double nnd treble t!ie amount of ' 

goods rendered, nnd foryltig nil aflidavit or 
ding wordito it^ to enable liim to get an al- If 






lowaiice front the Gnvrrnmtnl for n fraudulent o. t 
chim airimst the Indians — 1 rtpcnt, it cannot ^'^i 
be rxpccted that n per«on guilty of juch acts . *^ J 
is worth) of a scat in the Senate of the stale ^ 
of Indi ma. If Gen. Crover'j communicatioji 
wliich rippears in tliis dnyV p^iper, or the clmr- 
gc5 piihlickly made by him in presence of Mr. 
Dwing, li;id been made pr'\ioii!;lo the last 
August ek-dion, I can fissure the members of 
^tlic Legi^tittiire' and the public that he wnuld 
not h.ive troubled the I.egishtture Willi his pre- 
sence this winter. ^ 

The "fftTdtTt ^rticn'~yif. Bwing ')ins mMc" 
jainft mi.', iind tin- numerous accusations im- 
peacliing ii>y chnrscter and motives, will be 
DOliced bflow his communicRtion. and I pledge 
myself lo prove every nnscrtioii f:iUc, nnd the 
author of them guilt) of base and wilful mi*- 
represeutatioo . His unmanlv attack upon my 
father, on nccount of iti indecency ousht not 
to be noticed; yet, 1 aho pledge mypelf to 
prove every assertion nnd bnie insinuation 
which he has made, to be wilful falaehooda and 
known to be (o by the knave. 

He knew well that my character was be- 
yond hit reach, ^^e knej^jvclLliat he could 
not reach n)y^<^ ^^.^^■'^^-« 

well Unoy^ 3^.><^ -^I^^tuJ-iji^ 
lodowiy ^2-<:,<L<u^^ ;7^-„ ,._• 


^— ^■T#-x,_«^ C<<-«-5;__^ 



nature.* Kcxt Is'thc 'I'naty of Tippecanoe 
ia October, 1S32. How did you and the old 
geollcman manage there lo /rump up a claim 
often thousand doll.irj uj^atnit the Pottawali* 
niie Indians, with wlioin it i^ well known that 
ocither of you ever traded to the value of sign 
til'c) dollars? Yet did jou not t»pon that fas- addi 
ii.Tlly and fi.iudulcnt b>' bribery or It 
r; ollierwisc, ohlnin .md ncrive 4000 dollurs? rr 
c Will you please give us the ittons of that *"Uim h 
n ' or any other data thai will enable us io fwol' any 
tt low It down' Will you leH us (or can ^ou not* 
e and will you tell the tiutl)?) when and jfvherc com 
a I he or yfvu Imdcd with t!iose people, iirVd con- that 
I- ' tracteJ dtt>t» ncainst tlicni to tti;it or imy j^tb- 1, 
r cr amount? Whelhir it Wiu with tliO>e |ioor admj 
ft pi-oplc or their forcfitlierj, or their forefalU- 
er's glio*{j— and whether it took place before 
or iince the great flood ? whether the said in- 
id deb'edness wa* for good* and valuable prop- 
erty, or like Ihe Miami claim, for manual ser- 
vices, noclurnal labor*, etc.? You ccrt.iinly 
knew, for vou drew up the fair ( laint, and iis 
you siy y»uare an honest man, it will be very 
easy for you to ciptain the transaction. We 
make no mention of the new cloaks, fme'cloth, 
e**. which the old gentleman luggc-l ofThomc 
wiw' him ftboot that time I'loin tins i ountry to 

l;ij-'inini-y thofi nt ViriCcniies — he no dunbt 
gn', '.hem^TLY. i SOLD him some about 
that time myself. 

How- did you and he manage-'to awittdic, 
cheat, and defraud .in half blood Polt.iwati- 
mi-: Indian, called Louiion, out of his three 
•cciions of lam), which had been gr.mted to 
him in that treaty? Op dot-s lie not tell true, 
;ivifring that you did do 5of Who wrote that 
liofid, my honest fellow, is it not in your own 
li.ind writing? and docs it not bear date the 
■JiJth of October, \^'X% being the next day 
after the signins of the treaty ? Where was 
the necessity of h;iviiig his acknowledgment 
taken to that bocd ? — is thii usual, judg^-, 
please inform us — you area man of legal pre- 
tenfions. Rather did you not advise that 
course, conscious tliat the transaction was a 
fraudulent one, and well knowing that n^ittier 
of you h;id ever paid that poor fellow nor ever 
intended lo pav hirn. one doll.-\r for that valu- 
able property' Have you ever since paid 
him, and if 50, how riiuch and in what mmiicrT 
Will you deny vou are implicated in this 
tranSHction, or that you " '~~ ~ " ~ 


ad ml 

you I 
a hoi 
in t 









you I 




vet i 












er « 


t poor fellow-s V^«>pc^^ '^O/iJ- CiC. 

hie consideration? ' \ TV ^ >? '^ 

you a liar, in the same/ (c^-Xjr?x£A 
pectable gentleman"/*^ jCl? '^ , J./.^.^ 

The two newspaper clippings here reproduced are from the Logansport (Ind.) 
Telegraph of November 19. 1836, involving persons closely associated with the 
history of Fort Wayne. Hyacinth Lasselle. Jr., editor of the paper, was the 
son of Hyacinth Lasselle. the first white person born on the site of the city of 
Fort Wayne, in 1777. Reference to the father is made by both writers. Colonel 
George W. Ewing, of Fort Wayne, was one of the most prominent of the mer- 
chants and traders of his period. It will be observed that each writer accuses 
the other of fraudulent dealings with the Indians. The clippings reflect the 
style of language quite generally employed in heated newspaper controversies 
of the time and which was not so stringently regulated by libel laws as at the 
present time. 



ashore and slept on the puncheon to rest our weary limbs, after 
being sun-beaten all day and getting corn-dodgers for our supper. 
But you must be very careful not to get over the cracks, for rattle- 
snakes are very common in this country. • • * 

"The Indian pa.yments commenced today, and they are holding 
a council with them for fear of an outbreak. They had to call out 
the militia from Logansport and Peru — two hundred from Logans- 
port and one hundred from Peru — but we apprehend no danger. 
They dress most splendidly, and some of them are very handsome. 
Chief Rushville [Richardville] has a splendid establishment — Tur- 
key carpets. Damask silk curtains and white dimity, and everything 
as rich in proportion. One wife doesn't answer their purpose, so 
they must have two, one young and one old as Methuselah. God 
Froy [Chief Godfrey, of Peru] is prince of the nation." 

The same writer, addressing her sister, asks : 

"Wbat is the fashion for bonnets this fall? "We sent to Cin- 
cinnati in the spring and got some English straw and they were 
very large in front. Mr. Barlow said it was the newest fashion there. 
Also, what is going to be worn for cloaks or dresses, and the fashion? 
Mrs. Daniels sent us a dress pattern in the spring and it's all over 
the state of Indiana." 

Miss Barrow's account is suggestive of the interesting ex- 
perience of Samuel S. Morss and his bride, formerly Miss Susan 
Clark, in 1837, as related by the daughter, Mrs. Isaac d'Isay: 

"The wedding took place at Mrs. Porter's select boarding 
house, in Fort Wajaie, at 8 o'clock in the morning, that they might 
take the packet, the new canal boat, which left at 9 o'clock. My 
mother's wedding gown was a heliotrope brocade silk, with parasol 
to match. This costume was considered eminently proper for travel- 

This buUdlng, erected at the southwest 
corner of Clinton and Main .streets, the 
site of the building of the Home Tele- 
graph and Telephone company, was 
erected in 1837, as the first home of 
the Fort Wayne branch of the State Bank 
of Indiana. The family of Hugh Mc- 
culloch, the cashier, occupied the resi- 
dence portion of the building. The build- 
ing was erected by L. G. Tower at a 
cost of $12,450. 


You ar( re$pect/uU>j mtnUd 10 fiiltnd a SOCIAL PARTY 
ai Ote Hovse of Col SuTTFNTiFrD ou Thursday eW-uitf 
*^trt, ni Sti o'clocti 




FOBT W WNF, APRll 1 , 1836 


The original printed invitation to a so- 
cial affair in 1835 is in the possession of 
Mrs. Isaac d'Isay, daughter of Mrs. Sam- 
uel S. Morss, who, as Miss Susan Clark, 
was one of the hostesses of the affair. 
Miss Jane T. Suttenfleld became the wife 
of Myron F. Barbour, and Miss Rebecca 
Rockhill married Philo Rumsey. The 
house of Colonel Suttenfleld was a popu- 
lar tavern, the upper floor of which was 
used as a ballroom. 


ing. The boat was new, really quite luxurious, for there was a cabin 
and cushioned seats. Logansport was the expected destination of the 
wedding journey, and here the bride's sister had invited guests to 
a reception to be held in honor of the bridal pair. But they could 
not reach the place in time to be present; indeed, not at all, on ac- 
count of the canal locks failing to operate; and, after getting as 
far as Peru, they were obliged to return to Fort Wayne." 


Hard times came upon the people of the Maumee valley during 
the general panic of 1837. The years 1834, 1835 and 1836, through- 
out the new west, had been distinguished by the wildest methods 
of speculation. With rosy tales of rich prospects, speculators sold, 
at fabulous prices, lots in canal towns which had no existence or 
which could never rise to lieights of commercial importance. On 
the Maumee, from its mouth to Fort Wayne, there was a succession 
of towns, most of which have never been heard of since that day. 
The sale of property in these "dream" towns, as well as in other 
parts of the west, made and lost fortunes, until, in 1837, the bubbles 
burst and a financial panic ensued. This condition is indicated by 
the prices of commodities in 1839, when oats sold for ten cents per 
bushel, chickens at fifty cents per dozen, flour $3 per barrel and fat 
cattle at $10 to $12 per head. Normal conditions were not restored 
until 1841. 


In 1837, Samuel Hanna donated to the town of Fort Wayne the 
land bordering Barr street on the east, extending south from Berry 
street, on which the city hall and the present city market houses 
stand. The city, as a part of the transaction, agreed to erect thereon 
a substantial market house thirty by sixty feet in size. George Bair 
constructed the building, and Oliver Fairfield was appointed as the 
first market master, succeeded in later years by James Post, Robert 
Hood and Peter Kiser. The stalls at the beginning were rented 
at five dollars per year. 

In 1852, the market building proving to be too small for the 
demands, was abandoned and steps were taken to erect a larger 
building which should combine a town hall with its market facilities. 
James Humphrey designed the building, and the contract for its 
construction was let to Richard McMullan, a member of the council, 
for $1.399.r)0. :Mc:\lnll;in assigned the contract to ^Ir. Humphrey and 
John Brown. In 1853, after the citizens had voted in favor of a 
tax levy of fifteen cents on each $100 of valuation, the council voted 
to erect the building on another site, but a storm of protest caused 
a reconsideration of their action. The whole matter was then laid 
over until January, 1855, when new plans submitted by James 
Humphrey and H. Nierman were adopted. Mr. Nierraan then built 
the combined market house and town hall. The central building, a 
two-story structure, was of brick, with the covered stalls of the 
market extending to the north and south. The entire work cost 
$2,800. Among the men who served as market masters were John 
Fairfield, A. M. Webb and Henry Monning. Stalls in this market 
house rented at not less than forty dollars per year. This building 



stood until the time of the building of the city hall. The present 
market house was built in 1910 at a cost of $20,000. 


Several important steps were taken in the formation of new 
church societies in Fort Wayne in 1837. With Rev. Robert Tisdale 
as temporary pastor, the First Baptist church was organized, with 
a membership of nine. Succeeding pastors of the church were 

^ 3 >.'0 
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William Corbin, William Cox, William Gildersleve, J. H. Dunlap, 
D. H. Mason, U. B. ]\Iiller, C. W. Rees, J. D. Meeson, Stephen 
Wilkins, William Frary, G. L. Stephens, G. R. Stone, Stephen A. 
Northrup, L. L. Heuson, J. N. Field, J. F. Vichert and S. H. Snashall. 

Rev. Jesse Hoover, whose name is held in reverence by every 
Fort Wayne Lutheran of today, came to the town from Woodstock, 
Canada, in 1837, and organized the first Lutheran church, with 
Adam Wefel and Henry Trier, elders, and Henry Rudisill and 
Conrad Nill. deacons. This was the licginninfr of the present Si 
Paul's church, the site for which was purchased in 1839. Succeed- 
ing pastors of St. Paul's church were Frederick Wynekin, Dr. Wil- 
liam Sihler, II. G. Sauer and Jacob W. Miller. 

The Catholics and the Presbyterians erected, in 1837, the first 
church buildings to grace the soil of Fort Wa.VTie, the former estab- 
lishing St. Augustine's church on a portion of Cathedral square, and 
the latter choosing a site on the south side of East Berry street 
between Barr and Lafayette streets. 

In 1835, Rev. Simon P. Lalumiere, a visitor to Fort Wayne, 
reported that the ('atiiolic population, coitiposed of (Jfriiians. Irish 
and French, required the ministrations of a i)astor who could speak 
three languages. Rev. Felix Matthew Ruff, who met the require- 
ment, arrived in the fall of that year, preceding Rev. Louis Mueller, 
who came in 1837 as the first regular pastor of the German portion 
of the congregation. In 1840, Bishop de la Ilailandiere sent to Fort 
Wayne R<'v. Joseph llannaii, who later reiiioved to Ijogansfxirt. 
In 1842, Rev. Joseph Francis Rudolph came. Two years later, Rev. 
Alphonce Munschina was assigned to the Fort Wa3'ne parish ; he 
remained two years. In 1846, Rev. Anthony Carins came, followed 
in 1849 by Rev. E. Faller. He organized the first German congrega- 
tion in Fort Wayne, St. Mary's. 


The year 1835 brought to Fort Wayne many valuable citizens: 
Royal W. Taylor, merchant, from Glastonbury, Vermont; Myron F. 
Barbour (born in Sheldon, New York. 1811). who served as a clerk 
in the land office and became a well-known teacher; George W. 
Jones (born in Manchester, Maryland, in 1831), publisher, and a 
clerk in the United States treasury department; Henry Pugh (bom 
in Heresford, England, in 1810), pioneer dairyman; Byron D. Miner, 
who became a legislator and a partner in the trading house of W. 6. 
and G. W. Ewing, and Louis Wolke (born in Bomte, Germany, in 
1810), who operated the Summit City Woolen Mills. . . . Ban- 
jamin Archer established the first sawmill ; the boiler was brought 
from Dayton, Ohio, on a wagon drawn by eight yoke of oxen. 


Isaac DeGrofif Nelson (born in Poughkeepsie, New York, in 
1810), whose activities along many lines advanced the interests of 
Fort Wayne, came to the town in 1836. George W. Wood (born in 
Goshen, New York, in 1808), whom the people of Fort Wayne chose 
as their first mayor, also settled here. Others who came during the 
year were Robert E. (R. Emmett) Fleming, clerk in the office of 
Countv Auditor-recorder Allen Hamilton, whose identification with 



railroad and other interests aiforded him an opportunity to give 
valuable aid in the material advancement of the town ; S. C. Free- 
man, Nelson McLain, Jacob Klein, Chester Scarlet, John Majors, 
Colonel J. "W. Whitaker, George Kronmiller, and John Cochrane, 
the latter of whom established the first planing mill. . . . Miss 
Mann (later the wife of Hugh McCulloeh) and Miss Hubbell (Mrs. 
Royal W. Taylor) opened a school in the court house. Later, they 
joined the Rev. Jesse Hoover in the management of a school in the 
l)asement of the Presbvterian church on Berry street between Barr 





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and Lafayette streets. Referring to these pioneer women instructors, 
A. C. Comparet, in the Hieksville (Ohio) News, March, 1902, says: 
"They were competent teachers, and did away with the rawhide 
and hickory goads that the male teachers had in their schools. 
These ladies Avere successful and well liked by their pupils of which 
I was one." . . . Peter Huling and David Rankin were elected 
judges of the circuit court. . . . Lueien P. Ferry became the 
judge of the probate court. . . . Judge Samuel Hanna assumed 
the personal responsibility for the construction of the Lima road, 
which was extended later the distance of fifty miles to the north- 
ward. Jesse Vermilyea also was active in the construction of this 
first important road out of Fort Wayne. . . . The town trustees 
passed an ordinance prohibiting the sale of liquors on the Sabbath 
day "except to travelers and in case of sickness." "^^ "' 

The annual 


Dr. Schmltz came to America from 
Germany in 1835. and spent a year and 
a half at Philadelphia in the practice of 
medicine as a graduate of the medical 
college at Bohn. The year 1837 found 
him a resident of Fort Wayne, where he 
spent forty-eight busy years. He served 
as a member of the Fort Wayne board 
of health, and was the first president 
of the Allen County Medical society, 
organized in 1860. The portrait Is from 
a photograph loaned by his daughter, 
Mrs. William V. Douglas 


Mr. Wood was twice elected mayor of 
Fort Wayne, but resigned the office July 
r,. 1841. As the publisher of the Fort 
Wayne Sentinel and the Fort Wayne 
Times, as the manager of the first tele- 
graph office in 1849, a-- the administrator 
of the estate of the late Judge Samuel 
Hanna, as register of the land office 
and as the agent of the Pittsburgh, Fort 
Wayne and Chicago railroad in the sale 
of its lands, he became a man of wide 

license for liquor-selling was ten dollars. ... In 1836, tlie first 
cook stove was brought to Fort Wayne by travelers bound for the 
west; it was purchased by Lueien P. Ferry for use in his home. The 
"rotary" style of .stove came into use shortly afterward. "The 
top was round, turning on a center pin with a crank to turn the 
top until the openings with the cooking utensils came over the fire," 
is the description given by the late George W. Brackeuridge. He 
added this bit of information: "The stoves were unloaded in front 
of the court house and, I believe, were stored in it for a short time. 
The furniture for the stoves was packed in crates of straw. When 
these were opened, rats were found in them which escaped. These 


pioneer rats established the first colony, and we have never been 
without them since. ' ' 


Henry Sharp, who came to Port Wayne in 1837, was Fort 
Wayne's first republican mayor. Born in Albany, New York, in 
1809, he learned the hatters' trade and followed the business after 
locating here. Others wlio settled in Fort Wayne during the year 
were Alfred S. Johns (born in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, in 1812), 
who established the first saddlery business ; Scott Swann, James 
W. Ninde, Uriah Johnson, James Devlin, William Manning, Ben- 
jamin F. Rice and William Boerger, men active in the life of the 
town; Judge William W. Carson (born in County Mayo, Ireland), 
who rose to prominence in judicial and legislative circles; Judge 
William W. Coombs (born in Brunswick, Maine, in 1808), a promi- 
nent member of the bar ; Colonel George Humphrey, from Scotland, a 
contractor, who served in the Mexican war and the rebellion ; James 
Humphrey, a brother of George, and Dr. Charles A. Schmitz (born 
in Borgloh, Germany, in 1809), a leading physician. . . . The 
following county officers were elected : Auditor, Allen Hamilton ; 
treasurer, Thomas W. Swinney; sheriff, John P. Hedges; recorder, 
Robert E. Fleming; surveyor, S. M. Black. . . . Charles W. 
Ewing was elected president judge of the circuit court; during his 
period of service until 1839, the following associate judges were on 
the bench : Peter Huling, Nathaniel Coleman, Michael Shiras and 
Marshall S. Wines. Thomas Johnson served as prosecuting attorney. 

CHAPTER XXYII— 1838-1839. 

Boat Yards and Other Pioneer Enterprises — Earlv 


A description of Fort Wayne in 1838— The State of Indiana "goes wild" 
over the internal improvement program — The canal begins to earn money 
— Early factories and boat yards — Names of some of the earlier boats 
which plied the canal — An estimate of Alexander McJunkin, schoolmaster 
— "Rockhill's Folly," a step in advance of the times — History of the 
hotel, The Palo Alto (Mayer) house — Other pioneer hotels — The Churches. 

AT THIS period of the story of Fort Wayne, tlie town ini- 
pri'ssed the new settler as a place of great promise for all 
who were willing to enter actively into its development. We 
have this picture of its phy.sical features in 1888, as re- 
membered by John W, Dawson, and recorded by him in 1872: 

"The first glimpse of Fort Wayne was had from an elevated 
part of the road, about 120 rods south of the railway [Pcnnsylviinia 1 
depot. The spire of the old court house [the first court house, built 
in 1832] and that of the old Catholie church which stood where the 
Cathedral now is built, were seen. All other buildings were hidden 
from view by the high ground, yet to be noticed at the intersection 
of Douglas avenue with Calhoun street. There was scarcely a 
house south of Lewis street, and what few there were could be called 
only cabins hid in deep woods, save the Brackenridge house, as it 
yet stands, and an old frame back from the corner of 
Lewis and Calhoun, in which Colonel Sjiencer lived for many years. 
All was wild, save a few small fiekls of the Hamilton property. 
* * * On neither side of Calhoun street from this church [where 
the Cathedral stands today] was there any house. A post-and-rail 
fence, open at many places, ran on the west side of Calhoun street 
from Lewis to Wayne, which had, the year before, been the east 
boundary of a cultivated field the west boundary of which was Shaw- 
nee run, which took its rise out about where Bass's foundry now is 
and drained all that region known as the addition of Lewis, Hamilton 
Baker, Wilt, Brackenridge, Ewing's grove and Spencer, and then 
entering the old town plat near the comer of Spencer's addition 
passed obliquely to the northeast until it crossed Berry street at the 
intersection of Harrison street; then down it and under the canal 
basin into the river into the St. Mary's river at Lee's ford." (This 
ford was located near the present Wells street bridge, named foi- the 
Widow Lee, who lived near by.) 

Describing the heart of the town in 1838, Mr. Dawson says: 
"The space bounded on the north by Water [Superior] street, 
east by Lafayette street, south by Wayne street, west by Harrison 
street — sixteen squares — constituted Fort Wayne as a wooden town, 
buildings of an inferior sort, unpainted, generally one-story high, 
some of logs, more of frame work, just five of brick, the streets bad, 
many lots destroyed by standing water." 





Mi> ym BUJ?£n ^r/?etr 




« a 







Each of the four maps shows a section of the city of Fort Wayne through 
which the Wabash and Erie canal extended. Thi.s route is identical with the 
right-of-way of the New Yorlt, Chicago & St. Louis railroad of today. The 
buildings indicated In the maps were the distinguishing features of that part 
of the town in 1855. At this time the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne & Chicago rail- 
road had been completed to Fort Wayne, and its terminus touched the canal at 
Barr street. The line branched from the present right-of-way of the railroad 
northward along Lafayette street to afford freight and passenger connection 
with the waterway. The present City mills (C. Tresselt c& Sons) on Clinton 
street, the Edsall (Orff) mill on the St. Mary's river and other industries were 
operated by water power from the canal. The two principal basins of the 
canal were those at Harrison street and at Lafayette street. 





Among the business and professional men were J. B. Bourie 
and John B. Peltier, traders ; Taylor, Freeman and Company, Cap- 
tain Ben Smith, Colonel Joseph McMaken, proprietor of the "Man- 
sion House"; Paige and Pry, tanners; Mills and Taylor, proprietors 
of the "Franklin House"; William D. Henderson, grocer; James 
Post, proprietor of the "Post House"; John E. Hill, dry goods; Dr. 
M. "W. Huxford, druggist; Allen Hamilton and Company, traders; 
Barnett and Hanna, traders; Wright and DuBois, merchants; 
James W. Deneal, canal boat builder; Dr. Lewis 6. Beecher, 
George Fallo, the first brewer; Captain William Stewart, Joshua 
Housman, baker; Rev. S. R. Ball, potter; Philip C. Cook, black- 


smith: Philo Taylor, S. C. Freeman and Royal "\V. Taylor, dry 
goods; Freeman P. Tinkham, cabinet maker; Ben.iamin Smith, 
grocer; Lewis Wolke, blacksmith; Tom ]\Ioore, barber; Dr. Lewis G. 
Thompson, Thompson and Jeft'erds, druggists : Thomas Johnson, at- 
torney; Comparet and Coleriek, traders; T. Iloagland, draper and 
tailor; F. D. Lasselle, trader; A. Lintz, shoemaker; Madison 
Sweetser, dry goods; the Ewings, S. and W. S. Edsall: Lueien P. 
Ferry, attorney ; L. G. Bellamy, shoemaker, and Johnson and Miller, 
cabinet makers. 


Many had been attracted to the town through the reputation 
which the canal had brought to this central point of trade. For, 
in 1838, the waterway had begun to earn some returns on the money 
spent for the construction of the middle section of the waterwa.v 
extending from Fort Wayne to Logansport. 

By the time of the opening of navigation in the spring of 1837, 
the entire state was wild over the subject of internal improvements, 
and thousands of settlers poured into the Wabash valley. For a 
period previous to the collapse which brought on the panic, there 
was employment for all at good wages, and a market for all produce. 

Daniel Reid was appointed receiver of the canal office in Fort 
Wayne, and the waterway entered upon a period of activity in the 
transportation of passengers and goods between Fort Wayne and 

The second year of operation, 1838, showed the total receipts to 
be $1,398.37, which, although scarcely sufficient to pay the salary of 
one member of the canal commission, was accepted as an indication 
of a vast income from transportation tolls and the provision of 
water-power, when the entire line should have come into use. 

In the village of Fort Wayne, all lines of enterprise took on new 
life, and mills, factories and workshops of many descriptions were 
established. Not the least of these were the yards of the canal boat 
builders. Although F. P. Tinkham was the pioneer boat builder, 
the first boat yard was owned b.v Barthold and 8ons, located on the 
feeder canal in Bloomingdale. Here were constructed the first three 
boats to do regular service on the canal. The "Indiana" was the 
first to be launched. It was built for Captain Asa Fairfield. The 
four Mahon brothers, Samuel, Archie, William and Monroe, were 
later the principal owners of an important line of packets which 
included the "Indiana," the "Clyde," the "Wabash" and the 
"Chief Richardville. " The last named boat was built by Francis 
Comparet. By the year 1849, Ellsworth and Rippe's boat yard 
enjoyed a ru.shing business in the building of packets and freight 

Fortunate it was for the people of Fort Wayne that the canal 
was in operation even in part, during the summer and fall of 1838, 
for a drought prevailed from the 3d of July until Christmas. The 
amount of precipitation during these months M-as insufficient to 
sustain growing things, and the crops were nearl.v a total loss. The 
rivers were so low that flat-boats could not be operated, thus pre- 
venting the transportation of supplies from many sources. All of 




the smaller creeks became dry. The water supply for the canal was 
sufficient, however, to allow of the free passing of boats, and this 
condition saved much suffering and loss. 

The educational needs of the town were not allowed to suffer 
from neglect at this time. In 1838, Alexander McJunkin, one of the 
best-remembered of the early instructors, built a frame house on the 
east side of Lafayette street, between Main and Berry streets, where 
he taught until 1852. when he became the treasurer of the Pittsburgh, 
Fort Waj'ne and Chicago railroad. This original school house is still 
standing (1917) and in use as a residence. It is located on the rear of 
the residence property of C. C. Schlatter. 

Mr. McJunkin was "a fine scholar, a strong, judicious instructor 
and a stern, rigidly strict disciplinarian, he most forcibly impressed 
his ideas and teachings upon the minds of his scholars, and not in- 
frequently with equal force upon their bodies," says Dr. John S. 
Irwin, former superintendent, in an official report. Rev. W. W. 
Stevens subsequently established a school on West Berry street, 
where he and his wife taught for a number of years. 


With a broad vision of the future — so broad, in truth, that his 
fellow citizens failed to grasp its scope — William Rockhill com- 

James W. Borden had been admitted 
to the practice of the law before the 
supreme court of New York previous to 
the time he was a.ssigned to the charge 
of the United States land office in Fort 
■Wayne in 1839. In 1841 he was elected 
president judge of the Twelfth judicial 
district of nine counties. He prepared 
the legislative bill providing for the re- 
vision of the state constitution in 1850. 
and was an influential participant in the 
proceedings of the constitutional conven- 
tion. In 1852 he was elected judge of 
the court of common pleas and served 
until his appointment as resident minis- 
ter at Honolulu in 1857. Upon his return 
he was again elected, in 1864, to the 
judgeship of the common pleas court 
At the time of his death, in 1882, he was 
the Judge of the criminal court, to which 
position he had been elected in 1867. 

John W. Dawson, lawyer, editor and 
lerrttorial governor of Utah, came to 
P'ort Wayne in 1838. In 1854 Mr. Daw- 
son, after a course in Wabash college, 
became the owner of the Fort Wayne 
Times, and. through his vigorous meth- 
ods of presenting his views of public 
questions not only exerted a wide influ- 
ence, but incurred the bitter antagonism 
of his opponents, who on several occa- 
sions, "thrashed the editor" or sought 
to do him injury in other ways. As a 
leader of the anti-Nebraska party, he 
was nominated for secretary of state, 
but met defeat. Shortly after Lincoln's 
inauguration Mr. Dawson was appointed 
governor of Utah. His vigorous admin- 
istration so aroused antagonism and 
hatred of the Mormons that on his return 
from Salt Lake he was waylaid and 
maltreated so that he never recovered 
from the outrage. He died in 1877. 




"Why was the Wabash and Erie canal allowed to pass Into disuse?" The 
often-aslved question frequently meets with the response, "The railroads killed 
it." The accompanying map. with the explanatory note, will assist, however, in 
an understanding of a still more logical reason — the unwarranted appropriation 
of ?10,000,000 by the state in 1835 for ill-advised public works which plunged 
the state into an indebtedness of $13,000,000 and prevented the success of the 
one meritorious work — the Wabash and Erie canal. The legislature, in one 
session — that of 1835 — made appropriations for the following enterprises, the 
numbers referring to the corresponding figures on the map: 

1. — Wabash and Erie canal, already under construction (459 miles in length 
when completed from Maumee bay to Evansville). Total cost, $6,437,809. 2. — Cen- 
tral canal, 290 miles; $3,500,000 appropriated, of which $674,646 was consumed 
in the building of but a small section, between Indianapolis and Broadripple, 
after which the work was abandoned. 3. — Crosscut canal, 42 miles; of the 
appropriation of $1,300,000, $436,189 was spent. 4.— Whitewater canal, 76 miles. 
Amount of appropriation. $1,400,000; 31 miles completed at a cost of $1,090,867. 
5. — A railroad from Madison to Lafayette. Amount of appropriation, $1,300,000; 
after expending $73,142 on the line between Indianapolis and Lafayette, the 
work was abandoned and the lower portion passed into private control after 
the state had spent $1,624,603. 6. — A macadamized road from New Albany to 
Vincennes. Amount of appropriation, $1,160,000. 7. — Railroad, or turnpike from 
JefEersonville to Crawfordsville. Amount of appropriation, $1,300,000; the 
project was abandoned after $339,183 had been spent. 8. — Improvement of the 
Wabash river; amount of appropriation, $60,000. 9. — Survey of the Erie and 
Michigan canal, connecting Chicago with the Wabash and Erie canal at Fort 
Wayne. No portion of the work was finished, excepting the creation of an 
artificial reservoir (Sylvan lake, Rome City, Noble county). The improvement, 
with a connecting feeder canal, cost the state $156,324. The latter project, if 
completed, would have given Fort Wayne a water connection with Chicago. 
Compared with the line of the newly-projected lake-to-lake canal, the survey 
presents a route similar to that of the proposed plan. 


menced, in 1838, the erection of the famous Rockhill house at the 
southwest corner of Broadway and West Main street. Mr. RockhiU 
believed that by erecting a hotel which should eclipse every other 
place of entertainment in the west, even though it were located half 
a mile away from the main settlement, the object would result in 
a marked change in the physical aspect of the town. 

This building, which stands today as a portion of St. Joseph 
hospital, was not opened, however, as a hotel until 1854, when PhUo 
Rumsey assumed charge as its landlord. The Rockhill house con- 
tained sixty-five guest rooms, and was properly considered the 
finest hotel in the region. During the period of its uncompleted 
condition, the Rockhill house, used for fairs and various sorts of 
public gatherings, was popularly known as " Rockhill 's Folly." 

The formal opening of the hotel, in 1854, was a gay event, 
which attracted the representative citizens of Fort Wayne as well as 
many from abroad. A banquet, followed by a ball, constituted the 
main features of the event. 

The hotel maintained an omnibus line, connecting with the 
railway depot, and its almost rural surroinidings provided many 
attractive features, but it proved to be a discouraging financial enter- 
prise. In 1868 it became the nucleus of the present St. Joseph 

The rapid growth of the town is suggested by the establishment 
of other hotels and taverns of the period. One of the best known of 
these, the Palo Alto house (at first called the Lafayette), was erected 
by Frank Rohle, at the southeast corner of Wayne and Calhoun 
streets, the site later occupied by the White Fruit House and now 
by the Grand Leader department store. The building was a two- 
story frame structure. After the death of Mr. Rohle, the place 
passed into the hands of George J. E. Mayer, and it was thereafter 
known as the Mayer House. Subsequent landlords were H. B. 
Garten, Jacob Lessman, John Bull, W. H. Murtah, William Kirtley, 
Rhodes and Pierce, Dr. Pierce and William Reed. This building 
was destroyed by fire. 

The Washington House, established shortly after the Palo Alto, 
was located at the southeast corner of Calhoun and Washington 
streets. This also was burned. 

The Custer house stood on the north side of West Main street, 
between Calhoun and Harrison streets. It was built by Mr. Good- 
man and bore the name of the Goodman House for several years. 
Geison Scherzinger was its proprietor for twenty years. 

The Franklin House, conducted by Mills and Taylor, flourished 
during the thirties. In 1835 Joseph H. IMcilaken sold Washington 
Hall to Samuel Sowers; two years later the tavern was purchased 
by P. Timmons. Mr. McMaken established the Mansion House at 
the northeast corner of Calhoun and Columbia streets, in 1835. In 
the same year, Samuel Lillie opened a tavern on Columbia street 
east of Calhoun street. 

The commodious brick building owned and occupied since 1914 
by the Fort Wayne Rescue Home and Mission on the north side of 
East Columbia street, at the head of Clay street, was for many years 
a prosperous hotel. In 1858, with Fred Volkert as proprietor, it 
was called the City House ; at that time it was a two-story building. 



George Phillips, who became the owner in 1859, remodeled the 
building and called it the Phillips House. Latterly, the place was 
known as the Arlington. 

The Old Fort House, at the corner of Main and Lafayette streets, 
managed by George Pliillips, was a busy hotel of the canal days. 
The National Hotel, of which Prof. Joscpli Leiffels was the pro- 
pi'ietor, was destroyed by fire in 1870 ; the building stood at the 
northeast corner of Barr and Holman streets. 

Colonel John Spencer built the well-known Spencer house, in 
1836. It was located on the west side of Calhoun street, facing the 
courthouse square. Early landlords were Amos Compton, George 
Wilson and E. Palmer. 

The American House, erected on Columbia street by Joseph 
Morgan, in 1836, later was conducted by Francis Comparet. 

The Dayton (Kime) House was opened in 1836 by John Trent- 
juan. It was located at the corner of East Wayne and Clay streets. 


The thirties were years remarkable for the establishment of 
churches of various denominations. The present Trijiity Episcopal 

WiUiam RockhiU, in 1838. commenced the building of the celebrated RockhiU 
house, at the southwest corner of Main street and Broadway. The work was 
delayed, and in 1840 only the walls and roof were finished. For thirteen years 
the building remained in an incompleted condition, during which time it was 
used for fairs, exhibitions, entertainments and various kinds of public assem- 
blages. Under the management of Philo Rumsey. the place was opened as a 
flrst-class hotel in 1S54. It was closed In 1867 and remained unused until May 
20. 1878. when the St. Joseph Benevolent association purchased the property. 
This original building, with one story added, stiU remains as a portion of the 
present St. Joseph hospital. The illustration is from a woodcut printed in 1S5S 


church had its beginning in 1839, with the coming of Rev. Benjamin 
Hutchins, a missionary. At a meeting held in May, over which Allen 
Hamilton presided and Robert E. Fleming acted as .secretary, Christ 
cluireh was organized. In 1844, the name was changed to Trinity. 
Rectors following Rev. Mr. Hutchins were Benjamin Halstead, H. 
P. Powers, Joseph S. Large, E. C. Pattison, Caleb A. Bruce, Stephen 
A. Battin, Colin C. Tate, William N. Webbe, A. W. Seabrease and 
E. W. Averill. 


Many public-spirited men came to Fort Wayne in 1838. Frank- 
lin P. Randall (born in Madison county, New York, in 1812) served 
as mayor of Fort Wayne for many years; Dr. Charles E. Sturgis 
(born in Queen Anne county, Maryland, in 1815) became a prominent 
member of the medical profession : Madison Sweetser (born in Win- 
dom. Vermont, in 1809), identified himself with iiumicipal and mer- 
cantile affairs; Christian F. Pfeiffer (born in Stuttgart, Germany, 
in 1824) was active in many lines of endeavor; Killian Baker (born 
in Hesse-Darmstadt, in 1830) established the first wagon shop; 
John W. Dawson (born at CainhriclKe. Indiana, in 1820) served as 
a clerk in the office of his brother-in-law, (Jolonel John Spencer, and 
later became widely known as a newspaper editor and territorial 
governor of Utah ; Charles Frederick Myers (born in Windheim, 
Germany, in 1828); John Baker (born in Genuany, in 1817) 
operated the first jJow factory and steam sawmill in company with 
his father, George Bakei-, and his brother, Jacob ; Louis (iriebel 
born in Germany) liecame an active hiisiiicss man. . Mar- 

shall S. Wines established the Woodlawn, or Wines, flouring mill 
on the Maumee, near the present Hanover street, where a dam was 
built across the stream. Subsequent ownei's Avere Samuel llanna 
and Oelnuig Bird, Bostick and Fronefield. Fronefield and Volland, 
Trentman and Volland, Orff and Volland, Comparet and Haskell, 
and finally E. A. OrfP. The mill was destroyed by fire in 1879. Mr. 
Wines pureliased the Cole sawmill in 1838. . . . William G. 
Ewing was elected state senator. ... In 18.38 an Indian named 
"Bob" stabbed "White Raccoon." "During his," wrote 
John W. Dawson, "I frequently saw Raccoon, and witnessed a 
devotion on the part of his Miami squaw wife which Washington 
Irving could not sketch truer than he did the wife in his sketch 
book. It was an affecting sight. * * » I saw 'Bob' several times 
thereafter, but always alone. At length the fatal period canu-, and 
somewhere down on the Miami Reservation, Bob was decoyed to a 
spring of water, and while lying downi to quench his thirst, the 
friends of Raccoon, then with him, crushed his head with a stone." 
. . . In his "Charcoal Sketches," Mr. Dawson says of the elec- 
tions of the thirties and forties: "Our general elections Avere held 
on the first Jlonday of August, annually, and as every elector could 
vote anywhere in the county, nearly all came from the country to 
town to vote ; and, strange as it may seem at this time, men who 
had quarrels to settle met at the elections and fought it out with 
fists and feet. I remember, on the first Monday in August, 1838, 
after nightfall, of seeing several hard personal battles fought at the 
crossing of Columbia and Calhoun streets. The blows given sounded 



like those a butcher fells an ox with." ... The town trustees 
appointed Daniel McGinnis inspector of flour, and Jacob B. Davis- 
son inspector of pork, beef and bacon. 


Among the valued citizens who located in Fort Wayne in 1839 
were Judge James W. Borden (born near Beaufort, South Carolina, 

OriginaUy known as the Palo Alto 
house, the building here shown was 
erected by Frank Rohle in 1839, at the 
southeast corner of Wayne and Calhoun 
streets. In 1850 George J. E. Mayer 
purchased the property and built a two- 
story addition at the south. The name 
of the hotel was then changed to the 
Mayer house. At a later time a third 
floor was added to the corner building. 
This was remodeled and enlarged into 
the store rooms occupied by the White 
Fruit House (now by the Grand Leader 
department store). The south part was 
remodeled to form a portion of the 
Grand Central hotel, which is now the 
Alt Heidelberg hotel. The illustration 
is from a woodcut print loaned by Frank 
M. Randall. (See Chapter XXVII.) 

fayette street, between Berry and Wayne 
streets, and there opened a private school 
which was continued until 1852, when 
Mr. McJunkin became the treasurer of 
the Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne and Chicago 
railroad. In 1853, with the organization 
of the public school system, the first 
"free" school in Fort Wayne was opened 
in this building. The McJunkin school 
house is still standing, used as a resi- 
dence. It is located on the rear of the 
home lot of C, C. Schlatter, who now 
owns it. 

In 1838, Alexander McJunkin erected 
a frame building on the east side of La- 

Mr. Randall is remembered as Fort 
Wayne's "war" mayor, but his many 
years of devotion to the upbuilding of 
ills home city have made his name an 
honored one in connection with many 
substantial affairs. Following his school- 
ing and law studies, Mr. Randall came 
to Fort Wavne in 1S3S. Two years later 
he was elected school commissioner of 
Allen county. In 1847 he was elected 
state senator, representing a district 
comprising four counties. He was com- 
missioned by Governor Wright as colo- 
nel of militia for Allen county, and in 
1S5B was promoted by Governor Ham- 
mond as brigadier general of the Tenth 
division. In 1856 Mr. Randall was ap- 
pointed a director of the state prison 
south, and in the same year was named 
as a presidential elector, voting for 
James Buchanan. He was the author 
of the city charter and designer of the 
city seal. He served as city recorder 
two terms, as citv attorney three terms, 
and as councilman two terms. He was 
elected five times as mayor of Fort 
Wayne, serving ten years. He was 
actively interested in the construction 
of the railroads and in the promotion of 
horticultural and agricultural matters 
His collection of historic mementos and 
books was far-famed. 


in 1813), who came to serve as the register of the land office ; George 
DeWald, whose enterprise is evidenced today in the important whole- 
sale dry goods house of the George DeWald Company ; Sylvanus F. 
Baker (bom in Starke county. Ohio, in 1831). who served as 
county commissioner; Jacob C. Bowser, from Lancaster, Ohio, who, 
with James Story, established at once the Bowser and Story foundry 
and machine shop at the southeast corner of Main and Clinton 
streets; Wade Shoafif, who became the pioneer tailor; Siegmund 
Redelsheimer (born in Wurtemburg, Germany, in 1811), who, with 
Abraham Oppenheimer, conducted a general store on Columbia 
street for many years; and John M. Miller (born near Simbury, 
Pennsylvania, in 1817), who engaged in the furniture trade. . . . 
In 1839 the following county officers were elected : Auditor, Allen 
Hamilton ; treasurer, Samuel Hanna ; sheriff, Joseph Berkey ; clerk, 
Philip G. Jones; recorder, Robert E. Fleming; surveyor, S. M. Black; 
commissioners, David AJrcher, L. S. Bayless, Horace B. Taylor. 
. . . Henry Chase, of Logansport, was elected judge of the cir- 
cuit court; the associate judges were Nathaniel Coleman and Mar- 
shall S. Wines, with John W. Wright, prosecuting attorney. . . 
Franklin P. Randall was named as master in chancery for the 
circuit court. . . . Reuben J. Dawson was elected judge of the 
probate court. 

CHAPTER XX^aiT— 1840-1842. 

Fort Wayne City Incorporated — The First Officials and 

Their Work. 

The town votes to become a city — Franklin P. Randall prepares the charter — 
George W. Wood the first choice of the voters to serve as mayor — New 
city officials confronted by many vexatious problems — Rapid growth of 
the town — Canal troubles — Indiana's fatal misstep — The earliest bands 
of music — Building of the second courthouse — The organization of the 
Fort Wayne Guards — Establishment of the Fort Wayne Times — Joseph 
Morgan chosen to succeed Mayor Wood — The failure of the silk culture 

TIIE TOWN of Port Wayne, in the summer of 1839, awoke to 
a realization of the unfitness of its primitive form of govern- 
ment. For a period of eleven years the management of the 
Inisiness of the village corporation had been entirely in the 
hands of a board of trustees elected annually. Now it became ap- 
parent that a forward step should be taken by incorporating as a 
city to be governed by a charter which should provide for the elec- 
tion of a mayor and a board of aldermen. 

As yet, the town owned no public buildings. The problem of 
public improvements had grown too large to be handled in a small 
way. The legality of many of the acts of the board of trustees had 
been questioned, and the usefulness of the board was weakened 

Finally, Franklin P. Randall was asked to prepare a city charter 
for the government of the town and this was approved by the state 
legislature on Washington's birthday, 1840. The original document 
is preserved by Mrs. Clark Fairbank, among the effects of her 
father, Mr. Randall. The charter provided for the election of a 
president, or mayor, and a board of six aldermen (city council) 
who should select the minor officials of the city. 


The vote on the question of the adoption of the charter stood 
116 to 53, the citizens of the town so expressing themselves at an 
election held at the court house on the 1st of March. The election 
inspectors were Reuben J. Dawson, J. E. Hill and Thomas Hamilton. 

The votei-s chose as their mayor George W. Wood. Of Mr 
Wood and his activities in building up the city of Fort Wayne these 
pages will suggest an outline. The first board of aldermen was com- 
posed of Thomas Hamilton, William Rockhill, William S. Edsall, 
William L. Moon, Samuel Edsall and Madison Sweetser. There 
was a tie vote between Mr. Sweetser and Joseph Morgan which was 
decided by the vote of the inspectors. Mr. Hamilton and Mr. 
Sweetser resigned in IMay and were succeeded by .John E. Hill and 
Joseph Morgan, selected at a special election held at the courthouse. 

The council met in its initial session March 7. and selected the 
following city officers: Clerk or recorder, Franklin P. Randall. 



(The mayor decided a tie vote between Mr. Randall and Addison 
Merrill.) Treasurer, George F. "Wright. High constable, or mar- 
shal, Samuel S. Jlorss. Collector of Taxes. Samuel S. :\Iorss. suc- 
ceeded by Joseph Berkey. Lumber measurer, John B. Cocanour. 
Attorney, Lucien P. Ferry. (The mayor decided a tie vote between 
Mr. Ferry and Franklin P. Randall.) Assessor, Robert E. Fleming. 
Street commissioner, Joseph H. McMaken. 

The new city officials found themselves confronted by many 
vexatious problems. When property owners along Calhoun street 
petitioned for wooden sidewalk curbings on account of "the low- 
ness of a considerable portion of the ground through which Calhoun 
street passes, south of the Wabash and Erie canal |no\v Nickel Phite 
railway]" and added that "the unimproved condition of the same 
renders it almost impassable for man or beast, ' ' they were asking for 
an improvement the like of which came from every section of the 
town. The records of tlie tii-st year's .ii-tivities are filled with orders 
similar to that which gave direction for the abolishment of "the 
slaughter house at the west end of Columbia street and the pond of 
water and the old warehouse opposite the mayor's house." As late 
as 1849, the council ordered the street commissioner to "drain the 
pond on each side of Clinton sti'eet near the Branch bank t Clinton 
and Berry streets]." 

In 1840, the i)opulation of the town had grown from :?0() in 18:!li 
to nearly seven times that number; the official census places the 
number at 2,080. The development of the rural community is shown 
by the fact that in 1840 the taxable lands in Allen county amounted 
to 58,717 acres, while in 1841 the area increased to 202,709 acres. 

Mayor Wood was re-elected iti 1S41.' The second council was 
composed of Hiram T. Dewey, Philo Rumsey, Henry Sharp, A. S. 
Johns, Charles G. French and William L. Moon. The mayor's per- 
sonal affairs, however, appear to have claimed so much of his 
attention that he asked the council to release him on the 5th of 
July, 1841. 


A special election resulted in the choice of Joseph Morgan. 
Fort Wayne's second mayor, like his predecessor, was a man of 
activity and public spirit. He had removed to Fort Wayne from 
Dearborn county, Indiana, in 1832. His son, Oliver P. Morgan, 
became a leading hardware merchant, a bank director and a school 


The year 1840 brought its serious problems connected with the 
construction of the Wabash and Erie canal. While the state of 
Indiana was now beginning to experience difficulties, Ohio, on ac- 
count of its sparse settlements along the route of the waterway in 
that state, was in a still worse condition and did not forward 
the completion of the northern end of the canal. This proved em- 
barrassing to Indiana, for, unless the outlet into Lake Erie were 
provided, the great thoroughfare would fail of its mission. The 
Indiana legislature, becoming impatient over the delay, passed a 
joint resolution "that it shall be the duty of the chief engineer 



[Jesse L. Williams] to proceed immediately to the seat of govern- 
ment of the state of Ohio, and in a respectful manner to urge upon 
the consideration of the members of the legislature of that state the 
necessity of speedy completion of the Wabash and Erie canal from 
the Indiana state line to the Maumee bay, in compliance with the 
compacts heretofore made between the two states in relation there- 
to." Mr. Williams performed his mission. The work was renewed 
on the Ohio end of the canal, but sickness among the workmen and 
the want of building stone delayed the progress of the operations. 

Other diiBeulties now presented themselves in Indiana. The 
state had borrowed, for the extension of the southern portion of 

The original oil painting from which 
the pen drawing was made hangs on the 
■wall of the home of Chief LaFontaine's 
daughter, Mrs. Archangel Engelmann, 
who lives In the house built by her fa- 
ther in 1841. on the reserve west of 
Huntington, Indiana, LaFontaine be- 
came tiie chief of the Miamis on the 
death of Riehardville. in 1841. He was 
born near Fort Wayne in 1810. His wife 
was Catherine (Po-gon-go-quah), daugh- 
ter of Riehardville. The death of La- 
Fontaine occurred in 1847 while he was 
on his return home from the trip to the 
western reservations to which the Mia- 
mis had been transferred. He was the 
last of the reigning chiefs of his tribe. 
About two years after his death the 
widow became the wife of Francis D. 
Lasselle, but she lived only a short pe- 
riod thereafter. 

In daily use in the home of his daugh- 
ter, Mrs. Engelmann, west of Hunting- 
ton, Indiana, is the walnut rocl\inff chair 
made for the especial use of Chief Fran- 
cis LaFontaine. "My father was a large, 
robust man," says Mrs. Engelmann, 
"usually weighing about 360 pounds. 
The chair was made for his comfort, and 
was provided with a drawer beneath the 
seat in which he kept his tobacco and 
pipes." Two persons of ordinary stature 
may .sit side by side in the chair. 

the canal, the sum of $241,742.58, and $950,000 more had been raised 
through the floating of a bond issue. To these amounts was added, 
in 1837, $1,650,000, for the general system of improvement, and for 
the Wabash and Erie extension east of the Tippecanoe river, $400,- 
000. In the next year the market was flooded with bonds to a total 
of $1,800,000, and in 1839 with $1,632,000. The rapid sale of the 
bonds for the general system seriously affected the market for the 
Wabash and Erie canal bonds, and this condition is considered as 
primarily responsible for the ultimate failure of the single project 
which could have been made a great and permanent success. 




Already the credit of the state had been extended beyond rea- 
sonable limits. Then came the failure of the Morris Canal and 
Banking company, of New York, which owed the state on bonds 
which it had purchased on credit $2,112,200. The estimated total 
loss to the state in the negotiation of the sale of bonds on credit was 
$3,183,461. By 1841, the state had piled up a debt of $13,148,453. 
Unknown to all except those in close touch with the stupendotis 
work, the general system of improvement was already wrecked, 
and from this time forward the Wabash and Erie canal experienced 
a futile struggle for existence. 

However, the people of the west realized but little the true 
condition, and the entire region looked forward with hopefulness 
and enthusiasm to the time of the completion of the waterway. 


The bustling town, in the midst of the activities preceding the 
opening of the canal to Toledo, showed its advancement in various 
ways. One of these — the organization of the first band of music — 
developed in 1840. This pioneer organization was called Chamber- 


The name of Sol D. Bayless is perpet- 
uated In that of one of the leading fra- 
ternal societies of Fort Wayne, the Sol 
D. Bayless lodge of Free and Accepted 
Masons, No. 359. Mr. Bayless was born 
In Butler county. Ohio, in 1814. From 
the beginning of his Masonic career in 
1841 he was recognized as an ardent 
student of the principles and work of 
the order. He was the editor of the 
Indiana Freemason for two years, and 
then became the manager of the Mystic 
Star, another Masonic publication. Mr. 
Bayless was an attorney of note, but 
gave much attention to real estate and 
Insurance. He was the government's 
first pension agent of the Fort Wayne 
district. Referring to his funeral, in 
1875, the Fort Wayne Sentinel says It 
was "the grandest Masonic pageant ever 
witnessed in this state, and probably the 
finest ever seen in the west. 

Judge Bailey came from New York to 
Fort Wayne in 1842 and established a 
hardware store at the northeast corner 
of Columbia and Clinton streets, and 
later became Interested in various other 
enterprises, including the Merchants' 
National bank, organized in 1865, of 
which he was the president. He became 
president of the Fort Wayne and Cincin- 
nati railroad projected by way of Bluff- 
ton and Winchester, Ind., and Hamilton, 
Ohio. In 1868 Judge Bailey became the 
editor of the Fort Wayne Republican. 
In his later years he removed to Mis- 
sissippi and was chosen to be chancellor 
of a large area of the state. In his early 
years Judge Bailey was a prominent 
church' man; he was one of the founders 
and staunch supporters of Trinity Epis- 
copal church. His children now living 
(1917) are General Clarence M. Bailev, 
U. S. A., retired: Colonel Hobart K. 
Bailey, U. S. A., retired; aJid Mrs. Charles 
D. Gorham, of Fort Wayne. Judge Bailey 
died In Fort Wayne January 26, 1899. 
The portrait Is from a photograph loaned 
by Mrs. Gorham. 



Iain's band of martial music; its members were Orff Chamberlain 
and William Chamberlain, snare drummers; Henry Chamberlain, 
bass drummer, and Henry Smith and John Waters, fife majors. 

The first musical organization, aside from the players of martial 
music, was the Kekionga, or Kekiogue, brass band, organized two 
years later. Citizens purchased the instruments for the members, 
who, under the direction of a Mr. Hoffman, developed into credit- 
able musicians. The first public appearance of the band was on the 
24tli of June, when they delighted a large audience. J. J. Snyder 
was the president of this pioneer organization, while T. K. Lewis 
served as vice-president, F. P. Randall as treasurer and H. W. Jones, 
secretary. Among the members were Peter Kline, George DeWald, 
Jacob Foellinger, Frederick Beach, John Rekers, William Gronauer, 
John G. Maier and Henry Behler, all well-known men in the affairs 
of the town. A notable event in the history of the Kekionga band 

The view is from a drawing made under the supervision of the late N. C. 
Miller, attorney, who was familiar with the appearance of the courthouse square 
in the '40s. The first courthouse on the public square was erected in 1832 and 
abandoned in 1841. In the latter year a building was erected at the northeast 
corner of the public square for the use of the county auditor and treasurer, and 
a clerk's office was established at the northwest (transfer) corner. At the soutli- 
west corner was the recorder's office. The second courtliouse was built in 1847. 
Then a temporary courthouse — that shown in the sketch — was erected at the 
southeast corner of the square, and the second courthouse torn down. The view 
shows the appearance of the square at this time. In 1853 steps were taken for 
the erection of a courthouse which was dedicated in 1861. at which time all other 
buildings on the square were removed. In 1897 the contract for the present 
courthouse was let. 

was the honor bestowed upon the organization in an invitation to 
liead Governor James Wliitcomb's inauguration parade at Indian- 
apolis. The band was considered to be the best in the state. The 
journey of two liundred and forty miles to the capital and return 
was made in two wagons, each drawn by four horses. The single 
trip required three days and three nights. 

In 1845, Charles Strubey organized Strubey"s band. Among 
the members were Henry Orff, Martin Foellinger, Frederick Uebel- 
hoer, Henry C. Graft'e, Roman Ehinger and John Powers. About 
the year 1S57, Henry Orff" organized a band which included among 





its members Fred J. Reineke and Fred Goebel. In 1861, Mr. Orff 
retired. I\Ir. Strubey then organized the Union band. Christ 
Horstmau served in this latter organization as a drummer and 
cymbal player. Some time later. Prof. Joseph Leiffels organized 
Leiffels's band, with Charles M. Jones as the leader. In 1868, this 
band gained the supremacy, and the Union band passed out of 
existence. Later,